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Globe 8 vo. 

ITALY AND SICILY. Fifth Edition. 
With Fifty-five Maps and Plans, ios. net. 

ASIA MINOR. [/» the Press. 


Including Southern Spain, North¬ 
ern Africa (Morocco, Algeria, 
Tunis, and. Tripoli), Sicily, Malta, 
Corsica, etc. Second Edition. 

With Twenty-one Maps and Plans, gs. net. 


Fourth Edition. 

With Nineteen Maps and Plans. 5s. net. 

EGYPT AND SOdAN. Fifth Edition. 
With Thirty-five Maps and Plans. 5s. net. 

SWITZERLAND. Second Edition. 

With Thirty-seven Maps and Plans. 5s. net. 

London : MACMILLAN AND CO., Ltd. 








First Edition, 1901 (with Palestine) 

Second Edition, 1903 (' „ „ ) 

Third Edition, 1905 
Fourth Edition, 1907 
Fifth Edition, 1908 


T HE Monetary System of Egypt rests, since 1885, on a single Gold 
Standard, with subsidiary silver, nickel, and copper coins. The 
unit is the Egyptian pound (written £E.), containing 8.5 grammes of 
gold .875 fine, and (the pound sterling containing 7.988 grammes 
eleven-twelfths fine) is worth £1. 0s. 6d. approximately. The Egyptian 
pound is divided into 100 piastres, and the piastre into 10 milliemes. 
The gold coins are the 100-piastre piece and the 50-piastre piece; the 
subsidiary coins are the pieces of 20, 10, 5, 2, and 1 piastre in silver ; 
the pieces of 1 piastre and of 5, 2, and 1 milliemes in nickel ; and 4 and 
i millieme in bronze. There are also bank notes, issued by the 
National Bank, of the value of £E.100, £E.50, £E.10, £E.5, £E.l, 
and 50 piastres ; all these are convertible on demand. The English 
sovereign circulates everywhere at 974 piastres. 

The following Tables of approximate values will be found useful:— 






P.T. m. 







or 975 

Dollars. P.T. 



10 s. 



or 487.5 


= 203 







or 243.8 


= 101.5 







or 48.75 


= 20.3 







or 4.8 





























0 10 







































































P.T.— Piastre tariff, as distinguished from piastre current, of about hair the 
value, much used in Alexandria. 


mHE success of the “Guide to Palestine and Egypt” since its first 
appearance in 1901 has decided ns to enlarge considerably these 
two sections, and to publish them separately. This is therefore the first 
time that the Guide to Egypt stands by itself. While it lays no claim 
to being an exhaustive guide-book, our aim has been to make it as com¬ 
plete as possible compatibly with its size and price, and by condensation 
and conciseness of method to give to the traveller all the information 
he requires within as small a compass as possible. 

The “Preliminary Information,” which was before exceedingly con¬ 
densed, has been rewritten and supplemented. A list of Egyptian Rulers 
from the First Dynasty to the present Khedive has been added to it, and 
also a paragraph on irrigation. Concise accounts of the various important 
engineering works which control the flow of the Nile have kindly been 
supplied by an irrigation officer, and will be found in the text in their 
proper places. 

The old numbering of the objects in the Cairo Museum has been 
replaced by that which is used in the new English Catalogue. Through 
the kindness of M. Herz Bey we are able to give an account of the 
exhibits in the new Arab Museum, with the numbers of the objects, 
which would otherwise not have been possible, as the catalogue is not 
yet published. 

The increasing importance of the Sfldan has led us to enlarge the 
section dealing therewith, and our readers are now furnished with a con¬ 
siderable amount of useful information regarding not only Khartum and 
Omdurman, but also to the southern limits of the province and reaching 
to Uganda. 

No pains have been spared to bring the practical information up to 
date, and the list of hotels and pensions has been carefully revised. 

With regard to the transliteration of Arabic names and words, it lias 
been found impossible to adhere rigidly to any system while attempting 
to combine a fairly phonetic rendering with a spelling as near as possible 
to that in commonest use. In Egypt itself four or five different methods 



of spelling almost every Arabic name will be found, and our aim has 
been to strike a recognisable mean among the various forms. 

Certain alterations have been made on some of the maps in order to 
bring them up to date; e.g., the map of the Environs of Aswan has the 
new high-water level—caused by the formation of the reservoir—indi¬ 
cated as marked on the new Survey map of this year. 

The Editors will be grateful to any readers who will send correc¬ 
tions of any errors they may detect. Such communications should be 
addressed to 


Macmillan’s Guides, 

Care of Messrs. Macmillan &,Co. (Limited), 
St. Martin’s Street, ■ 

London, W.C. 

London, November 1904. 


TN presenting a new edition of the Guide-book to the public we are glad 
to be able to say that we are giving the very latest practical informa¬ 
tion as to hotels, steamers, anil trains. Tourists will be glad to note the 
reduction of fares by the first-class steamers from England to Egypt; 
also the very considerable reduction on the fare by the quick P. and O. 
'mail route vid Brindisi. 

New information as to the journey from Gondokoro to Mombasa has 
been added, travel through Uganda becoming every year more feasible. 

October 1906. 



Egyptian Money .iv 

Yachting Notes.. 

Conversion Tables—Thermometers, Barometer, eto. . . xi 

Hotel List .xiii 

Miscellaneous Information— 

Season for Visiting Egypt ..1 

Routes from England to Egypt.1 

Plan of Trip to Egypt.2 

Approximate Cost of Trip.2 

Passports, Customs, etc.3 

Money—Coinage ......... 3 

Posts and Telegraphs ........ 4 

Railways and Steamers.4 


Health and Clothing.S 

Notes on Ancient and Modern Egypt— 



Cartouches. To face 15 



Archaeology and Art.22 


Natural History.26 

Irrigation.i' .... 26 




1. Alexandria.30 

2. Environs of Alexandria.36 

3. Alexandria to Cairo.38 

4. The Suez Canal—Port Said to Cairo.39 

5. Cairo.44 

6 . Environs of Cairo.74 

7. The Pyramid Field.77 

8 . The Fayftm and Oases . 91 






Miscellaneous Information.96 

9. Cairo to Luxor by the Nile.98 

10. Thebes.114 

11. Luxor to Aswlin.138 

12. Aswan and the First Cataract.146 

13. AswSn to Wady Haifa.161 



Description of the Sudan.155 

Passport Regulations.156 

14. Wady Haifa to Dongola.157 

15. Wady Haifa to Khartum.157 

16. The White Nile to Gondokoro.160 

17. The Blue Nile to Fazoghli.162 


18. Gondokoro to Mombasa 




1. The Nile to Wadelai. 

2. The Delta. 

3. Ancient Alexandria. 

4. Alexandria. 

5. The Suez Canal. 

6. Cairo. 

7. Environs of Cairo. 

8. The Nile to Wady Haifa—Part I. ( Cairo to Dendera) 

9. Environs of Aswan. 

10. The Nile to Wady Haifa—Part II. ( Dendera to 

Haifa) . 

11. Environs of Omdurman and Khartflm 


To face 7 

To fact 139 
„ 160 


1. Cartouches. 

2. The Egyptian Museum—Ground Floor 

3. The Egyptian Museum—First Floor 

4. Pyramids of Gizeh .... 

5. Interior of Great Pyramid 

6. Apis Tombs. 

7. Tomb of Thi. 

8. Tomb of Mera. 

9. Sakkara Plateau .... 

10. Cairo to Aswan—Table of Mileage . 

11. Abydos .... 

12. Temple of Hathor, Dendera 

13. Karnak .... 

14. Temple of Luxor 

15. Tomb of Seti I. 

16. Tomb of Ramses III 

17. Temple of Der el-Bahri . 

18. Medmet Hiibu . 

19. Necropolis of Thebes 

20. Temple of Horus, Edfu . 

21. Temple of Kom Ombo 

22. Philse .... 

23. Rock Temple of Abfi Simbel 

24. Khartflm . 








To face 85 
„ 95 

- . 108 
. 117 

. 130 

. 135 

To face 123 
. 141 

. 144 

. 149 

. 152 

To face 169 




Port Sa!d. — The coast is very 
low, and great caution is required 
on approaching the land. Anchor 
where convenient. Charts Nos. 
2573 and 234. 

Lloyd’s Agent: Savon Bazin. 

4 Rosetta. — The channel is very 
narrow, with only 7 ft. water in 
it. Chart No. 2630. Anywhere 
along this coast anchorage is 

Abukir Bay. —Chart No. 2681. 
Anchorage in this bay is not to 
he depended upon, so far as 
safety is concerned. 

Alexandria. — Chart No. 243. 

Anchor anywhere outside in 10 
to 7 fths. The Straight Boghaz 
Pass, or Central Pass, is the 
deepest and best pass through 
the reefs; it has a depth of 28 ft. 
and a width, of 300 ft. A splendid 
harbour, capable of accommodat¬ 
ing a couple of squadrons with¬ 
out interfering with the quay 

Between this port and Beng¬ 
hazi, in 20° E. longitude, there 
is nothing of interest, no har¬ 
bours, no anchorages, and 
desolation all around. 

Lloyd’s Agent: Ludwig Muller. 


Thermometers. — The thermo¬ 
meters principally used in foreign 
countries are the Reaumur and the 
Centigrade, but thermometers will 
frequently be found graded for both 
R. and C. 4° R. =? 5° C.=41° F. 
The rule for the conversion of 
degrees Reaumur or degrees Centi¬ 
grade into degrees Fahrenheit is as 
followsTo every 4° R. add 5, to 
every 5° C. add 4, to the sum in 
each case add 32, and the result 
will be degrees Fahr. A simple 
method of obtaining an approxi¬ 
mately correct result in cases where 
both Reaumur and Centigrade 
readings are given, is to add 32 to 
the sum of the two readings, the 
result being degrees Fahr. 







21 r 
























































































-r 4 

— 5 


— 5-3 

— 6-7 


— 8 



- 9-8 











— 4 










Barometer.— The weather - glass 
and rainfall are measured by the 
millimetre=l-ltOOth of a metre= 
*0394 inch = 4-100ths of an inch. 
Thus, 724 millimetres correspond 
to 28'5 inches; 736-5 mills, to 29 
inches; 749 - 5 29*5 inches; 
762 mills, to 30 inches; 775 mills, 
to 30'5 inches. (See table below.) 
For comparison, remember that 
the mean temp, of London is 39* in 
winter, 49-5 annual; and the rain¬ 
fall, 25 to 26 inches. 




















































711 *2 


y y 


Intermediate heights to be added 
to above. 












y i 





























We are indebted to Mr. J. H. 
Steward, optician, 406 Strand, for 
the foregoing thermometer and 
barometer tables. 

Kilometre and Metre Tables.— 

The kilometre is composed of 
1000 metres, and as the metre = 
39'37 inches, the kilometre is equal 
to 0'621 English miles. An ap¬ 
proximately accurate method of 
calculating distances is to consider 
that 100 kilometres aie equal to 62 
English miles. For short distances, 
8 kilometres to 5 miles. 

To turn English statute miles 
into geographical (or sea) miles, 
take off l-7th. One sea mile=l'15 
English mile = 185 kilometre. 
Hence 100 sea railes=115 English 
miles=185 kilometres. 

Table of Kilometres and 
English Miles. 






1 = 































































































Table of Metres and Yards. 















































5 miles, nearly. 


N.B .— Visitors are not recommended to go to small hotels up the Nile 
or in the Delta without being prepared to rough it a little. They are 
generally kept by Greeks, and are not always clean. They are not 
’frequented by tourists, but are put in this list for the information of those 
"Who may wish to do some sight-seeing off the beaten track. 

Alexandria — Aswan — continued. 

Grand Hotel, Sqr. St. Catherine. 
Pension from P.T. 60 (about 

Hotel Khldivial, 33 Rue Cherif 
Pasha. Charges slightly higher 
than Hotel Abbat. 

Pension Suisse, behind the 
Eastern Telegraph Co., Rue du 

Hotel Continental, Place Mo¬ 
hammed Ali. Small; clean ; 
English landlady; P.T. 40-60 
per day. 

ffntsl-dss Veyageuxs, H"p 
TEplise Ec os saise . 

ttoMT du mT, Rue Ancienne 

Hotel Bonnard , Rue Cafe Paradis. 


Cataract Hotel , above the town 
of Aswan, and above the river; 
suitable for invalids. Tennis 
and croquet; electric light; 
good sauitary arrangements; 
all water filtered. 

Savoy Hotel (Anglo-American 
Nile Steamer and Hotel Com¬ 
pany), on the north end of the 
Island of Elephantine. Ferry¬ 
boats and steam launches be¬ 
tween the hotel and the town, 
free; post office in the hotel; 
good sanitation and ventilation; 
accommodation for 180 people ; 
electric light throughout; in 
eight acres of garden. 


Charges in these two hotels 
from P.T. 80-100 per day. At 
the following hotel, charges 
may be somewhat less :— 

Grand Hotel, at the south end of 
Aswan town, facing the river. 
The first hotel to be built here. 
Since an extensive fire it has 
been almost entirely rebuilt. 
Suitable for a short stay. Very 

St James' Hotel. P.T. 50 per day. 
This hotel has been enlarged, 
and a verandah added. 

New Continental hotel and Hotel 
Khedivial about P.T. 40 per 


New Hotel, near the station. 

Hotel d'Orient. Room from P.T. 
10 . 

Bulkeley. See Ramleh. 


All the leading hotels are as 
well appointed as the best 
European hotels, having elec¬ 
tric light, lifts, good baths, etc. 
The rooms are large and lofty, 
the buildings always being 
planned on a large scale. The 
waiters and chambermaids are 
European ; but Arabs do most 
of the “house work.” British 
officers and officials are received 



Cairo — continued. 

at most places on a special 
privilege tariff. 

Samy Hotel (G. Nungovich 
Hotels). Patronised by royalty. 
At the junction of Chareh Kasr 
en-Nil with the Chareh Sulei¬ 
man Pasha (Pi. B. 2). Bedroom 
from P. T. 40 ; sitting - room 
from P.T. 70; suites from P.T. 
200. Pension (without room), 
P.T. 50. Servant’s room and 
board, P.T. 45. Good restau¬ 

Grand Continental Hotel (G. 
Nungovich Hotels). In the 
Ezbekiya, facing the gardens 
(PI. B. 2). Large front terrace, 
garden with tennis in rear. 
Very lively aspect. Pension 
from P.T. 70. Servant’s room 
and board, P.T. 40. 

Shepheard’s Hotel, Chareh-Kamel, 
near the Ezbekiya. The large 
new building replaces the his¬ 
toric “Shepheard’s.” Large 
terrace. 400 beds. Pension 
from P.T. 70. Separate charges 
nearly the same as Grand Con¬ 

Hotel Semiramis. Close to the 
Nile Bridge. First-class hotel, 
open in 1907. 350 rooms. 

Hotel d’Angleterre (G. Nungo¬ 
vich Hotels). First-class family 
hotel, in the quiet Chareh el 
Maghrabi. Pension from P.T. 
60. Servant’s room and board, 
P.T. 40. 

Eden Palace Hotel. —Chareh el 
Genaina, Ezbekiya. Pension 
from P.T. 50. 

National Hotel in the Chareh 
Sulieman Pasha. 

Hotel New Khediyial. i n the Ezbe- 
Elya. P.T. 50 toT.T. 60 per 

Hotel Bristol, north of the Ezbe¬ 
kiya. Pension from P.T. 50. 

Villa Victoria. Private hetel 
entrance just off Chareh el 
Maghrabi. A new building. 
Pension in Dee., Jan., Feb., 
and March, P.T. 60 per day. 
Other months, P.T. 50, includ¬ 
ing afternoon tea and cold bath; 

Cairo — continued. 

electric light extra; hot bath, 
P.T. 6. 

Hotels Outside the Town. 

Ghezireh Palace Hotel, at Gezira, 
across the Nile bridge and to 
the right, about ten minutes' 
drive. Between the river and 
the racecourse. Formerly one 
of Ismail’s palaces, in which 
he entertained the English, 
French, and Russian royalties 
on their visit to Egypt to witness 
the opening of the Suez Canal. 
Very large and luxurious hotel 
in pretty gardens. Excellent 
cuisine. Favourite place for 
dinner parties. Living here will 
cost about P.T. 100 per day. 

Mena House Hotel, at the Pyra¬ 
mids, on the edge of the desert. 
Electric tram from Cairo (west 
side of the bridge) in 40 minutes. 
Good driving road. A coach 
runs between Cairo (Ezbekiya, 
11.45 a.m.) and the hotel, re¬ 
turning to Cairo at 4 p.m.— 
return fare, P.T. 25. There is a 
great deal of beautiful mushra- 
Mya work in the building. Ad¬ 
joining the hotel is an English 
church. The chaplain and a 
physician live in the hotel. 
Racecourse, where gymkhanas 
are held. Marble swimming 
bath. Tennis courts. Golf 
course. Good stabling. Pen¬ 
sion from P.T. 80 per day. 

Pensions— 5 

Pension, Sima, -46 Chareh el 
Maghrabi ; an oKT-established 
comfortable house. P.T. 40 
per day. including afternoon 
tea, light, hot bath in room, 
aud breakfast in own room 
if preferred. P.T. 270 per 
week. P.T. 1100 per month. 
Carlton House, Maison Nahas. 
Midau Ismailieh. Small, well 
appointed. From P.T. 50 per 
day. £15 a month. Electric 
light, P.T. 2 a day extra. 
Cold bath, P.T. 2; hot bath 
P.T. 6. 



Cai bo — continued. 

Pensions— continued. 

—P ension Nationals. Rue Kasr 
en-Nil, near Savoy Hotel. 
Good situation. A quiet well- 
patronised house, kept by M. 
and Mme. Villforth. P.T. 
40 per day, including cold 
bath, light, afternoon tea. 
Warm bath in room, P.T. 3. 
£12 per month pension. 
Kossmore House (Miss Frizell). 
Chareh Madabegh, off Sharia 
Kasr en-Nil. A large well- 
appointed house; more like a 
private hotel.. From P.T. 40 
per day. From 3 guineas a 
week for single room for 
lengthened stay. Charges in¬ 
clude cold bath in bath-room, 
but not afternoon tea nor 
lights. Small dining-tables. 
Pension Fink, Chareh Sulieman 
Pasha. From P.T. 35 per day. 
Bension de Famille, Mme 
Birne. Nearly opposite the 
Savoy Hotel. From £2. 10s. 
per week. 


An hotel at the railway. 


Hotel de France. Greek. 

Hotel des Voyageurs. 

FayOm. — See Medina. 

Helwan, or Helouan les Bains— 

The Grand Helwdn Hotel, opposite 
railway station, from P.T. 60 a 
day, and Hdtel des Bains, from 
P.T. 50 a day, both under same 
management as Savoy, Grand 
Continental, and d’Angleterre 
hotels in Cairo. Very comfort¬ 
able. At the former, tennis, 
croquet, library. Golf Links 
— 18-hole course — and club¬ 
house in connection with these 
two hotels. Military bands 
several times a week. 

Tewfik Palace Hotel , to the north 
of the town. Bathroom to 
several bed rooms and many 
balconies ; from P.T. 60 a day; 
sitting-room from P.T. 60; 

Helwan — continued. 

dressing-room, P.T. 40. Ser¬ 
vant’s room and board, P.T. 40. 
Extras: afternoon tea, P.T. 5; 
electric light, P.T. 5 per light; 
cold bath, P.T. 4 ; hot bath. 
P.T. 8. 

Heltzel's Hotel. Pension from 
P.T. 40. 


English Winter Home. Miss 
Hod’s pension. Prices slight¬ 
ly lower than hotels; English 
food ; cows kept; suitable 
for families and children. 
Sanatorium el Hayat. About 
100 rooms ; built 1903 ; 4 
mins, from railway station; 
P.T. 90 per day. Resident 
physician, consultations free. 
Electric and other baths and 
massage. Central heating. 
Pension Antonio. From P.T. 32, 
not including tea and baths. 


Victoria Hotel (branch of Shep- 
heard’s in Cairo), near the 
quay. Pension P.T. 50. 

Hotel des Voyageurs. 


Hotel des Etrangers. 

Hotel d’Alexandrie, kept by 


Grand or Victoria, on the river 
front, to the north of the town ; 
from 20s. to 25s. per day. It 
consists of four or five one¬ 
storeyed bungalows standing in 
a garden, with dining-room in 


Luxor Winter Palace Hotel. 
Opened in 1906, up stream of 
all other buildings. Accommo¬ 
dation for 250 guests. 

Luxor Hotel. Garden entrance 
on river front. Large shady 
garden, in which stands the 
English church. Charges vary, 
according to the month and 
length of stay, from P.T. 70-90. 
Doctor in the hotel. 



Luxor— continued. 

Grand Hotel, north end of town ; 

, in large garden ; from P.T. 65 
per day. 

Earnak Hotel, farther north, on 
the river ; same management as 
Luxor Hotel; terms rather lower. 

Savoy Hotel. About the same 
price as the other hotels. Good 


Grand Hotel, in chief street. 

Hotel Royal, on river next to 
post office ; pretty situation ; 

Medina el FayOm— 

Hotel du Fay fim, kept by a Greek; 
fair accommodation; pension 
P.T. 40. In connection with 
this hotel a small one has been 
opened on the lake about two 
hours’ ride from Abchaouai, 
called Hotel Moeris. Travellers 
wishing to stay there should 
acquaint the manager of the 
former with their intention. 

Port SaId— 

Eastern Exch ange Hotel. Rue 

"■SURaii Hsssan. a large build- 
ing with verandahs on every 
floor, belonging to an English 
company and run on English 
lines. Electric light; lift ; 
pension from P.T. 50; drago¬ 
man from hotel meets all 

Savoy Hotel(G. Nungovich Hotel), 
opened 1902. Pacing canal. 
Opposite custom house land¬ 
ing stage. Accommodates 55 
people. Pension from P.T. 60. 
Porters meet all trains and 

Hotel Continental, Rue du Com¬ 
merce, from P.T. 40. 


At San Stefano, Hotel Casino San 
Stefano. A large pleasant house 
on the sea. Pension from P.T. 
65 per day. 

Hotel Beau Rivage, on the sea 

Ramleh —con tinned. 

front beyond the Casino. A 
newer house, quiet and com¬ 
fortable, from P.T. 60 per day. 

At Bulkeley, Carlton Hotel (15 
mins, by tram from Alexan¬ 
dria), Sidi Gaber station on 
Cairo line. A new house, near 
the sea, in gardens with lawn 
tennis courts. Electric light. 
Hot and cold baths. Pension 
for room and full board from 
P.T. 40-80. 

At Fleming, Hotel Miramar 
(Mme. Buzel). 

At Schntz, Hotel de Plaisance. 

Rosetta— „ 

Hotel du Nil. The Franciscan 
Brothers will sometimes enter¬ 
tain visitors. 


Hotel Bucket (of the Canal Co.), 
half-way between qnay and 
station at Port Tewfik; clean 
and comfortable; convenient 
for steamers. 

Hotel Bel Air, in the town. 


Hotel des Fyramides, 

Hotel Belle Grece. 

Wady Halfa— 

Grand Haifa Hotel, opened 1900. 
Tariff, P.T. 80 per day, not in¬ 
cluding afternoon tea or baths. 
It is a clean, cheerful hotel, 
with good accommodation; is 
run by a firm of Greek con¬ 
tractors for the army, who have 
also opened a general store at 
W My Haifa, where camp 
equipments may be procured ; 
also various stores, including 


Hotel d'Egypte. 


Grand Hotel. 

ADDENDA, 1907-1908. 

Hotels. Page xiv. There la now and have established a daily ferry 

no coach to Mena House. The between Port Said and Matarieh, 

Oasis Hotel at Heliopolis will the eastern point of the fertile 

be opened in 1908. See page 74. province of Manshra. The pas¬ 

sage occupies three hours, and in 
Steamers. Page 2. Quickest over- co-operation with the light rail- 
land,' route. A new company, ' way ought to be of great value in 
fhe Egyptian Mail Steamship connecting the north of the Delta 
Company, has built two powerful with Port Said, 
turbine steamers, which will make The company' are also negotiating 
the journey from Marseilles to with the Suez Canal Company 

Egypt in seventy hours. They and the Public Works Depart- 

will probably begin running in ment for the purpose of digging 

the autumn *1907. The vessels a canal to connect the Menzftla 

register about 12,000 tons each, Canal with the Suez Canal, to 

will have cabines de 'luxe, with facilitate the transport of cotton, 

private bathrooms, lifts, and a etc. from the province of Daka- 

restaurant, with meals served d lieh to Port Said. The canal 

la carte. would be one kilometre in length. 

Idght Railway. Page 7. The Tourist Agent. Page 44. Charles 
light railway from W.iiiy Haifa Hornstein is dead, and the busi- 
to Dongola is no longer in exist- ness discontinued. 

Consulates. Page 44. The Earl 
Doctor. Page 31. Miss Sheldon of Cromer, owing to ill health, 
Amos is no longer practising in partly consequent upon the con- 
Alexandria. tinuons strain of so many years' 

unique administration, has been 
Suez Canal. Page 41. On Jan. 1, obliged to resign his post in 

1906, the rate of transit dues was Egypt. He has been succeeded 

reduced from 8i francs to 7f by Sir Eldon Gorst, K.C.B. The 

francs per ton. On the net ton- latter has held several appoint- 

nage of ships passing through the ments in Egypt, being Financial 

canal in 190ti there was an in- Adviser to the Khedive when in 

crease of 311,399 tons on 1905. 1904 he became Assistant Under- 

3975 vessels passed lhrough in Secretary, of State for Foreign 

1906, of which 2333 were British. Affairs in London. 

359,616 passengers passed 

through. Doctor. Page 46. Dr. F. M. 

Sandwith has left Cairo. 

Lake Menzftla. Page 43. The 
Menzala Canal and Navigation Churches. Page 46. The Very 
Companies have dredged a wide Rev. Dean Butcher is dead, and 

and deep channel across the lake, has been succeeded by the Bev. J. 


X vih 

ADDENDA, 1907-1908 

M. Molesworth. The new church 
of St. Mary’s, at Kasr el Dubara, 
is to be opened in November. 

Antiquities Ticket. Pages 77, 78, 
79. This ticket can not he used 
at Gizeh, where special tickets 
have to be procured. 

Tram to Pyramids. Page 79. The 
trams run every hour in the 
morning, and every half-hour in 
the afternoon. 

Gizeh Palace. Page 79. This 
palace has been demolished, and 
the ground is being let in plots 
for building. 

SakkAra. Page 87. The Apis 
Mausoleum and the principal 
•tombs are now fitted with electric 

The Fayttm. Page 91. The train 
deluxe from Cairo to the. Fayflm 
has been discontinued. 

Palaces on the Nile. Page 98. 
The palaces of Ibrfihim Pasha 
and the Khedive Ismail’s mother 
have been demolished. 

Esna. Page 138. In order to im¬ 
prove irrigation in the province 
of Kenefc (page 110), a new bar¬ 
rage is being constructed at Esna. 
It will cost about £1,000,000, 
and is to be completed in four 
years. When finished it will 
bring 240 miles on either side of 
the Nile under perennial irriga¬ 

AswAn Dam. Page 150. It has 
been decided to raise the level of 
the reservoir 23 feet above the 
present maximum. The height¬ 
ening of the dam will take six 
years, and will cost £E1,500,000. 

The storage capacity will be two 
and a half times what it is at 
present, and is calculated to bring 
950,000 acres under cultivation. 
But the loss to archaeologists and 
sightseers will be immense ; for 
during the winter season Philae 
will be entirely submerged, and 
the temples between Aswan and 
WSdy Haifa will be flooded. 

SfidAn Provinces. Page 155. There 
has been some alteration in the 
arrangement of these. The Gezira 
mudiriya is now the Blue Nile 
Province, with its seat of admini¬ 
stration at Wad Medani (p. 154), 
and the Sennar mudiriya has 
become the White Nile Province, 
with its capital at Singa. 

Port Sfld An. Page 157. Travellers 
are warned that there is as yet no 
hotel here. 

The Kkedmial Mail Company's 
steamers leave Suez every Wed¬ 
nesday—after the arrival of the 
Brindisi mail—for Port SfidAn. 

Telegrams. Page 158. The tele¬ 
graph between Khartfim and 
Gondokoro is now complete, with 
the exception of the section be¬ 
tween Bor and Tantikia, a journey 
of three days by launch. From 
Entebbe (p. 167) the line is laid 
to within 150 miles of Gondokoro, 
Messages can be sent from 
Khartfim to Entebbe in ten days. 

Mombasa Steamers. Page 168. 
The. British East Africa Line 
run steamers monthly from Lon¬ 
don to Mombasa, touching at 
Port Sfldan and Aden, and con¬ 
tinuing to Zanzibar. Fares—Lon¬ 
don to Port Sfldan, 18 guineas; 
to Mombasa, 20 guineas. To Port 
Sfldan in 18 days; to Mombasa 
in 33 days. 




Season fob visiting Egypt . 1 

Bootes from England to 
Egypt . . . , 1 

BtfuEHLoF Trips 2 
Passports, Customs, etc. . 3 

Money—Coinage ... 3 

Posts and Telegraphs . . 4 

Railways and Steamers . 4 

Dragomans .... 4 

Health and Clothing . . 5 

S eason for visiting egypt. 

—The climate of Egypt is most 
pleasant for Europeans between the 
months of October and April. By 
the end of October the inundation 
has considerably subsided, and the 
first bright green of the crops begins 
to appear. But until the end of 
December, the Delta, Cairo, and 
the Nile Valley as far as Asyfit, are 
subject to heavy dews and morning 
fogs, owing to the dampness arising 
from the recently uncovered soil. 
The upper Nile Valley is therefore 
a much better place for invalids 
daring the winter than Cairo, and 
Cairo is much more healthy in the 
end of February and March. With 
April comes the hot south wind 
called th & khamsin, which generally 
blows for three days in succession, 
at intervals, during a period of fifty 
days. The temperature in the be- 
BjbUfg g£'Apri4l#P Cairo may rise 
to as Inueh as Tiff F. In the shade. 
But OTving to tfie dryness of the air, 
the heat has not the enervating 

effect of great heat in England. 
The nights, too, are cool, there 
being frequently a variation of 20° 
F. between the midday, and evening 
and morning temperatures. 

In the Delta and Cairo there are 
occasionally heavy showers, but 
south of Asyfit rain is very rare. 


Long Sea Routes, 

The voyage occupies from twelve 
to fourteen days. 

Peninsular and Oriental Co.’s 

steamers from London to Port Said 
every Friday. London to Port 
Said, £19 mail, £17 inter¬ 
mediate steamer, 1st class; £12, 
2nd class ; rail to Cairo, 1st class, 
£1; 2nd class, 10s. Occasional 
steamers to Alexandria, touching 
at Marseilles. 

Orient Line. —London to Port 
Said every alternate Friday, leaving 
Plymouth on Saturdays. London 
to Port Said, £19, 1st class ; £12, 
2nd class. 

North German Lloyd.— Leave 
Southampton three or four times a 
month, on Mondays or Tuesdays. 
London to Port Said, £19,1st class ; 
£12, 2nd class. 

•' Anchor Line.—From Liverpool 
to Ismailiya fortnightly. About 
£13, 16s. 6d. Cairo return, valid 
six months, £25, 2s. fid. 



Bibby Line. —From Liverpool 
fortnightly, in about 13 days, to 
Port Said. 1st class only, £17. 

MOSS Line. —From Liverpool to 
Alexandria every twenty-one days. 
About £16, 7s. 6d. 

Prince Line.— From Manchester 
and London to Alexandria. About 
£14, 7s. 6d. 

Papayanni Line. — Fortnightly 
from Liverpool to Alexandria. 
About £14. 

Overland Routes. 

Occupying from five to seven 

( A) vid Brindisi. —By the Indian 
mail leaving Charing Cross at 9 p.m. 
every Friday, arriving at Brindisi 
on Sunday evening, and Port Said 
(by P. & 0. steamer) on Wednesday 
morning. Fare, including rail and 
sleeping car, £22, 9s. lid.— the 
quickest route to Egypt. Or Austrian 
Lloyd steamers to Alexandria. Fare 
—London to Brindisi,1st class ordin¬ 
ary, £12, Is. 4d., in about 60 
hours. Leave Brindisi 2 p.m. 
Fridays, arrive Alexandria 6 p.m. 
Mondays. Fare: Brindisi to 
Alexandria, £11, 6s. 

(15) vid Naples. —Rail from Lon¬ 
don, £11, 2s. 7d. 1st class ; £7,14s. 
2nd class. Thence by Orient Line, 
£9, or North German Lloyd, to Port 
Said, £11, 1st class; or by the 
Italian Gen. S. N. Co. to Alexandria 
every Wednesday, at 3 p.m. 

(G ) vid. Marseilles. —Rail from 
London, £6,14s. 1st class ; £4,12s. 
8d. 2nd class. Thence by P. & 0. 
weekly, by Orient line fortnightly, 
to Port Said or Messageries Mari- 
times weekly to Alexandria. P. & 
0. and Orient Line, £13 1st class, 
£9 2nd class; Mess. Mar. about 
£13, 4s. Bibby Line to Port Said, 
£12. North German Lloyd, weekly, 
to Alexandria. Special service. 
Leave London, Tuesdays, 11 a.m. ; 
Marseilles, Wednesdays, noon, 
arriving Alexandria following Mon¬ 
days. 1st class steamer, £16 to 
£24 ; 2nd class, £10. 

{D) vid Venice or Trieste. —By 
Austrian Lloyd to Alexandria, leav¬ 

ing Trieste every Friday. London 
to Cairo vid Calais, Paris, Turin, 
Milan, Venice, Trieste, Alexandria, 
about £23, 4s. 1st class; £15,18s. 
9d. 2nd class. 

(E) vid Vienna and Trieste.— 

London, Tuesday morning, to Cairo 
vid Ostend, Vienna, Trieste, and 
Alexandria, about £26, 18s. 6d. 

[F) vid Genoa. —Rail from London 
to Genoa, £7, 7s. 5d., thence by 
North German Lloyd, or Italian 
steamer, to Port Said, £13 or £14. 


It is possible to get a very good 
glimpse of Egypt in a month’s trip 
from England, if the traveller goes 
out overland. Allowing eleven days 
for the journey out and back, there 
would be seventeen days in which 
to see Cairo and its environs, the 
Pyramids, and Sakkara. It would 
even be possible to rush up to 
Aswan and back, if he were content 
to look at the temples from the 
steamer’s deck, or to travel partly 
by rail. If the journey up the Nile 
is to be made by dahabiya, not less 
than three months must be allowed 
from London to A swan and back. 

The tourist steamers from Cairo 
to Aswan and back take twenty-one 
days; and from Aswan to Wady 
Haifa and back seven days. So 
that twenty-eight days at least 
should be allowed for seeing the 
Nile. Giving ten days to Cairo and 
its environs, and twenty-eight days 
to the long sea voyages out and 
home, this would give sixty-six 
days as a fair time in which to make 
the tour. 

Trip I.— About forty-five days. 

To Cairo vid Brindisi by 
Indian mail . . . £22 9 11 

Ten days in Cairo . . 15 0 0 

To W4dy Haifa and back 
by first • class tourist 
steamers. . . . 70 0 0 

To London vid Brindisi . 22 9 11 

£129 19 10 



Trip n .—About Sixty days. 

Liverpool to Alexandria 
and Cairo and back, 
about .... £30 0 0 
Ten days in Cairo (cheaper 
hotel and fees), say . 8 0 0 

Cairo to Wfidy Haifa and 
back by Cook's 11 express ” 
steamer, including three 
days at Asw&n, and brief 
stay at Dendera, Esna, 

Edfu, Kom Ombo, and 

Beni Hasan . . . U 0 0 

£82 0 0 

Various cheaper combinations 
may be made by using the railway 
along the Nile banks part of the 
way. For continuation to Khartum, 
see p. 157. 

Though it is unlikely that the tra¬ 
veller will be asked at any of the 
ports on landing to show his pass¬ 
port, it is always better to have 
one. It might be required for ob¬ 
taining registered letters, at a bank, 
or at the consulate if it were neces¬ 
sary at any time to demand help 
from the consul. If the journey is 
continued into Palestine, Syria, or 
Turkey, a passport is absolutely 
necessary in order to obtain the 
further permit or “Teskera,” re¬ 
quired by the Turkish Government. 
A British Foreign Office passport 
can be obtained through H. Blank- 
lock & Co., Bradshaw’s Guide Office, 
59 Fleet Street, E.C.; or C. Smith 
& Sons, 63 Charing Cross : it costs 
about 3s. 6d. ; if vised by the 
Turkish Consul in England, an 
extra sum is charged. Be sure to 
have this done, if you intend visit¬ 
ing Palestine, Syria, or Turkey. 

The examination of luggage at 
the Customs is not more strictly 
carried out than frequently happens 
at European frontiers. But every 
article is liable to be opened. There 
is a heavy duty on cigars, according 
to quality ; and if travelling across 
Europe, it is better to carry very 
little tobacco, since it is'the chief 
thing searched for at all frontiers. 

There are good cigar shops in Cairo. 
For leave to export antiquities a 
special permission must be obtained 
at the Museum. 

Difficulties are put in the way of 
those wishing to bring guns and 
ammunition into the country. Per¬ 
mission must be obtained at the 
War Office, Cairo, from the Ad¬ 
jutant-General of the Egyptian 
Army. Cartridges are contraband. 
English ammunition may be bought 
in Cairo and Alexandria. 

MONEY. —The Egyptian pound 
—written £E—is worth £1, Os. 6d. 
of our money. It is divided into 
piastres and milli&mes, there being 
100 piastres, or 1000 milliiimes, in 
the £E. The English £ is worth 
about 97J piastres—written P.T., 
i.e. piastres tariff, in distinction from 
the current piastre, of about half 
the value, used largely in Alexan¬ 
dria—the piastre being worth about 

The Egyptian coins are— 

Gold pieces of 100, 60, and 25 piastres. 
Silver „ 2, 5, 10, and 20 ,, 

Nickel ,, 1, 2, 6 millitmes, and 

P.T. 1. 

Copper ,, i and J millitme. 

The nickel 5 millieme or half-piastre 
piece is most useful, as it will be 
found that the donkey-boys prefer 
a few of these to a silver coin of the 
same value. It i3 about the same 
size as the silver two-piastre piece, 
but may readily be distinguished 
from that coin by the curious O in 
the middle of the back. 

As exchange fluctuates, circular 
notes, bank notes, and cheques will 
not always be paid at the same rate. 
English and French gold are the 
best forms in which to have money, 
foreign silver being of no use, 
though it will frequently be found 
in the bazaars that reckoning is done 
in francs and sometimes in shillings. 
Roughly speaking, then, the shilling 
is equivalent to B,T. 5, and the 
franc to P.T. 4. 

For table of approximate equiva¬ 
lents see page back of title. 




Egypt possesses an excellent postal 
system. There are five posts weekly 
to and from Europe, the best being 
the mail vi(t Brindisi, leaving Cairo 
early in the week, when the Bombay 
mail arrives, and leaving London 
for Cairo on Fridays. There is also 
a daily mail up the river by train to 
Asw&n. At most of the post offices 
in towns on the river there is one man 
who can speak English or French. 

- PostalRates.— England to Egypt, 

1 penny. Egypt to England, India, 
New Zealand, Straits Settlements, 
Cyprus, and Gibraltar, \ piastre. 
Also to Italy, Southern Nigeria, 
Gambia, British East Africa, and 
Uganda, J piastre. Post cards, 
| piastre. For inland letters the 
rate is 5 inilliemes, that is, half a 
piastre for 30 grammes, and within 
the towns of Cairo and Alexandria, 
3 milli&mes. There is a parcel post 
both foreign and inland. There are 
British postal orders for exchange 
between Egypt and the United 
Kingdom and British Colonies. 

. There are two telegraph systems, 
the Eastern Telegraph Company 
and the Egyptian Government 
system, The former has offices in 
Alexandria, Port Said, Suez, and 
Cairo, Messages to be sent out of 
the country should always be sent 
from one of these offices, or, if sent 
from up the river, should be marked 
z rid Eastern. 

Messages inland can only be sent 
by the Government system. 
Telegraph Tariff.—Inland, P.T. 

2 for eight words. The Eastern 
Telegraph Co.’s tariff is, per word— 
To England vid France, Is. to Is. 4d per 


„ France 74 millitmes, or Is. 6}d. 

„ Italy 65 „ „ Is. 4d. 

,, Palestine 39 ,. ,,0s. lod. 

,, India 170 ,, „ 3s. 6Jd. 

,, N. America from ISO mUltemes, or 
2s. 5Jd. 

Cairo time is 2 hours earlier than 

The Government has railways all 
over the Delta and up the Nile to 

Luxor, crossing the river from the 
west to the east bank at Nagh 
Hamadi, about 380 miles from 
Cairo. The line (different gauge) 
from Luxor to Aswan, and the line 
from Wady Haifa to Khartfim, are 
military railways, and as such the 
train times arc subject to altera¬ 
tions. There are 1st, 2nd, and 3rd 
class carriages, the last being im¬ 
possible for Europeans. Ladies can 
travel 2nd class if they ask for a 
hartm carriage. But should there 
be none,, and the 2nd class be a 
promenade car, it will be found 
rather rough and noisy. Travelling 
by rail is always very dusty. The 
International Sleeping Car Co. runs 
sleeping and dining cars on certain 
specified trains, the sleeping cars 
being most comfortable and the 
catering good. In 1904 it was 
arranged by Lord Cromer that 
,£3,000,000 should be spent in reor¬ 
ganising Egyptian railways. Besides 
the State railways there are some 
light railway companies, but with 
the exception of the Helwan line 
the ordinary tourist is not likely to 
use these lines. The chief are the 
Egyptian Delta light railways ; the 
FayOm light railways; the Helwan 
railway. The Indicateur des Che- 
mins de Fer, P.T. 2, contains time 
tables of all the railways. 

There are two different companies 
running steamers on the Nile— Cook 
d Son ( Egypt) Limited, with office 
beside Shepheard’s Hotel in Cairo; 
The Hamburg and Anglo-American 
Nile-Steamer and Hotel Company , 
chief office in the Grand New Con¬ 
tinental Hotel Building. For par¬ 
ticulars, see page 97. 

DRAGOMANS. —It is unnecessary 
for the ordinary tourist, who only 
stays in the big towns and makes a 
steamer trip up the river, to have a 
dragoman constantly. For sight¬ 
seeing in Cairo it is better to take a 
guide or dragoman each day than to 
engage one for the whole period of 
stay. The charge is from P.T. 
30-40 a day, according to the ex¬ 
perience pf the. man and his know- 


ledge of English. Travellers must 
remember that the dragoman, 
whether Egyptian or Syrian, dressed 
in European, Turkish, or Arab dress, 
is merely a servant, and should 
always ride on the box and not in 
the carriage. They are quick to 
take advantage of the slightest 
familiarity. The Cairo guides know 
a fair amount about the mosques 
and other places of interest, but their 
information must not be implicitly 
relied upon. The Nile dragomans 
are very ignorant about the temples 
and antiquities, so that it is far 
better to' ignore what they say and 
consult a guide-book. (See Nile 
Trip, p. 96.) There are generally 
dragomans waiting about at the 
principal hotels, and the hall porter, 
whom they frequently tip to re¬ 
commend them, will soon find 

Bakshish would seem to be the 
first word the Egyptian child learns, 
so great is the cupidity of the tourist- 
spoilt Arab. Yet, however big the 
tip given, it is rare to find the 
recipient grateful or satisfied, and 
the traveller must not think he has 
underpaid because no thanks are re¬ 
turned. Two or three piastres is 
very good bakshish for a donkey-boy 
after a long day’s expedition. This, 
of course, in addition to the tariff 
payment for the donkey. 

HEALTH.— The winter climate of 
Egypt is very beneficial to phthisi¬ 
cal patients, to those suffering from 
bronchial affection, nervous prostra¬ 
tion, and ansemia, rheumatism, 
and neuralgia, and to convalescents 
from all acute diseases. But it 
must be borne in mind that Cairo 
is very unsuitable for invalids 
between November and February. 
The changes of temperature are a 
danger to be guarded against, for it 
is by forgetting the coolness of the 
evenings and not putting on extra 
wraps that chills are caught, which 
result in diarrhoea, and some¬ 
times tiresome intermittent fever. 
The Nile water has a slightly 
aperient effect on some people, 

So that they find it necessary al¬ 
ways to take a little brandy in it. 

Ophthalmia is a very common 
complaint in Egypt, the natives 
suffering terribly from it. It is 
well to guard against it by bathing 
the eyes, after returning from an 
expedition with a little hazeline, or 
saturated solution of boracic acid, 
in tepid water. - Many people find 
smoked glasses necessary as a pro¬ 
tection from the glare of the sun. 

Mosquitoes, though rare on the 
Nile itself, are fairly plentiful in 
Cairo. A little powdered bismuth 
made into a paste with water allays 
the irritation of an inflamed bite; 
ammonia is also good. 

There are good doctors and 
chemists in Cairo. 

CLOTHING.—It must be remem¬ 
bered that it is wiser to procure all 
necessary clothing before leaving 
England, as even if the things 
wanted can be got in Cairo, they 
will be much more expensive. 
From the description of Egypt’s 
climate it will be seen that clothing 
of all kinds must be taken. Light 
summer tweeds or flannels, cotton 
and muslin gowns,- are suitable for 
Cairo in March ; and if a long stay 
is to be made during the hot 
weather, white suits are a comfort. 
Thicker tweeds and a warm over¬ 
coat, wraps and a fur cloak, are 
necessary in December and J anuary, 
especially on the river, the wind 
often being cold and the steamers 
very draughty. It is better for 
ladies to keep one skirt entirely for 
donkey-riding, and to have it always 
well shaken after returning from an 
expedition. Woollen underwear is 
the safest, and a cholera-belt a wise 
precaution, because of the rapid 
changes in temperature. Boots and 
shoes should be strong, as the 
ground about the temples is often 
very rough, and brown leather is 
preferable to black. Only those 
very susceptible to the sun’s rays 
will require a pith helmet during 
the ordinary tourist season, but the 
back of the neck must be shaded 



either by a puggaree'or by holding up 
a sun umbrella, which it is quite 
possible to do while riding a donkey. 



Geogbaphy .... 6 

History .... 9 

Cartouches . . To face 15 

Inhabitants .... 16 

Religion . . . .18 

Archeology and Art . . 22 

Language .... 25 

Natural History . . 26 

Irrigation .... 26 

GEOGRAPHY (Political and 
Physical). — In ancient times 
“Kamit,” or the “Black Land," 
as Egypt proper was called, ex¬ 
tended from the Mediterranean to 
the first cataract, as it does at the 
present day. But many Pharaohs 
pushed their conquests through 
Nubia and on into the Sudan, so 
that the southern frontier was con¬ 
stantly changing. Little less con¬ 
stant was the north-east frontier, 
where the Egyptians were perpetu¬ 
ally waging war with the Kheta 
and other tribes. But the Isthmus 
of Suez forms the natural frontier. 
On the west the desert border of 
the country is indefinite, though at 
the westernmost point of its Medi¬ 
terranean frontier it touches Tripoli. 
It includes the Oases of Siwa, the 
ancient oasis of Jupiter Ammon; 
Wih-el-Bahriya, Farstfra, Dakhla; 
and southernmost, Wah-el-Kharga, 
the Oasis Major of the Romans. 

In ancient times the land was 
divided into forty-two districts 
called names, each governed by its 
own princeling who owed more or 
less allegiance to the Pharaoh, ac¬ 
cording to that ruler’s own power. 
In later times these governors were 
called nomarchs, the office ap¬ 
parently being hereditary. 

From the earliest time the divi¬ 
sion of the country into Upper and 
Lower Egypt was recognised as a 
natural partition, one of the titles 
of the Pharaoh being “King of 

Upper and Lower Egypt.” Lower 
Egypt consists of the delta from the 
Mediterranean to Cairo, and this is 
now divided into seven provinces, 
called mudlriyas. These are 
Kalyfib, Sharkiya, Dakhaliya, 
Gharbiya, Menflfiya, Beherah, and 
Giza. Upper Egypt is also divided 
into seven mudtrlyas, called Beni 
Suef, Fayfim, Minia, Asyflt, Girgeh, 
Keneh, and Aswan. Cairo, Alex¬ 
andria, Suez, Port Said, Ismalliya, 
Rosetta, Damietta, and Kosser on 
the Red Sea have governors 
(mukafza) of their own. The 
mudiriyas are so called because 
each is under an official called a 
mudtr. These provinces are again 
divided into markazes, each under a 
mam&r, while each village has its 
omdeh or overseer. 

The Nile. 

Egypt owes its. very existence to 
the Nile, with its wonderful and 
mysterious annual rising and over¬ 
flowing of the valley. 

Mystery also for many years sur¬ 
rounded the question of its source, 
and geographers from Strabo to Sir 
Harry Johnston have written much 
about its origin. “The Nile Quest,” 
by the latter, contains a record of 
all the explorers and explorations 
from Herodotus, who, about the 
year 457 B.C., journeyed up the Nile 
to the first cataract, to Sir Harry 
himself, who admits that the “ quest 
is practically ended,” the only un¬ 
explored district in the Nile basin 
being that portion lying between 
the Sobat river on the north-east 
and the main White Nile on the 
west and south-west, a district 
occupied by Nilotic negroes. 1 

It was in 1858 that Speke dis¬ 
covered the south end of the 
Victoria Nyanza (lake), and con- 

1 Part of this region is about to be 
explored by an irrigation officer from 
Egypt, with a view to finding out the 
possibilities of making a new channel 
for the river from Bor to Taufikiya in 
order to carry off water, much of 
which is now lost in the swamps of the 
Bahr el Gebel and the Bahr ez Zeraf. 

High Desert 
PlcLte cL.U 

Oasis^ of ); 
Bahriya i-‘ 

Oasis o£//'\ 

Dong ola 


S E B T 


MR - 

¥> Kafyka,^ 


"o \ oSkekkcL 


London: Macmillan & Co,Uf OnsOuMJcnien. 


Scale; 122,386,820 
0 100 200 


aiaii d 

J£iLDa - a JUdbYCtY shewromus 

Ocisis of DeLkhlai. 

Oasis at. 

L I B Y A N 

Tropic of Cancer 



jectured that the Nile had its source 
at the north end of this magnificent 
expanse of water. But it was not 
until 1862 that he actually saw the 
river issuing from it over the Ripon 
Falls. Of several rivers that feed 
the great lake the Kagera is the 
most important. It flows into the 
lake near the middle of its western 
shores; and as there is a distinct 
current from this point through the 
lake to the Ripon Falls, its head 
waters may fairly be considered as 
the real source of the Nile. The 
two main springs of these head 
waters lie near the north end of 
Lake Tanganyika, over 6000 ft. 
above sea level. 

The river as it leaves the lake 
(3526 miles from Damietta) is called 
the Victoria Nile, and it immediately 
passes over the Ripon Falls, which 
are between 30 and 40 ft. high. The 
scenery is beautiful. The river soon 
enters the swampy Lake Kioga. 
Passing out at the N.W., after re¬ 
ceiving two tributaries and passing 
over the Karuma Falls in a narrow 
defile, and the Murchisou Falls, 
120 ft. high, it enters the Albert 
Nyanza at its most north-easterly 
point, and leaves it again a navigable 
stream as far as Nimule, where the 
rapids commence. (Seep. 166.) The 
river is now called the Bahr el 
Gebel as it flows through Uganda to 
Gondokoro, the most northerly post 
in that country, and almost on the 
Anglo - Egyptian Sfidan frontier. 
All this district, once thickly popu¬ 
lated and well cultivated, has been 
laid waste by the Dervishes. Of 
the gardens with grapes, limes, paw¬ 
paws, oranges, etc., not a trace re¬ 
mains, and the inhabitants have been 
decimated. About 400 miles north of 
Gondokoro (pronounced with accent 
on dok) the river joins the Bahr 
el-Ghazal and forms the Bahr el 
Abiad, or White Nile. 

Navigation is much impeded by 
the Sudd. This formidable obstacle 
is composed of quick-growing water 
plants. Perhaps the ambatch is the 
chief cause. With roots in the water, 
it grows to 15 and 20 ft., and 6 in. 

thick at the base. Its “wood" is 
light as a fungous growth, is easily 
broken off, and floats away to find 
another anchorage. Vossw. grass, 
papyrus, and “um sfif,”—a floating 
plant,—collect in masses round these 
nuclei of ambatch, until large islands 
of vegetation are formed, sometimes 
acres in extent, so covering the 
surface of the water that it is almost 
impossible to tell where the channel 
is. Various methods for removing 
the obstruction have been tried, 
even to the blowing it up with 
dynamite. Much has been cleared 
from the Bahr el Gebel by burning 
the surface down, cutting it into 
blocks, attaching steel hawsers to 
these from a steamer, which then 
put on full speed, and, uprooting 
the blocks, towed them to the 
shore. An expedition under Major 
Malcolm Peake thus cleared nearly 
72 miles of the White Nile, and 
so opened up communication with 
Gondokoro (see p. 161). 

From Lake No, where the two 
rivers join, the main stream makes 
its way east, receiving as tributaries 
the Bahr ez-Zeraf and the Sobat. 
Turning north, it receives no other 
tributary of importance during its 
course through dreary marshy coun¬ 
try, plagued with mosquitoes and 
other insects, until at Khartfim it is 
joined by the Blue Nile (1267 ft. 
above sea level). 

At Shabluka are rapids called 
the sixth cataract. From this point 
across the Gezira desert to Korti is 
a distance of about 150 miles. But 
the river takes a great bend here, 
making almost three sides of a 
square, trebling the distance, and 
for about 150 miles flowing south¬ 
west. At its most easterly point it 
receives the Atbara, only a real- 
river from the beginning of July to 
the end of October, a little south of 
Berber. Before reaching Korti it 
passes the fifth and fourth cataracts. 
The third cataract is at Hannek, 
near Kerma in Dongola. Thence 
there is a light railway to Wady 
Haifa at the second cataract. There 
are frequent islands in the river, but 



after the Atbara it receives no 
tributary during the remainder of 
its course of 1687 miles to the 

During its journey from Victoria 
Nyanza the Nile passes through a 
variety of cou ntry. Roughly speak¬ 
ing we may say that from the Lake 
to Kodok (Eashoda) it is a land of 
prairies and open forests. From 
Kodok to Fachi Shoya — beyond 
the strip of Nile cultivation—it is 
grazing land; and from that point 
to the sea, 2065 miles, the country 
is “steppes, barren lands, or 
deserts.” But everywhere a strip 
of cultivation accompanies the river, 
varying in width from a few yards 
to 10 miles. This strip of cultivated 
land is very fertile, being enriched 
every year by the “red” water 
brought down by the summer flood 
of the Blue Nile and Atbara. The 
fertilising mud in suspension in the 
water falls as the current loses vel¬ 
ocity. In this way it was that the 
Delta was formed in ancient times. 
The Nile found its way to the sea 
from a point north of Cairo in seven 
branches, called Bolbitinic, Canopic, 
Sebennytic, Phatnitic, Mendesian, 
Tanitic, and Pelusiac, taking their 
names chiefly from the towns which 
were at their mouths. Of these only 
two remain,—the Phatnitic, which 
empties itsel f in to the s ea at Damietta, 
and the Bolbitinic at Rosetta,—the 
remainder having silted up. 

The actual width of the Nile 
valley is considerably more in many 
places than that of the cultivated 
area. It is cut through a great 
desert plateau, and the river now 
approaches one side of this valley 
and now the other, so that some¬ 
times there is a low range of hills 
near the east bank and sometimes 
near the west. These cliffs are in 

and are almost the only drills of 
which Egypt can boast, with the 
exception of a range which follows 
the border of the Red Sea. They 
rarely attain a height of 1000 ft. 
The desert on the east is called the 
Arabian desert, and on the west the 

Libyan desert. The hills consist of 
a nummulitic limestone, of dazzling 
whiteness when newly quarried, a 
formation which continues for about 
500 miles south of Cairo, where it 
gives place to “Nubian Sandstone.” 
This quartzose sandstone forms a 
bar at Gebel Silsila, through which 
the river has only been able to force 
a comparatively narrow way. It 
forms the chief geological formation 
of Nubia and the Sftd&n. At Aswan 
it is broken through by a barrier of 
granite, chiefly a beautiful red colour, 
though there are other varieties. The 
river has forced its way through this 
barrier in the first cataract, and its 
action on the rocks has been to give 
them an intensely high black polish. 

The diorite, porphyry, and some 
other fine stones used by the ancient 
people for sarcophagi and statues 
came from the hills of the Arabian 
desert. Alabaster also is found at 
various points in this desert. 

The Inundation, the great Nile 
phenomenon, has controlled the 
naming of the seasons in Egypt 
from the most ancient days. The 
year has three seasons, called 
anciently ska —waters ; per —vege¬ 
tation ; shemu— harvest, and now 
named Nili —inundation August to 
November ] Shitwi —December to 
March ; Sefi —April to July. The 
river has always been closely 
watched at the critical time of its 
rising, ancient Nilometers having 
been found at various points on its 
course where its progress could be 
watched. Now, communications 
as to its state are wired from up 
country; in old days runners were 
sent from village to village with the 
important news. The rains in the 
Uganda region cause the rising of 
the White Nile about the middle of 
April, but it is not felt at Aswan 
until near the middle of June. 
The “green water” which is the 
precursor of the flood is caused 
by myriads of microscopic algjE, 
brought down from the Sobat. As 
they increase and dry and decay 
under the hot sun they cause a 
fostid taste and smell in the water. 


This is only until the “ red ” turbid 
water from the flooded Blue Nile 
appears about the beginning of July 
at Aswan, before which the algae dis¬ 
appear. The flood reaches Cairo 
about ten days after passing Aswan. 
The other great contributor to the 
flood—the Atbara—is a month later 
in reaching its height. 

These months are an exceedingly 
anxious time to the cultivator and 
the irrigation officer. Should the 
flood fall short, much land will 
remain sharaki (uncultivated), and 
the revenue will suffer, taxation 
being remitted on sharaki lands. 
Should it exceed certain limits, 
there will be danger to embank¬ 
ments, and an oversoaking of 
the land, and consequent greater 
deposit of salt, the agricultur¬ 
ist's enemy. The flood is at its 
height about the end of August. 
The waters then gradually sub¬ 
side, until at the end of May 
the Nile has reached its lowest 
limit. Some idea of the immense 
difference of the river at these two 
times of year may be imagined 
from the fact that (before the 
building of the Aswan dam) about 
the beginning of September 10,000 
tons of water passed Aswan every 
second, whereas at lowest Nile only 
410 tons per second were recorded. 
The difference of water level also at 
these periods is very great. At 
Aswfin, flood Nile is 49 ft. higher 
than low Nile; while even at Cairo, 
after much has been headed off and 
spread, over the land, there is 25 ft. 
of difference. 

If all these figures and dates were 
invariable the work of the irrigation 
engineers would be comparatively 
simple. But the Nile flood is 
erratic. It may be so low, as it 
was in 1877, as to leave a million 
acres uncultivable. A succession 
of low Niles has a most disastrous 
effect upon the country, as we know 
even as far back as scriptural 
records of famine. Another seven 
years’ famine began in 1064, with 
terrible results. It is to prevent 
such calamities in the future that 

the great Aswan reservoirTSSs •been 
created, and to make the supply 
more secure that vast schemes are 
being promulgated in the Sfldan be¬ 
yond Khartflm on the flood sources. 

The Oases are depressions in the 
desert, of which the floor is some¬ 
times below Nile level. Hence the 
springs by which they are watered 
and converted into beautiful spots 
of verdure. The wells are prac¬ 
tically artesian, having a depth 
varying from one to four hundred 
ft. The water is often slightly 
chalybeate, an A has usually a higher 
temperature than that of the sur¬ 
rounding air. The descent to some 
of the oases from the desert plateau 
is very abrupt, forming in some 
places cliffs in the universal lime¬ 
stone. Lower strata of rock are 
exposed in the.oases, yielding quan¬ 
tities of fossils. For fuller descrip¬ 
tion and details, see p. 93. 

HISTORY.—The various theories 
and opinions^ as to the origins of 
the inhabitants of the Nile country, 
and the dates of their earliest monu¬ 
ments, have not yet crystallised 
down into exact knowledge. The 
chronological computations of vari¬ 
ous Egyptologists differ, not even 
by decades or centuries, but by a 
thousand years or more. But all 
are agreed that the chief civilising 
influences came from the east. Old 
tradition speaks of the sacred land 
of Punt as the original home of the 
forefathers of the Egyptian race, 
and there is little doubt that the 
identification of this land of Punt 
with the district including Somali¬ 
land, Erythrea, and the opposite 
coast of Arabia is correct. That 
the Punites themselves were a 
branch from a great original centre 
of all civilisations in North India is 
a theory that cannot yet be prac¬ 
tically demonstrated. Between 6000 
and 6000 B.c. is a date given for the 
earliest historical records. These 
begin probably with the efforts of 
one tribal chief stronger than his 
neighbours to unite several districts 
under one sceptre of authority. 



The Dynasties, 

The first name appearing on all 
authoritative lists is that of Mena 
or Menes, the famous founder of the 
1st dynasty. He came from the 
neighbourhood of Abydos, but ex¬ 
tending his sway down the Nile to 
what is now within about a hundred 
miles of the Mediterranean, he there 
built a city, which became the capi¬ 
tal and was called Memphis. His 
kingdom extended south to Aswan, 
and he thus united Upper and 
Lower Egypt, and wore the double 
crown composed of the white one 

/jf of Upper Egypt and the red one 

of Lower Egypt. It will be 

noticed that on the monuments the 
Pharaohs are frequently represented 

with this headdress 

The chief 

remains of the first three dynasties 
have been found at Abydos, Negada, 
and Hieraeonpolis (opposite El 
Kab). But the best authorities are 
not agreed as to the proper signifi¬ 
cance or sequence of names found 
on tablets and other objects during 
the excavations of these sites. 
Some of the slate “ palettes ” found 
are of very fine workmanship, the 
scenes being in low relief, showing 
the crafts of the time to have ad¬ 
vanced far beyond the primitive 
stage. An interesting point in 
this early history is the important 
r61e played by the royal women. 
Seneferu, the last king of the 
3rd dynaBty, is responsible for the 
curious shaped pyramid with its 
beautiful-coloured stone at Medflm, 
which seems to be an intermediate 
form between the mastaba tomb and 
the perfected pyramid. 

With the great 4th dynasty be¬ 
gins the period of those builders in 
stone who have left the pyramids 
to witness to the strength of their 
religious beliefs (see p. 18). Khufu 
(Cheops of Herodotus), who built 
the great pyramid at Gizeh, was 

followed by Khafra (Chephren) and 
Men-kau-ra (Mycerinus), who built 
the two other large ones near it. 
The country, under the 5th and 6th 
dynasties, seems to have remained 
in much the same condition. Arts 
and crafts had reached a high state 
of perfection. The interior walls of 
the best tombs of this period show 
some of the finest work in drawing 
and execution to be seen in Egypt 
(see pyramid of Unas, tombs of 
the Thi, Mera, etc.). The state, too, 
seems to have been well organised, 
and several little frontier wars 
resulted in the gradual extension 
of territory to include the Sfidftn 
and western Oases, and the opening 
up of trade relations with the coast 
and islands of the Eastern Mediter¬ 
ranean. The most outstanding 
names of the 6th dynasty are those 
of Pepi I and Pepi II. Assa, too, 
is noted, because it was for him that 
Ptah-hetep wrote down the famous 
“ Precepts ” contained in the Prisse 
Papyrus, though the oldest extant 
copy—and “ the oldest book in the 
world ”—dates from the Middle 

As the kingdom grew in extent, 
the power became more and more 
decentralised, until at the end of 
the 6th dynasty the local princes 
seem to have had more power than 
the royal line. The history of the 
succeeding period is consequently 
rather confused, and how far the 
Antefs and Mentu-heteps of the 
11th dynasty were really “kings” 
of Egypt it is difficult to say. 

With Amenemhat I of Thebes 
of the 12th dynasty the monarchy 
was again re-established, and the 
country settled down into another 
period of prosperity. Great irriga¬ 
tion and engineering works are the 
conspicuous feature of the time. 
Thus, Usertsen III canalised the 
first cataract so that ships were 
able to pass in safety ; Amenemhat 
III built a dyke across an inlet into 
a depression of the western desert, 
and so was able to store the waters 
of the flood Nile for use during the 
dry summer. The lake thus formed 



was called Moeris, and it covered a 
large portion of what is now the 

In this district too the Amenem- 
hats and Usertsens built their pyra¬ 
mids. Much of the life of the 
times is to be gathered from the 
scenes painted on the walls of the 
tombs and the models found in the 
funerary chambers of the nobles of 
the times at Beni Hasan (q.v.), and 
from the literature which has come 
down to us. 

Another period of obscurity suc¬ 
ceeds the brilliant achievements of 
the 12th dynasty. Evidences are 
not wanting that the great move¬ 
ment of some eastern tribes, which 
on their westward way already 
dominated Syria, had been gradu¬ 
ally absorbing the northern por¬ 
tions of Egypt’s empire, and possibly 
by intermarriages with the reigning 
line had paved the way for a more 
complete mastery. These people 
were called Hyksfls, and may be 
identified with the Kheta of the 
monuments, who are now commonly 
known as the Hittites. No great 
battle which gave them final 
supremacy is recorded, but their 
influence on the people seems to 
have been detrimental, since civil¬ 
isation was evidently at a stand¬ 
still during a considerable period. 

But again a prince of Thebes 
came to the rescue of his country, 
and under Aahmes the Hyksos 
were driven out of the land. So 
begins the 18th dynasty (1578 b.c.), 
and the most illustrious line of 
Egypt’s kings. He was followed 
by four Amenheteps and four 
Thothmes. One of the most re¬ 
markable of Egypt’s rulers belongs 
to this dynasty, Queen Hatshepsu, 
a daughter of Thothmes I and 
sister of Thothmes II, with whom 
she reigned until his death, when 
the reins of government remained 
in her hands alone. The record of 
the great expedition she sent to the 
land of Punt is seen on the walls of 
her temple at Der el-Bahri. She is 
sometimes represented there dressed 
as a man and wearing a beard. 

Thothmes III, who succeeded her, 
reigned conjointly with her for 
some years. After her death he 
carried on a series of brilliant and 
successful campaigns, penetrating 
as far as the Euphrates, and sub¬ 
jugating Egypt's old enemies the 
Hittites. Records of these wars 
are inscribed on the walls at Kamak, 
where Thothmes built a great 
temple. Thothmes was perhaps 
Egypt’s greatest king. He was not 
only a warrior but a great builder, 
and one who encouraged all the 
fine arts. The paintings in the 
tombs of this period show a rich¬ 
ness of detail and indicate a luxury 
of living that surpasses anything in 
previous times (see p. 131). The 
royal tombs, in a wild valley in the 
Theban hills, are more elaborate 
than those of any preceding kings. 

Amenhetep IV is sometimes 
called the “ heretic king, ” because he 
tried to reform or alter the religion. 
The art of this time was of a much 
more naturalistic type, but little but 
the tombs at Tel el-Amarna remain 
to us, for his work was completely 
destroyed soon after his death by 
the priest-kings who succeeded 

The 19th dynasty commences 
with Rameses I, the first of thir¬ 
teen of that name. His son Seti I 
was a great warrior, and his cam¬ 
paigns are recorded on the walls at 
Kamak. He was also a great 
builder, some of the most notable 
temples (hypostyle hall at Kamak, 
temple of Abydos) belonging to this 
eriod. And the work is of a fine 
ind and careful execution. His 
great son Rameses II (1325 B.C.), 
whose love and reverence for his 
father appears in the so-called 
“Poem of Pentaur,” was also a great 
soldier and builder. But though 
there is much architecture bearing 
his name, the workmanship is not 
of such a fine quality. He caused 
the temple at Abu Simbel to be 
carved out of the rock in memory 
of his wife. There is every reason 
to suppose that he was the Pharaoh 
who oppressed the Israelites. 



During this time Egypt reached 
•the zenith of its glory, and from the 
end of the 19th dynasty a gradual 
but steady decline in its power is 
noticeable. Significant signs of the 
weakening of the empire were the 
growing power of the priests and 
the increased employment of mer¬ 
cenary troops. So we find the 21st 
dynasty consisting of Theban 
priests. But Shashanq X (Shi- 
shak), probably a general of the 
Libyan mercenary troops, and right- 
hand of the last priest-king, quietly, 
on his death, assumed authority 
and established the 22nd dynasty. 
His sway apparently was not recog¬ 
nised by the great southern state of 
Nubia, whose power gradually in¬ 
creased until it supplanted the 
Shashanqs and Osorkons by an 
Ethiopian dynasty. Its power 
was not sufficient to secure the en¬ 
feebled empire from attacks from 
without, and when its last king, 
Taharqa (672 B.c.), provoked the 
Assyrian by assisting the King of 
Tyre against him, Essarhaddon 
marched to Egypt, which fell an easy 
prey to his conquering army. But 
.When the Assyrian was later engaged 
on her own eastern frontier, Psam- 
metichus I threw off her yoke and 
re-established the integrity of his 
country,founding the 26th dynasty. 
So there was a period of about a 
hundred years’ peace before the 
final disintegration of the,empire. 
The battle of Pelusium sounded the 
knell of Egypt’s greatness, and 
CambyseS the Persian marched to 
the Nile and carried his conquests 
to Ethiopia. A recrudescence of 
the old spirit and a struggle for in¬ 
dependence resulted in a short 
period of peace under the native 
rule of Nectamebus I of the 30th 
dynasty. Nec.tanebus n was, how¬ 
ever, again defeated, and since then 
Egypt has never had a native ruler. 
On the fall of the Persian empire 
Egypt came under the dominion of 
Alexander the Great. (332 b.c.), 
and at his death passed under 
the dominion of his satrap Pto¬ 

The Ptolemies. 

There were fifteen Ptolemies in suc¬ 
cession, and six queens of the name 
of Cleopatra. For three hundred 
years they reigned, during which 
period history has more to record 
of their perpetual wars with Syria 
and their unedifying personal stories 
than of the interior condition of 
Egypt itself. Yet much fine build¬ 
ing Was done (temples at Philae, 
Edfu, Dendera, Korn Ombo), and 
Alexandria became the greatest 
centre of learning in the world. 

It was Ptolemy I (Soter) who 
undoubtedly founded the great 
“University” of Alexandria, and 
commenced that world-renowned 
Museum and Library which was 
the meeting-place of the greatest 
thinkers of the world. It was prob¬ 
ably under the direction of Ptolemy 
n (Philadelphus) that the Greek 
translation of the Law of Moses 
called the SeptUagint, was under¬ 
taken. The queen of Ptolemy n, 
called Arsinoe, is one of the remark¬ 
able queens of history. Many towns 
were named after her, and many 
monuments bearing her name and 
likeness have been found. Through¬ 
out this period we find the authority 
of the queens equalling that of their 
husbands. That there were long 
and protracted revolts of the 
Egyptians against the Ptolemaic 
rule is evident, but there was no 
concerted action between Upper and 
Low§r Egypt, and no outstanding 
character to lead them. The popu¬ 
lation was becoming more and more 
mixed, the Greeks naturally play¬ 
ing a large part in politics, and the 
Jews being a. large and powerful 
community. The growing power 
of Rome became ft menace to the 
dynasty, and on the death of the 
last of the Ptolemies, and the great 
queen Cleopatra, who had fatally 
coquetted with the Caesars, Egypt 
became a Roman province (30 B.c.). 

Roman Role. 

Augustus Csesar was then em¬ 
peror. .He appointed Cornelius 



Callus Prsefect of Egypt. Religious 
liberty ■was allowed to the natives, 
and the emperors continued the 
building of the temples, and had 
their names inscribed in hieroglyphs 
in cartouches (see p. 16). Evidence 
goes to show that Egypt was gradu¬ 
ally declining in importance, except 
as a corn-producing province, and 
the Egyptians becoming a decadent 
race. Under Claudius n (268 a.d.) 
they seemed to have helped Queen 
Zenobia of Palmyra to throw off 
the Roman yoke, and even after her 
defeat continued in rebellion. But 
the effort was of no strength or dura¬ 
tion. The old religion had died out, 
to he replaced by Christianity. 
Persecutions of Christians alter¬ 
nated with persecutions of the Jews, 
and Alexandria was frequently the 
scene of riot and bloodshed, the 
whole country becoming much im¬ 
poverished. Theological feuds 
occupied the bishops, and ecclesi¬ 
astical bitterness ran high, Alex¬ 
andria being a great centre of 
Christianity. It was in 415 a.d. 
that the Alexandrian mob, incited 
by the Patriarch Cyril, foully did to 
death the famous philosopher and 
teacher Hypatia. The year 619 saw 
the Persians again in Egypt, and 
forten years they were the dominant 
power. But the revolt of the Arab 
mercenaries gave Rome one more 
opportunity, which the Emperor 
Heraclius seized, and once more 
established his power. 

Mohammedan Rule. 

A new world-force, however, 
had just sprung into being in the 
form of that religion of the sword, 
Mohammedanism, and this force 
came into conflict with Rome. The 
Arabs, followers of the Prophet, who 
had been instrumental in driving 
out the Persians, began to make a 
stand on their own behalf, and the 
Saracen general Amru, continually 
reinforced from Arabia, gradually 
marched to the fortress of Babylon 
(see p. 72), which he made his centre, 
and whence in 641 he was able to 
dictate terms to the Romans, who 

then withdrew all their troops. 
Amru seems to have been a just and 
upright man, and under him Egypt 
prospered. But his master, the 
Khalif Omar, successor la Moham¬ 
med, was dissatisfied with him, and 
transferred him to the Delta.' Under 
a later Khalif he again became gover. 
uor of Egypt, and retained the posi. 
tion until his death at 90 years of age. 

Long ere this all traces of any 
descendants of the old Egyptian 
royal or noble families had dis¬ 
appeared. The remnants of the 
race—who had embraced Christi¬ 
anity—were called Copts. Under 
the Khalifs the Copts suffered 
periodic and cruel persecution, 
which further reduced their number. 
Between the years 640 and 1249 six 
successive Mohammedan dynasties 
dominated Egypt, the Omayyades, 
the Abbasides, Tulftnides, Fati- 
mides, Ayyubides, and the Mam- 
lflks. The Mamlfiks, who were the 
“white slave” bodyguard of the 
Khalif at Baghdad, had gradually 
been gaining power. Originally 
they were a picked set of handsome, 
well-educated men sent from Bok¬ 
hara to the Khalif. Ibn-Tulfin, 
who founded the Tulunide dynasty, 
was one of them. The founder of the 
Ayyubide dynasty was the famous 
Saleh el-din, orSaladin(1171), who, 
though perhaps the most fanatical, 
was the finest and noblest of the 
Saracen rulers. It was his troops 
that met the third crusade with 
Richard Coeur de Lion in Palestine, 
and drove the Christians from Jeru¬ 
salem. But his successors suc¬ 
cumbed in 1240 to the Mamlfiks, 
who from this time ruled Egypt 
independently of the Khalifs. But 
the succession was not hereditary, 
and the result was a series of hideous 
crimes in the struggle for power. 
The record of the Marnlfiks is one 
of a mixture of crime and cruelty, 
with an advance in learning and the 
fine arts perhaps unparalleled in his¬ 
tory. Egypt became again a wealthy 
commercial community, with a re¬ 
venue largely increased by the 
customs levied on trade between 



the East and Venice. A large 
number of the beautiful mosques 
in Cairo are due to these Mamlfik 
sultans, notably to Kalafin, Barkdk, 
Muayyad, Kait Bey, and El Ghfiri, 
The greatest neighbouring power in 
the 16th century was the Ottoman 
Empire, and its sultan, Selim I, 
flushed with victory over the Per¬ 
sians, desired to subjugate Egypt. 
After a three years’ brave struggle 
the Egyptians were finally beaten 
near Cairo (1517), and Selim took 
the citadel. From this time Egypt 
became a Turkish Pashalic, the 
provinces governed by 24 Mamlfik 
Beys, who paid tribute to the viceroy 
or pasha. 

Tubkish Bulb. 

In 1798-1801 Egypt became the 
scene of a conflict between French, 
English, and Turks. Napoleon 
Buonaparte had come to Egypt 
with a large army, taken Alex¬ 
andria, and defeated the Egyptians 
at the “Battle of the Pyramids.” 
His aim was to strike a blow at 
British power in, and trade with, 
the East. But Nelson, with the 
British fleet, routed the French 
navy at the ‘ ‘ Battle of the Nile ”; 
Great Britain formed an alliance 
with Turkey; and when Napoleon 
left, to attend to European affairs, 
his generals, after various successes, 
were finally obliged to come to 
terms with the combined English 
and Egyptian forces, and consent to 
evaBuate Egypt. After ineffectual 
efforts to restore order, the English 
left Egypt in 1803. 

Mohammed All, an Albanian, 
who had come to Egypt in com¬ 
mand of Albanian troops, became 
extremely popular with the army 
and a menace to Turkish power. 
He treacherously murdered the 
Mamlfiks, and utterly destroyed 
their power, conquered Syria, and 
destroyed the Turkish fleet, until 
Russia and France interfered to 
stay his power. He was forced to 
acknowledge the suzerainty of the 
Porte, but was granted a firman 
securing the governorship of Egypt 

to his heirs, subject to the payment 
of an annual tribute. 

His most notable successor (who 
was granted the title Khedive) was 
Ismail Pasha, whose efforts at self¬ 
aggrandisement, which frequently 
took the form of apparent benefits 
to the people, landed the country in 
a debt of over £100,000,000. The 
Powers interfered, and in 1879, by 
pressure on the Porte, secured his 
deposition. He was succeeded by 
his son Tewfik, a wise and moderate 
man. But his efforts to control the 
various factions in the ministry 
proved futile, and by 1882 his 
minister of war, Arfibi Bey, was in 
open rebellion against the European 
influences brought to bear upon 
the affairs of the country. English 
and French warships were off 
Alexandria; but the French re¬ 
fusing to join, the English pro¬ 
ceeded alone to extricate Tewfik 
from his difficulties. Having bom¬ 
barded the forts at Alexandria, a 
force landed and marched to Tel- 
el-Keblr, where, under Sir Garnet 
Wolseley, Arabi’s army was de¬ 
feated, and himself taken prisoner 
and deported to Ceylon, whence, 
however, he was allowed to return 
in 1901. After these events, prov¬ 
ing that the country was unable 
to govern itself, it was natural that 
England should dictate a policy to 
Egypt, and take every legitimate 
means to see it carried out. English 
officials were placed at the head of 
departments, and strenuous efforts 
were made to pull the finances 
straight. The Sfidfin was in revolt, 
and the expedition to relieve General 
Gordon having failed (1885), Egypt 
was not in a position financially to 
undertake the reconquest of the 
province. If a regrettable, it was 
nevertheless an absolutely neces¬ 
sary step to abandon the country, 
and set the frontier of Egypt at 
Wady Haifa. When, however, 
under English control, the rapid 
recuperation of Egypt was com¬ 
plete, and her finances on a firm 
basis, it was decided to send a com¬ 
bined Anglo-Egyptian force to free 

LIST OF CARTOUCHES, being seif of those most frequently seen on 
the Monuments. The dates g; i iiiefly those of Mr. Petrie. 

Dynast* xviii. 

Dynasty ^ 

Amen-em-hat I, Usertsen I, Usertsen II, Ami n-em-hat in, 

about 2778 B.c. about 2758 B.c. about 2684 B.c. about 2622 B.c. 

Guide to Palestine and Eoypt. 
To face page 149. 

Dynasty six. 

Seti i, 

about 1360 B.c. 

Dynasty xx. 

Amen-hetep III, Amen-hetep iv 

about 1460 B.c. (Khu-en-aten), 

about 1400 B.c. 

Dynasty xxiy. 

Dynasty xxvi. 

Psamtbek I 
664 B.c. 

Dtnasty xxxm. 

Ptolemy Euergetes, 
247 b.c. 




the SMan from the tyranny of the 
fanatical Khalifa,!who had succeeded 
the Mahdi, and whose followers had 
decimated the native population. 

This force under the Sirdar, Sir 
Herbert (now Lord) Kitchener 
gradually drove the Mahdists back 
from their advanced positions not 
far south of Wady Haifa, and on 
2nd September 1898 completely 
routed them at their headquarters 
at Omdurman, and entered Khar¬ 
tum. No time was lost in sending 
numbers of small forces in different 
southerly directions to complete 
the victory over the Dervishes, to 
restore order, and pacify the tribes. 
The Sirdar himself in a week's time 
left, with gunboats and troops, for 
Fashoda, disquieting reports having 
reached England of a French ex¬ 
pedition having arrived at that 
point. He found Major Marchand 
with a small force (about 180) 
established there, but attacked by 
Dervishes with two steamers. His 
arrival probably saved the force 
from annihilation. After much 
negotiation between the two Powers 
Major Marchand was instructed to 
withdraw. Fashoda is now called 
Kodok, its old name. 


No date is absolutely certain earlier 
than 1600 B.c. (see p. 9), therefore the 
early dates in this list are the roughest 


1st Dynasty. Tkinite circa 4000 

3rd Dynasty. Memphite . „ 3800 



4th Dynasty. Memphite . ,, 3500 




5th Dynasty. Elephantine „ 3300 

6th Dynasty. Memphite . „ 3200 


Pbpi I., Meri-ra. 


Pepi II., Nefer-ka-ra. 

11th Dynasty. Theban . „ 2600 




12th Dynasty. Theban . circa 2400 
Amenemhat I. 


Amenemhat II. 



Amenemhat III. 

Amenemhat IV. 

15th Dynasty. Hyksds . „ 1800 


17th Dynasty. Theban . „ 1650 


18th Dynasty. Theban— 

Aahmes . . . . „ 1575 

Amenhetep I.. 1560 

Thothmes I. . . . ,, 1545 

Thothmes II. 


Thothmes III., Men- 

Kheper-ra . . . 1515 

Amenhetep II. 

Thothmes IV. 

Amenhetep III. . . „ 1430 

Amenhetep IV., Khu en 

aten 1380 


19th Dynasty. Theban. 

Rameses I. . . „ 1330 

Sbti I., Maat-en-ra. 

Rameses II., User-maat- 
ra, setep-en-ra . . „ 1320 


Seti II. 

20th Dynasty. Theban. 

Rameses III. 

Rameses IV. 

21st Dynasty. Theban. 

Herhor . . . . „ 1075 


22nd Dynasty. Bubastite. 

ShashanQ I. (Shishak) . . 945 

Osorkon 1.923 

Takelet (Tiglath pileser) 

23rd Dynasty. Tanite. 


25th Dynasty. Ethiopian. 


Taharqa (Tirhakeh) . . 693 

26th Dynasty. Saite. 

Psamthek I. (Psamrmtichus). 666 
Nekau (Necho) . . . 610 

Psamkthek II.594 

Uah-ab-Ra (Pharaoh Hophra) 589 
27th Dynasty. Persian. 

Cambyses . . ■ .525 

Darius I. .... 521 

Xerxes . ... 485 

Darius II.424 

30th Dynasty. Sebennyte. 

Nectanebus I. ... 382 
Nectanebus II. 361 

Alexander the Great . .332 



The Ptolemies. b.c. 

Ptolemy 1st Soter . . 323 

„ 2nd Philadelphia . 285 

„ 3rd EUERGETES . 247 

„ 4th Philopator . 222 

„ 5th Epiphanes . . 205 

,, 6th Edpator . . 182 

„ 7th Philometor . 182 

,, 8th Philopator II. . 146 

„ 9th Euergbtes II., 

Physcon . . 146 

„ 10th Soter II., 

Lathyros . .117 

„ 11th Alexander I. . 106 

„ 12th Alexander II. . 81 

„ 13th Nfios Dionysos, 

Auletes . . 80 

„ 14th ani i Cleopatra 51 

„ 15th and Cleopatra 47 

„ 16tii and Cleopatra 45 

The Roman Emperors, who gov¬ 
erned by Prefects. 

Augustus . 



Tiberius . 


Caligula . 


Claudius . 


Nero . 




Domitian . 


Trajan . 


Hadrian . 


Antoninus Pius 


Marcus Aurelius . 




Septimius Severus . 




Alexander Severus 




Gallus . 


Valerian . 






Probus . 




Constantine . 






Valens . 


Theodosius I. . 


Arcadius . 


Theodosius II. 












Mohammedan Period. 



Othman . 





Marwan II. 




HarOn er-Rash?d . 

. 786 

MamOn . . , 

. 813 

Mutawekkil . 

. 847 


Ahmed ibn TulOn . 

. 868 


Muizz .... 

. 969 

El Aziz .... 

. 975 

El Hak!m .... 

. 996 


Saleh ed-Din (Saladin) . 

. 1169 

El Adil . . . ' . 

. 1200 


Bebars .... 

. 1260 

KalaOn .... 

. 1279 

El Ashraf KhalJl . 

. 1290 

Mohammed en-Nasir 

. 1293 

Sultan Hasan . 

. 1347 

BarkOk .... 

. 1382 

El Muayy&d . 

. 1412 

Bursbey .... 

. 1422 

Kait Bey .... 

. 1468 

El GhAri .... 

- 1501 

Turkish Buie. 

Selim .... 

. 1517 

Mohammed Ali 

. 1816 

Ibrah!m .... 

. 1848 

Abbas I. 

. 1849 

Sa!d , ... 

. 1854 


Ismail .... 

. 1863 

Tewfik .... 

. 1879 

Abbas II., Hilmi 

. 1892 

INHABIT ANTS.—(For the early 

inhabitants, see “ History.*’) The 
only descendants of the ancient 
people are the Copts, or Egyptian 
Christians, of whom there are only 
400,000 (see “Language”). The 
population of Egypt now (over 10 
millions) consists of Fellahin, form¬ 
ing about three-fourths of the 
whole; Bedawin, Copts, Nubians 
beyond Asw&n, Turks, Levantines, 
Armenians, Jews, and Europeans. 

The Fellah is an agriculturist by 
every instinct of his nature. He 
loves the soil, and it seems to under¬ 
stand him, for it repays him well for 
his toil. When there is work to be 
done on it, it must usually be done 
quickly ; and the Fellah knows, and 
will work long hours with all his 
strength. Perhaps no harder work¬ 
ing peasant is to be found. All 
day long, under a blazing sun, he 
will stand on the riyer-bank work-. 



ing the shadtif (see p. 99), his 
naked skin bronzing in the heat. 
Except when working the shad'df, 
he is better clad than he used to be, 
and looks altogether more prosper¬ 
ous. He is naturally spare, and of 
medium height. The women have 
a graceful gait, from the perpetual 
carrying of heavy weights on their 
heads. They age very quickly, and 
sometimes become very fat. They 
wear a long, loose, sleeved garment, 
of dark blue or black, open at the 
neck, and a long veil on their heads, 
not over their faces. Only the 
better class wear the face veil; but 
those who do not, tattoo three lines 
on the chin. The men wear full 
white cotton breeches, a blue cotton 
galaMya ,—like the women’s gar¬ 
ment,—and when cool, a coarse, 
brown, loose cloak called abba. A 
brown felt skull-cap completes his 
costume. The village shekh will 
wear a black cloak, a red fez with 
blue tassel and white turban, and 
red or yellow shoes. 

They live in most primitive 
fashion in villages of mud-brick 
houses, under sanitary conditions 
that would kill a European, and the 
infant mortality is very high. But 
conditions are steadily improving 
under the untiring efforts of Govern¬ 
ment. By religion the fellah is a 

The Egyptian of the town is a 
different type of Arab, and of more 
mixed descent. He is more in¬ 
dolent and independent, is better 
off and better dressed. He wears 
the tarbftsh, the red flat-topped 
fez, which is worn by all except the 
poorest—from Khedive to donkey- 
boy. He often wears socks as well 
as shoes, and his abba may be made 
of fine French cloth. Unfortu¬ 
nately, too often now he adopts 
semi-European attire ; and the sight 
of brown boots under, and a topcoat 
over a kaftdn or galablya is de¬ 
plorable. The women wear volu¬ 
minous black silk habaras or cloaks, 
entirely enveloping them, and the 
black face veil with a curious gold 
ornament. They delight in gay 

stockings and high-heeled shoes, 
with which they often wear anklets. 
It is rare for a man of this class to 
have more than one wife. But 
divorce is easy, 52,992 cases oc¬ 
curring in 1902, and this fact tends 
to undermine family life. Though 
the women are secluded, they have 
more liberty than the same class in 

The Copts may be fairly easily 
distinguished from their neighbours 
by their more classical features and 
fairer complexion, and by their 
darker clothes. Frequently in 
Cairo they wear European clothes. 
They are shrewd and clever, and 
more alert than the Arab. They 
may be found as clerks in govern¬ 
ment offices, plying the higher 
handicrafts, or in the professional 
classes, and a few are wealthy land- 
owners. The women are secluded, 
like their Mohammedan sisters. 

The word Copt has come from 
the Greek Aygujptos, through its 
Arabic corruption Kibt or Kubt. 
The Coptic Church, through the 
ignorance of the vast majority of 
its priests, has fallen into a very 
low state of spirituality, from which, 
in spite of the efforts of the few 
enlightened to reform it, it seems 
impossible to rescue it. The un¬ 
cared-for, sometimes filthy, condi¬ 
tion of the churches is a sign of the 
apathy of those in charge. Yet in 
early days there were no more 
strenuous Christians than the 

They suffered endless persecution 
from the Mohammedans, whom, in 
the first instance, they had almost 
welcomed to their country. For 
during the great controversy that 
divided the Church in the sixth 
century, the Egyptian Church had 
followed the doctrine of Eutyches 
and adopted the Monophysite 
“ heresy,” which led to such fierce 
and sanguinary struggles between 
the two factions that the Copts 
looked to outside interference for 
succour. It is owing to their con¬ 
tinual repression that they have left 
no great buildings. But probably 



we owe much of the lovely work in 
the mosques to their artists and 

The head of their Church is called 
Patriarch. He is chosen from 
among their number by the monks 
of the convent of St. Anthony in 
the eastern desert, and from the 
celibates of the order. The present 
patriarch is Cyril v. There are 
several monasteries in Egypt and 
the desert, where the rules obtain¬ 
ing are not so stringent as those of 
the Roman orders. 

The Coptic language takes the 
place of the Latin in the Roman 
Church. The services are very long 
and fatiguing, as the worshippers 
have to stand most of the time. A 
screen divides the women from the 
men, another the men from the 
Haikel, or part of the priests, and a 
third with curtains the Haikel from 
the altar ; the church, of basilica 
■ form, being thus transversely divided 
into four portions. 

The Coptic year dates from the 
“era of martyrs,” 284 a.d. Thus 
our 1905 is with them 1622. As 
they reckon by the solar year of 12 
months of 30 days, they add 5 inter¬ 
calary days at the end of every year 
except leap year, when they must 
add 6. Thus their New Year’s 
Day, the 1st of their 1st month, 
Tftt, does not always fall on the 
same date of our calendar. In 1904 
it fell upon the 11th September, in 
1903 upon the 12th. Their Christ¬ 
mas Day, about January 7th, 
coincides with that of the Greek, 
Russian, and Armenian Churches. 
The fasts ordained by the Church 
are long. The Lenten fast is 55 
days ; fast of the Nativity, 28 
days ; fast of the Virgin, 15 days 
preceding the Festival of the 
Assumption. Wednesday and Fri¬ 
day are also fast days. 

The Bedouin (from Arabic 
Bedawi), who retain their old 
manner of life, are rarely en¬ 
countered by the ordinary traveller. 
Of the seventy odd small tribes 
that used to wander about with 
their flocks and families, many have 

come and settled down upon the 
land among the fellahin, and hence 
have gradually lost the distinctive 
traits which characterised them as 
men of the desert. A few still 
wander from oasis to oasis, and are 
the chief means of communication 
between those outlying parts and 
the Nile valley. They are dis¬ 
tinguished by a greater freedom and 
independence of manner, and a 
harder physique, consequent on the 
more precarious life they lead. 
They have long abandoned their 
predatory habits. 

The European section of the 
community is constantly increasing, 
numbering in 1894,110,400, includ¬ 
ing the army of occupation. About 
60,000 of these are Greeks, the 
Italians coming next in order with 
18,700. Of criminals in Egypt the 
large majority are Greeks. There 
is no religious fanaticism, and the 
Egyptians are a peaceable people. 

RELIGION. — Ancient. — It is 
impossible to gather under one title 
the many systems of religion- that 
obtained in ancient Egypt. There 
is no great teacher whose name 
became associated with any form, 
as did that of the Buddha in India, 
or Mohammed in later times. But 
of no ancient nation are there vaster 
remains, having religion as their 
raison d’fStre, nor is it recorded of 
any people that they had a more 
profound belief in the ultimate 
immortal destiny of man. Much 
has been written on the subject by 
practical Egyptologists; but valuable 
though their work be, the real 
mysteries of the ancient books have 
not yet been unfolded to us—the 
key is not in their hands. 

There is not wanting in the litera¬ 
ture abundance of evidence of a 
lofty conception of the Supreme 
Power, which they called neter. 
This word, neter is used to express 
the same idea as the Hebrew El, 
and the Sanskrit Brahma of 
Hinduism. But ft was a common 
noun ; and while used to imply the 
“ Power behind all,”—a conception 



free from anthropomorphism,—it 
was likewise used of the various 
individuated forces under their 
symbolised forms. As with all re¬ 
ligious systems, so was it in Egypt: 
the highest conceptions of truth 
were beyond the grasp of the multi¬ 
tude ; and evidence goes to show 
that the symbols by which the 
priests sought to interpret the 
mysteries to them, became for them 
the actual neteriu , the “ powers’’ 
or “gods.” In India we have a 
parallel case, where the three aspects 
of Brahma,—Brahma, Shiva, and 
Vishnu,—and finally all the attri¬ 
butes, became personified and wor¬ 
shipped as separate deities. Only, 
in Egypt we have not so much 
direct evidence of the purer form of 
belief. The result in both cases 
was the same: a multiplicity of 
gods, a pantheon ; and in later 
decadent times a worship gross as 
that which now characterises the 
lowest forms of Hinduism, though, 
according to classical writers, the 
degradation in Egypt was greater 
than any that has yet been reached 
in India. 

The gods of the Egyptian mytho¬ 
logy, “representing the real or 
imaginary powers of the universe,” 
group themselves into triads and 
families. The triad which will be 
most constantly noticed by the 
tourist is that of Thebes, consisting 
of Amen-Ra , his wife MM, and 
their son Khensu. They are fre¬ 
quently represented on the walls of 
Theban temples. Of the families, 
the foundation myth will always be 
found to be solar. To quote Sir 
Peter Renouf and Prof. Max Muller : 
“ ‘ I look upon the sunrise and sun¬ 
set, on the daily return of day and 
night, on the battle between light 
and darkness, on the whole solar 
drama in all its details, that is acted 
every day, every month* every year 
in heaven and in earth, as the 
principal subject ’ of Egyptian 
mythology.” Hence we have in the 
family of Osiris his brother 
opponent Set, who overwhelms him 
just as the night swallows up day. 

The parents of Osiris, Seb and Niki, 
represent earth and sky; his sister 
Isis is the Dawn ; and his son by 
Isis is Horus , the midday sun. The 
wife of Set is Nephthys, who repre¬ 
sents sunset, her husband having 
his triumph in the west. The 
ethical aspect of the story is 
naturally the conflict between good 
and evil. 

Ra is the sun god, represented in 
Egypt not as driving a chariot, but 
in a boat sailing upon Nu, the 
celestial ocean, the “ father of the 
gods.” His children, Shu and 
Tefnut , represent the air and dew. 
He is opposed by Apepi, a monster 
serpent. On the walls of the royal 
tombs at Thebes the solar disk in 
a bark may be observed over and 
over again ; and likewise the serpent 
Apepi, usually represented with a 
knife stuck in each fold. Turn, or 
Atum, the setting sun ; Mentu, the 
war god; Bast , the useful heat of 
the sun ; and Sekhet, the fierce heat, 
were all solar gods. 

Different localities favoured dif¬ 
ferent gods, and religious zeal at 
times led the inhabitants of various 
districts into fierce quarrels over the 
worth and merits of their several 
deities. The priests at all times 
had great power, and the head 
priest of one of the great colleges 
was practically exempt from any 
authority. Such were those at 
Thebes, Mendes, Memphis, and 
Heliopolis. In connection with the 
temple service were numerous 
grades of priests and priestesses. 
Even the daily processions in the 
temple required the offices of num¬ 
bers of people, and the perpetually 
recurring festivals entailed a great 
amount of labour. The Pharaoh 
himself held priestly office, as did 
his wife and all the royal family. 

Nearly all the principal animals 
of Egypt were sacred to some god. 
The animal chosen as the symbol 
was one which had some character¬ 
istic suggesting the chief function 
or feature of the god. Hawks were 
natural emblems of solar deities, and 
as such many were kept in groves, 



and at death were mummified and 
buried. The cow was sacred to the 
goddess Hathor, the cat to Bast, 
the frog to Heqt. Sometimes the 
gods were represented with human 
bodies with the head of their sacred 
animal, and sometimes by the entire 
animal. Some few of the gods are 
always represented with the head 
of an animal. 

The following list contains the 
names of the principal gods and 
goddesses to be seen pictured on 
the monuments, with a description 
of the emblems or headdresses by 
which they may be identified. 
Without a knowledge of hieroglyphs 
it is not always possible to dis¬ 
tinguish between one and another, 
as the attributes are interchange¬ 
able, and because kings and queens 
are often represented with the attri¬ 
butes of gods, 

Aah. A moon god. Mummied 
human figure, on head new moon 
disk with full moon in it. 

Amen-Ra. Amen , “ the hidden 
one,” in conjunction with Ra, the 
Sun, chief god of Thebes. Standing 
human figure, with headdress of 
two very high upright feathers. 

Amsu or Min. Mummied figure, 
with one arm raised high behind his 
head, wearing the feathers of Amen. 
He represents the generative power 
of nature. 

Anpu or Anubis. Human figure 
with jackal head. The god of em¬ 
balming; hence is frequently de¬ 
leted bending over the mummy, 
on of Osiris and Nephthys. 

Apis, the sacred bull, never de¬ 
picted as human. It wears often a 
disk and feathers between the horns. 
The most striking example of “the 
triumph of the symbol over the 

Aten. The solar disk represented 
extending rays to earth, each ray 
ending in a hand, and some of the 
hands holding the symbol of life 
—the handled cross—to the Pharaoh 
and his queen. Rarely seen except 
at Tel-el-Amarna. (See p. 103.) 

Bast. A much-clothed female 
figure with cat’s head, holding the 

sacred sistrum in one hand. Wor¬ 
shipped chiefly at Bubastis. 

Bes. A hideous stunted male 
figure represented front face. He 
often carries some musical instru¬ 
ment, and wears a crown of feathers. 
Is somewhat of the nature of the 
Hindu Ganesh or the Greek 
Bacchus. (Seep. 113.) 

Hapi. The deified Nile. A 
hermaphrodite figure, with a bunch 
of lotus flowers on the head. 

Hathor. Goddess of beauty, 
love, and joy. Sometimes pictured 
as a cow, at others as a woman 
wearing cow’s horns with the solar 
disk between them, attributes fre¬ 
quently seen on other goddesses. 
(See ante.) 

Horus. Either represented as a 
boy or young man, with the side 
lock of hair; frequently also with 
the hawk’s head wearing the double 
crown. Often he has his finger to 
his lips, and sometimes is seated on 
a lotus. 

Isis. Always represented as a 
woman wearing the vulture head¬ 
dress, her distinctive symbol being 
a three-stepped throne (?) which 
surmounts her head. Often seen 
with her sister Nephthys, attending 
the mummy. Is called “ the great 

Khensu or Chonsu . Son of Amen- 
Ra and MM, is a lunar god, and is 
represented most frequently with 
the attributes of Aah (< q.v .). 

Kheper. His emblem, the scara- 
bseus, is either placed on his head 
or, in place of it, on the human body. 
In one sense he is the creator, and a 
type of the resurrection. 

Khnem or Khnum. A man’s 
figure with the head of a ram. 
Represented at Philae as making 
mankind of clay on a potter’s wheel. 

Maat. Goddess of truth and 
justice, law and order. Represented 
as a womrfn, with the feather of 
truth on her head, and sometimes 
a bandage over her eyes. 

MAt. The mother goddess, whose 
symbol is the vulture. She wears 
the vulture headdress, surmounted 
by the double crown. 



Nefer Tum. Sou of Ptah and 
Sekhet of the Memphite triad. A 
mummiform figure, with lotus flower 
bearing two feathers on his head. 

Neith. Goddess wearing crown 
of Lower Egypt, or else with a shuttle 
on her head, and carrying a bow 
and arrows. 

Nephthys. Sister to Isis (tf.u.). 
She has on her head a curious emblem 
combined of three hieroglyphs. 

Osiris. The god of the dead, 
represented mummiform, standing 
or seated, sometimes with a black 
or blue face. He wears the crown 
of Upper Egypt with two feathers, 
and carries in his hands the crook 
and flail. 

Pakht or Sekhet. A lioness¬ 
headed goddess bearing the solar 
disk on her head. It is possible 
that these are two separate 

Ptah, of Memphis, considered 
the oldest of the gods, is repre¬ 
sented mummiform, wearing a close- 
fitting cap on his head, and a 
curious kind of tassel hanging out 
of the back of his neck. See Nefer 

Ra. The sun god, creator of 
gods, men, and the world. Depicted 
as a hawk-headed human, with the 
sun disk and uraeus serpent on his 

Safekh. The goddess of learn¬ 
ing and writing. Is usually seen in 
the sacred tree, holding in one hand 
a style, and in the other a palette 
and pot. On her head is a palm 
leaf surmounted by inverted horns. 

Sebek. A god with a crocodile 
head, wearing an elaborate crown 
composed of horns, disk, uraei, and 
feathers. Sometimes depicted as a 
complete crocodile. He represented 
some form of evil as opposed to 

Thoth. One of the most import¬ 
ant gods. Is represented invariably 
with human figure and head of Ibis, 
surmounted by the crescent and 
disk, holding in one hand a palette 
and colour pot, and in the other a 
style. As a lunar god he was the 
“measurer’’ and patron of all the 

exact arts. He wrote the sacred 
books, and had a knowledge of 
magic. The Greeks identified him 
with their Hermes. 

The most important Sacred Book 
of the Ancient Egyptians is called 
the “ Book of the Dead,” which 
title is not a translation of its 
hieroglyphic name, Pert em hru , of 
which we may perhaps accept the 
rendering, “Coming forth by day.” 
Some of the 200 chapters are very 
ancient, and no one copy contains 
all the chapters. Its interpretation 
is extremely difficult. Many pas¬ 
sages which have been translated 
with certainty are very fine, com¬ 
parable with the sayings of the 
mystics of other religions. But the 
greater part is obscure. We are 
able, however, to learn from it a 
little of that elaborate scheme of 
psychology which forms ‘the most 
interesting feature in the study of 
their religion, though not sufficient 
to enable its to reduce it to a 

The human entity was conceived 
as consisting of about seven different 
parts, of which the actual body was 
one, and upon the preservation of 
which, in some occult way, de¬ 
pended the ultimate reunion of the 
disintegrated members. It was for 
this reason that such great care was 
taken to preserve it from corruption 
that they took such pains to hide 
it away in tombs and pyramid 
chambers, which they tried to make 
inaccessible after the body was 

Mohammedanism. —The Khedive 
-and the majority of his subjects are 
Mohammedans. The religion of the 
Prophet Mohammed is sometimes 
called Islamism, from Islam, the 
name given to the doctrine, from 
which also comes the term Moslem 
or Muslim for its followers. It was 
towards the end of the 6th century 
a.d. that Mohammed, a scion of the 
Koreish tribe in Arabia, began to 
promulgate his doctrine, and to 
fight against the corrupt forms of 
religion that existed in that country. 
His creed was summed up in the 



words, “There is no God but God 
(Allah), and Mohammed is His pro¬ 
phet. ” The whole belief is set forth 
in the Koran, the book whose chap¬ 
ters were gradually “revealed” to 
the prophet during a period of 
twenty-three years. His doctrine 
met with great opposition, especially 
from his own tribe, and he took up 
the sword in its defence, so com¬ 
mencing that long period of warfare 
which carried the Mohammedan 
religion to Spain in the west and 
India in the east (see History). 
The Mohammedan faith consists, 
roughly speaking, of six articles: 
belief in God ; in His angels; in 
His scriptures; in His prophets; in 
the resurrection, day of judgment, 
and eternal life; and predestination. 
The four practices required are 
prayer, alms, fasting, and the pil¬ 
grimage lo Mecca. The great fast 
is during the month Ramadan, 
which begins every year on a 
different date of our calendar, the 
Mohammedan year being lunar. At 
the end of the fast the great feast 
of Bairam takes place. 

The Mohammedan era dates from 
16th July 622 A.D., the date of the 
prophet’s flight from Mecca to 
Medina. Therefore their year 1322 
began on 18th March 1904. They 
consider Friday the holiest day of 
the week, and keep the morning of 
it as the Christians do their Sunday. 
At the Bairam festival the Khedive 
receives his principal officials, and 
there is a general giving of presents, 
as at our Christmas season. Shortly 
after this the Pilgrimage to Mecca 
leaves Cairo, taking with it the holy 
carpet, which has previously been 
carried in procession through the 
streets of Cairo. 

Polygamy is allowed by the law 
of the Koran, but is not frequently 
practised. Unfortunately the law 
makes divorce particularly easy. 
In the year 1903, while there were 
176,474 Moslem marriages regis¬ 
tered, there were 52,992 cases of 
divorce. The position of women 
under Egyptian Mohammedanism 
is deplorable, and is responsible to 

a large extent for the unprogressive 
state of society. 

The Coptic Church.—S ee page 


Egyptians were the builders of 
antiquity, a fact owing possibly to 
the fine material—limestone, sand¬ 
stone, and granite—found in the 
Nile Valley, and the easy means 
of transport afforded by the river. 
The earliest period of art, that gave 
us such statues as those of Khafra 
and the Cross-legged Scribe in the 
Louvre, and the figures of Ra-hetep 
and Nefert in the Cairo Museum, 
shows the finest portrait sculpture ; 
but it is to the 18th and 19th 
dynasties we owe the magnificent 
temples of Thebes. The designs 
for decoration were chiefly taken 
from the lotus, papyrus, and other 
reed plants. That they were able 
to work so successfully in such 
hard materials as granite and diorite 
shows the perfection of their tools. 
Mr. Petrie has proved that they 
used diamond drills and jewelled 

It will be noticed that the re¬ 
mains of architecture are of temples 
and tombs, there being little worth 
mentioning of palace or house ruins. 
For, as Herodotus tells us, these 
people called their houses hostels, 
and their tombs eternal dwelling- 
places. This was because of their 
belief in a somewhat material future 
life, in which some of the seven parts 
of which man was composed re¬ 
turned to earth and required a 
house. The Tomb consists invari¬ 
ably of a chapel of some sort, and a 
hidden chamber for the sarcophagus 
and mummy; for the destruction 
of the mummy might mean incom¬ 
pleteness of eternal being. In the 
case of the Pyramids, the chapels 
took the form of separate buildings. 
In the mastabas or early tombs, 
and rock-cut tombs, the secret 
chamber was at the bottom of a 
vertical well, somewhere in the 
floor of one of the chambers of the 
tomb chapel. When the mummy 



was deposited, this well was filled cenic work, which is one of the 
up with rubble, and the entrance chief charms of Cairo, was intro- 
concealed. duced from the outside world. 

The main plan of all Egyptian The Mosques of Cairo represent 
Temples is the same, but no one is some of the best Saracenic archi- 
left perfect in all its details. There tecture in the world. Unfortunately 
was first a brick wall surrounding they were not built to stand the 
all the temple precincts. A huge wear of time, and several are in a 
gateway, called a pylon, gave access sadly ruinous condition, the elabor- 
to the enclosure. The pylon was a ate stucco work falling away and 
very massive structure, with sloping leaving the lath and plaster visible, 
faces and overhanging cornice, in Their distinguishing features are 
which were cut vertical grooves to the horse-shoe arch,—pointed or 
hold great wooden masts, which round,—the pointed domes, and 
carried coloured streamers. The graceful minarets. The decoration 
plain face of the pylon was covered is frequently in stucco. The intri- 
with sculptured pictures and in- cate interlacing geometrical patterns 
scriptions, and obelisks and colossal that are the most frequent form of 
statues were placed in front, design took their name “arabesque” 
Through the pylon was entered an from the Arab builders. Domes of 
avenue (dromos) of sphinxes, which mosques and tombs are covered with 
often had rams’ heads. The temple arabesque ornament, which appears 
proper consisted of columned halls also on the beautiful silver inlaid 
and chambers, roofed in with slabs bronze doors of the mosques. The 
of stone, and lighted by means of kibla, the sacred niche facing to- 
clerestory gratings, or small shafts wards Mecca, is usually exquisitely 
in the roofing slabs. The halls, as ornamented with various marbles 
the inner sanctuary was approached, and precious materials. The inam- 
became smaller and darker, the floor ba/r or pulpit is likewise richly 
rising and the roof becoming lower, decorated. Frieze designs often 
The whole surface of walls and take the form of elaborated Kvjic 
pillars, architraves and ceiling, was or Arabic inscriptions. The liwdns 
sculptured and painted, sometimes are the raised portions of the mos- 
by incision only, sometimes in re- que floor, the chief liwdn being on 
lief, and sometimes in sunk relief, the east and having more rows of 
The arch was not used, therefore columns than the others. In the 
pillars were always very closely set, first court of the mosque there is 
the architraves being monoliths, invariably a fountain of some de- 
The pillars themselves were not scription, for a Mohammedan must 
often monolithic, but were built always perform some manner of 
like the walls, and sometimes were ablution before he prays. . 
not even stone throughout, being The society for preserving and 
filled with cement in the centre. restoring works of Arab art has 
In the Ptolemaic period elabora- done a great deal of good work, 
tion of detail was the great feature and mosques which were gradually 
of the decoration. After that period falling into decay have been repaired 
the old Egyptian art gradually and restored to some measure ot 
disappeared. When the country their former glory, 
became Christian, it was in too 

disturbed a state for a long period Every winter season a number ot 
for art to make any advance, and archeologists of different nation- 
it was not until the Mohammedans alities are occupied in examining 
had permanently conquered the and excavating the ancient sites in 
land that any revival occurred. Egypt. It is by the hard work of 
But it was not in the true sense of these earnest professors and students 

the word a revival, for the Sara- that so much of the ancient history 



has been recovered, and so many 
interesting sites identified. Permis¬ 
sion to excavate has to be obtained 
from the Antiquities Department at 
the Cairo Museum. This depart¬ 
ment itself does a great deal of work 
up and down the Nile, mostly of a 
preservative character. It has re¬ 
erected some of the pillars at Karnak 
(a work still in progress) and cleared 
out the central hall. It has pulled 
down and rebuilt the west wall of 
the temple of Edfu ; discovered the 
tomb of Thothmes rv ; cleared part 
of the Rameseum at Thebes; and 
done much work round the pyramid 
of Unas in the last few years. 

The Egyptian Government has 
spent £22,000 on strengthening the 
foundations of the temple of Pliilse, 
to enable it to stand the encroach¬ 
ments of the flood-water, which 
almost entirely submerges the island 
since the construction of the new 

It will give the tourist some idea 
of the work done in one season alone 
if we quote the Athenceum’s report 
of Prof. Sayce’s account of the ex¬ 
amination and excavation of sites in 

“AtGizeh Prof. Reisner has laid 
bare many mastabas and other 
tombs of the 4th dynasty, has 
discovered a number of statues, and 
found indications of graves of a still 
earlier period. He has also dis¬ 
covered a brick tomb containing a 
stele with the name of Khufu , 
which is built with arches of the 
true kind. Had it been found 
above-ground, without any indica¬ 
tions of date, it would have been 
assigned without hesitation to the 
Roman period. At Abusir Dr. 
Borchart has continued his work 
among the 5th-dynasty tombs. 
The excavations conducted by Prof. 
Petrie at Ahnas were disappointing, 
no cemetery having been found, and 
the temple turning out to be not 
older than the 12th dynasty. An 
examination of the site of Buto was 
equally disappointing, everything 
there of an early date having been 
plundered and destroyed in the 

Homan period. At Gharak, in the 
Fayfim, however, Mr. Loat dis¬ 
covered a temple of the time of 
Thothmes iti in a fair state of pre¬ 
servation, and containing many 
stelae. At Behnesa (Oxyrhynchus) 
Dr. Grenfell and Dr. Hunt have 
once more gleaned a considerable 
harvest of papyrus fragments, many 
of them of a theological character. 
At Bawit M. C14d&t has made copies 
of interesting Coptic frescoes of 
the 7th century. Mr. Garstang’s 
excavations at Beni-Hasan have 
brought to light many more well- 
furnished tombs of the 11th 
and 12th dynasties, and in the 
tomb of Menes at Negada, where 
he has completed M. de Morgan’s 
work, he found the missing portion 
of the famous ivory tablet, as well 
as several other objects of great 
interest, including a very fine 
(broken) vase of obsidian (the 
obsidian being from Melos). At 
Karnak M. Legrain has discovered 
a cache containing nearly 300 statues 
of all periods, from the time of the 
12th dynasty to the Roman era. 
Among them is a portrait of 
Usertsen in with Hyksos features. 
Dr. Mond has continued his useful 
work of clearing out the tombs on 
the west bank at Thebes. Prof. 
Schiaparelli has discovered the tomb 
of Nefertari, wife of Raineses Jl, 
with well-preserved inscriptions, in 
the valley of the Tombs of the 
Queens. Mr. Howard Carter lias 
succeeded in penetrating to the 
burial-chamber of the tomb of 
Hatshepsu, which proves to be also 
that of Thothmes I. He is getting 
on well with his work of clearing 
out the extensive granaries of the 
Rameseum. At El-Kab Mr. Somers 
Clarke and Prof. Sayce have brought 
to an end the excavations which 
have now extended over eleven 
years, settling the earlier history of 
the place and of its great walls, and 
discovering a tomb of the 12th 
dynasty in the hill to the north of 
the old town. They sank pits below 
the foundations of the temple and 
city, and found nothing earlier than 



the first dynasty. Prof. Sayce has 
also superintended excavations at 
Elephantine, for the Cairo Museum, 
which have resulted in the discovery 
of papyri and various small objects.” 

language of the old Egyptians pre¬ 
served for us in the hieroglyphs has 
not been recovered without immense 
labour, for even in classical times 
the key was completely lost. It 
was not until the discovery of the 
Rosetta stone in 1799 that any 
advance was made in the study. 
This stone, now in the British 
Museum, is sculptured with an in¬ 
scription in three characters, that 
in hieroglyphs at the top being 
repeated beneath in Greek, and 
again in Demotic. By comparison 
of the three texts, Champollion, the 
great French Egyptologist, was in 
time able to lay the foundations of 
all future work on the subject. The 
great difficulty lay, not in recover¬ 
ing the alphabet, but in determining 
the value of all the other signs, 
amounting to over 3000. Many had 
syllabic values, and these were 
gradually classified; but for many 
years the other signs continued to 
puzzle savans , and prevented the 
proper translation of inscriptions. 
It was finally discovered that their 
function was one then unknown in 
other languages. They were deter¬ 
minatives , that is to say, that they 
were placed at the end of the spelt- 
out word to determine its meaning. 
Thus the word cat would have the 
picture of a cat after the written 
word as a specific determinative , or 
a representation of a hide as a generic 
determinative. This discovery did 
not, however, entirely end the con¬ 
fusion ; for every sign, it was found, 
had a syllabic value, and so many 
of the determinatives came to be 
used in other words merely as 

The inscriptions are written from 
right to left, or from left to right, 
or in columns, commencing from 
the end towards which the animal 
and human figures are looking. The 

long ovals so often seen on the 
monuments are called cartouches ; 
they contain the names of royal 
persons. The cursive form of the 
hieroglyphic system is called hier¬ 
atic. It was written with a reed 
pen or brush. Most of the papyri 
are written in this script, and 
occasionally it is found on coffins. 
From it came the Demotic, the 
writing used in late times, which 
has very little resemblance to the 
hieroglyphs whence it was derived. 

The language thus gradually re¬ 
covered from the inscriptions is as 
obscure in its origin as the hiero¬ 
glyphs themselves. It cannot be 
assigned a definite place in the 
families of language. It has re¬ 
semblances in some points to the 
Semitic languages, and in others 
with the East and North African 

Modern.— The present-day lan¬ 
guage of Egypt is Arabic. The 
older form of character in which 
the Arabic language was written is 
called Kufic. Inscriptions in this 
character were frequently used as 
architectural ornamentation. 

Many of the shopkeepers, hotel 
servants, and donkey-boys have a 
smattering of English, but the 
carriage-drivers rarely know a word. 
The Egyptian Arabic is very dif¬ 
ferent from the classical Arabic, 
and differs considerably from the 
dialects spoken in Syria and Algeria. 

The particle “el,” the in Arabic, 
changes the pronunciation of the 
final consonant before the conson¬ 
ants t, g, d, j, dh, r, z, s, sh, 1. 
Hence in phonetic transliteration 
we constantly find such phrases as 
“en Nil,” “esh Sherkess,” as they 
are pronounced, instead of the more 
correct “el Nil,” “el Sherkess.” 

A few useful Arabic words and 

(The transliteration is purely phonetic, 
the circumflex denotes the accentuated 

Again. kamdn 

Antiquities .... antikas 
Bring me .... gibli 





Come Back .... 
Come here .... 


Enough . 

Go away! . . . . 

Go on. 

Good ...... 

Good-day .... 

Heavens! . . . . 

Hold it. 

How much is it ? . . 
Hot water .... 
I don’t want . . • 
Lengthen the stirrup 
Make haste .... 


Never mind . . . 


Not good .... 


Show me .... 
Shorten the stirrup . 


There is not . . . 

To the left .... 
To the right . . . 
Take care! . . . . 
To-morrow .... 
Very nice .... 
Wait here .... 
What is it called . . 




taala Mnna 



imshi. ruh 



naharak said 
ya saldm ! 

be kam deh ? 
moiya sukhna 
mush awz 
tawwil er-rikab 



mush tayyib 

el bosta 


qassar er-rikab 





oh-a ! 


kuweyis khdlas 
istanna Mnna 
esmit eh 

Coptic is practically a dead lan¬ 
guage, though it is used in a part 
of the church service. It is the 
direct descendant of the ancient 
Egyptian. It is written in the 
Greek character, supplemented by 
five or six characters borrowed from 
the Demotic. 


the charms of a Nile voyage, 
especially in a dahabiya, is the sight 
of sa many birds. Eagles, vultures, 
kites, hawks, owls, plovers, the beau¬ 
tiful hoopoe with its bright crest and 
plumage, the black and white king¬ 
fisher, and the brilliant green and 
gold bee-eater, are constantly met 
with. Of aquatic birds there are 
the pelican, stork, crane, heron, 
and many waders; the snowy paddy- 
bird, and geese, duck, and teal. 
For sportsmen on land there are 
sand-grouse, quail, snipe, and part¬ 
ridge. The flamingo is found in the 
Delta. Of wild animals there are 

few. Wild boar (Delta), hyaena, 
gazelle, jackal, fox, fennec fox, are 
th e chief ones. Crocodiles are never 
seen below the second cataract, the 
immense increase of traffic on the 
Nile having driven them south. 
There are many fish in the river, 
but they are uneatable. The only 
dangerous creatures are the cerastes 
(or horned viper) and the scorpion, 
but it is extremely rare to hear of 
the ordinary traveller being bitten 
by either. Fleas, flies, and mos¬ 
quitoes abound. 

Flora. —Every inch of cultivated 
land is so valuable that the traveller 
must not expect to see wild flowers 
after leaving the Delta. But in 
March, if an excursion is made from 
Alexandria to Lake Mareotis, there 
will be found gorgeous displays of 
yellow daisies, poppies, asphodels, 
irises, and, chief of all, very large 
ranunculuses of different colours, as 
large as tulips. The palm, the d&m 
palm, lebbekh, sycamore fig, sont 
tree (acacia), orange, lemon, pome¬ 
granate, mulberry, and olive trees 
grow in Egypt, but up the river 
little is seen but the two kinds 
of palms and the sont tree. Crops 
are principally grains, vegetables, 
and sugar-cane (see pp. 98, 110). 
Rice is only grown in the Delta. 
Cotton is a valuable crop (see p. 27). 

IRRIGATION.—Owing to thevast 
engineering schemes for “binding 
the Nile” and forcing it to do all 
the good of which it is capable, it 
may almost be said that “not a 
drop reaches the sea without having 
done duty.” 1 The training of the 
river has in all ages been recognised 
as of immense importance to the 
prosperity of the country. It is re¬ 
corded of Mena—the first king on 
the horizon of history—that he built 
a great wall to regulate the flow of 
the river by his city of Memphis, 
and about 2500 years B.C. vast 
irrigation schemes were undertaken 
by Amenemhat ill, who made a 
great reservoir in the Fayfim. So 

1 The Binding of the Nile, The 
Hon, Sidney Peel. 



to-day the subject that almost 
chiefly occupies those who are re¬ 
sponsible for the government of the 
country is its water supply. Details 
of the three greatest undertakings 
that have so far been carried out— 
the Delta Barrage, the Asyut 
Barrage, and the Aswan Reservoir— 
will be found under these headings. 
They are among the greatest engin¬ 
eering works the world has seen. 

The water thus impounded and 
regulated is utilised in two ways 
—by means of Basin irrigation 
or for Perennial irrigation. The 
banks of the river are higher than the 
ground beyond them, forming strips 
of land called berms , which are not 
overflowed, but are irrigated by 
canals and the old shaMf (see p. 99). 
The land between the berms and the 
desert is divided by transverse em¬ 
bankments into “basins,” varying 
from 5000 to 15,000 acres in extent. 
The basins are in systems, fed by 
canals of varying importance. Some¬ 
times they are quite short, simply 
cutting through the berm and doing 
duty only for two or three basins ; 
sometimes important ones, like the 
Suhag and Ibrahimiya canals, which 
are also used for perennial irrigation. 
The water is allowed to remain in 
the basins for forty days, when it is 
again sent into the river. The em¬ 
bankments, or dykes, form the road¬ 
ways during flood-time, as well as 
a refuge for the villagers, whose mud- 
brick houses have melted down be¬ 
fore the water. The Fellah, having 
nothing else to do, is set to watch 
the banks and to report at the 
slightest sign of breaching. He has 
retained his wooden door, the only 
relic of his house, and he and his 
family, with their animals, have en¬ 
camped in the open. The basin 
system is as old as the history of 
the inhabited country itself. It is 
simple and fairly easily managed. 

Perennial irrigation on a large 
scale became a necessity with the 
introduction of sugar and cotton 
into the country. The berms hacf 
practically always been irrigated 
in this way, and neve* brought 

under flood. But this was more 
by necessity than intention. No 
attempt had been made to prevent 
any land the flood could reach from 
being sometimes under water, a 
condition fatal to sugar and cotton 
crops. Mohammed Ali nevertheless 
determined that he would grow 
cotton and sugar,—these being more 
lucrative crops than rice and clover, 
—and accordingly called out the 
corvSe, to deepen existing canals, 
dig new ones, and to strengthen 
embankments. The work was badly 
done, the silting up of canals caused 
endless labour in redigging, the 
channels, and there was no sufficient 
system for carrying off the water. 
But it was the inauguration of a 
new period of prosperity for Egyp¬ 
tian agriculture, and the latest pro¬ 
posals from the chief of the Irriga¬ 
tion Department is for the gradual 
substitution of perennial for basin 
irrigation throughout Egypt. Much 
of the land is already under this 
system, the great Ibrahimiya Canal, 
dug by order of Ismail Pasha, supply¬ 
ing water perennially to parts of 
the provinces of Asyfit, Minia, and 
Beni-Suef, and enabling two, three, 
and even four crops of various kinds 
to be taken off the land in one 
season. The system ha3 its dis¬ 
advantages. The land gets im¬ 
poverished from want of the fertilis¬ 
ing deposit left by flood-water, and 
manuring has to be resorted to ; and 
while the profits may be greater, the 
labour and anxiety of the cultivator 
has equally increased. 

In a remarkable Blue Book of 
August 9, 1904, Lord Cromer en¬ 
closes a report from Sir W. Garstin 
on the Upper Nile basin, including 
one on Lake Tsana—the source of 
the Blue Nile—and the' rivers of the 
eastern Sftdan, by Mr. Dupuis, in 
which Sir W. Garstin proposes the 
carrying out of enormous projects 
for controlling the rivers, in order 
to secure a greater certainty in the 
supply for Egypt, and to irrigate 
fertile tracts in the Sfidan. The 
schemes which concern Egypt 
proper are: (a) the controlling of the 



Bahr el Gebel; the chief source of 
the White Nile; (6) the raising of 
the Asw&n dam; and (c) the improve¬ 
ment of the Rosetta and Damietta 
branches of the Nile, that they may 
form an efficient flood escape. 

At present the Bahr el Gebel loses 
its effectiveness by perpetual spills 
on the east, forming immense tracts 
of swampy waste-lands, and farther 
north, where it meets the Bahr el 
Ghazal in Lake No, which itself is 
little more than a vast swamp. At 
this junction the river makes a 
sharp turn and flows for about fifty 
miles, due east. Sir W. Garstin 
proposes that if on examination the 
levels on the tract of country lying 
east of the Bahr el Gebel, and in 
the angle thus formed, should not 
prove an insurmountable difficulty, 
a canal should be cut running due 
north and south, taking off from 
the river at Bor and rejoining it 
near the mouth of the Sobat. This 
canal, controlled at its southern 

end, would give a clear channel for 
the water, avoiding the entire 
swamp district. The distance is 
about 250 miles. The district has 
now been properly explored; and 
from the information available, it 
seems that there is no great differ¬ 
ence in level between the two points. 
Government having consented to the 
formation of a permanent irrigation 
service in the Sudan, a small staff, 
under two of Egypt’s foremost irri¬ 
gation officers, has now its head¬ 
quarters at Khartum, whence the 
work of surveying all the river 
valleys is carried on. (For further 
irrigation schemes in SCidan, see 
p. 164.) 

The raising of the dam at Aswan, 
the remodelling of the Rosetta 
branch of the Nile, and the new 
system of canals for converting the 
lands of Middle Egypt from basin 
to perennial irrigation, a scheme 
which is gradually going forward, 
are estimated to cost £2,400,000. 




Ajribahic£ v '' <9 * 

£ ^ 

© / ConyattoT^f^ tj> 

/ J SrMacoTtt ' - 

; ^ _ -< 

Scale; 1:1,362.240 . 

” “ j* ENGLISH flULES ' 

■ _ W _KlLOfflETRES. 

Railways , shewn, thus 

London: Macmillan & Co.Jj^d 

Stnnforcl's Geog 1 Estab* London 





1. Alexandria— 

Arrival by Steamer.31 

Ancient Alexandria.31 

Modem Alexandria.33 


The Museum.35 

The Harbour and “ Mahroussa ”.36 

2. The Environs of Alexandria— 

Excursion I. To Ramleh and San Stefano ... 36 

,, II. To Mex and Adjmi.37 

„ III. To Abukir.37 

„ IV. To IJosetta.37 

,, V. To Lake Mareotis.37 

3. Alexandria to Cairo.38 

4. The Suez Canal— 

From Port Said to Ismatliya and Suez by the Canal . 41 

Port Said to Ismailiya and Cairo by Rail.... 43 

5. Cairo— 

Description of Cairo.48 

Centres of Interest.49 

The Bazaars.50 

The Citadel and the Sultan Hasan Mosque ... 51 

Tombs of the Mamlftks.53 

The Mosques.53 

The Gates.56 

The Egyptian Museum.57 

Coptic Churches ......*. 66 

The Arab Museum. 67 

The Khedivial Library.69 

The Tombs of the Khalifs ...... 70 

Old Cairo.71 

Drive to Shubra.73 

6. Excursions in the Environs of Cairo— 

I. The Zoological Gardens.74 

II. To Matariya, Heliopolis, and Ostrich Farm . , 74 

III. To Helwan, Tvtra, and Masara Quarries . . . 75 

IV. To the Delta Barrage.76 

V. To the Petrified Forest.77 

7. The Pyramid Field— 

Brief Account of the Pyramids.78 

The Gizeh Pyramids and Sphinx.79 

The Pyramids and Tombs of Sakkara .... 85 

The Pyramids of Dahshfir.90 

8. The FayOm and Oases— 

Cairo to Medina.91 

Excursions from Medina.92 

The Oases.93 






Arrival by Steamer 


. 31 

Ancient Alexandria 

. 31 

Modern Alexandria 

. 33 

Drives . 

. 33 

The Museum 

. 35 

The Harbour and ‘ 



. 36 

Hotels.— See “ Hotel List.” 

Banks. — Bank of Egypt, Rue 
Thewfik Pasha. Anglo-Egyptian 
Bank , Rue Cherif Pasha. Credit 
Lyonnais , same street. Imperial 
Ottoman Bank , PI. Moh. Ali. 
National Bank of Egypt, Rue Stam- 

Consulates. — English — In the 
Rue de l’Hopital, a new building 
erected by the British Government 
in 1903, containing consulate and 
residence for consul-general; consul- 
general, Mr. Gould. American — 
St. Mark’s Buildings, PI. Moll. Ali; 
consular agent, Mr. JnnwfrHowofr r 

Post Office. —Closed like all shops 
, for two hours at noon ; opposite 
the German Church; 7 a.m. to 
7.30 p.m. It is wiser not to post 
letters in boxes in small streets. 

Telegraph Office. —For messages 
to Europe, The Eastern Telegraph 
Co., Rue du T414graphe; The 
Egyptian Government Telegraph, 
Rue Thewfik. Messages to all parts 
of Egypt. For Tariffs, see “Pre¬ 
liminary Information.” 


Carriages. — Short course in 
town, one horse, no luggage, P.T. 
2-3; with two horses, P.T. 3-4. 
By the-hour in town, one horse, 
P.T. 6; two horses, P.T. 8. By 
the hour, outside town, one horse, 
P.T. 8 ; two horses, P.T. 10. From 
station to quay, one horse, P. T. 4. 

Tramways. —There is a network 
of tramways on the Belgian system, 
with excellent 1st and 2nd class 
cars. Fare within the fortifications, 
P.T. 1, 1st class. One runs every 
15 minutes from the Ramleh rail¬ 
way terminus to the Shefakhanak 
at Mex (see p. 37), P.T. 2, 1st class. 
One runs also from the Marina 
landing-stage to the Rosetta Gate, 
P.T. 1, 1st class. 

Churches. — English —St. Mark’s, 
PI. Moh. Ali; Rev. J. A. Ward; 
Sundays, 11 a.m., 6 p.m. Presby¬ 
terian —Not far from St. Mark’s; 
Rev. W. Cowan ; Sundays, 11 a.m., 
6 p.m. St. George's Garrison Chapel, 
at Mnstapha Barracks; 11 a.m. 
French and German Protestant 

Shops. — Chemists —German Dis¬ 
pensary (Ruelberg), Rue de la 
Course ; Otto Huber, next to Khe- 
divial HStel. General Outfitters — - 
Chalons, and Davies Bryan, in the 
Rue Oht'-rif Pasha; Camoin, Rue 
Sesostris. Provision Merchant — 
Borman, Rue Cherif Pasha. 

Railways. — Bab el-Guedid Sta¬ 
tion, for Cairo and all parts except 
Ramleh. Ramleh Station, at the 
end of Boulevard de Ramleh. 

Section 1 



Doctors and Dentists. — Dr. 
Morison, RueThewfik; Dr. Legrand, 
B. de Ramleh; Dr. Webb-Jones, 
7 Rosetta Gate St. ; Miss Sheldon 
Amos; Dr. Kornfeld, Rue Ch6rif 
Pasha. Dentists— Dr. Love ; Shell- 
ard (American), Rue Nebi Daniel; 
Dr. Keller ; Mme. E. Stein. 

Steamers, see preliminary in¬ 
formation. Messageries Maritimes, 
office, Boulevard de Ramleh; 
Austrian Lloyd , office, Rue Adib ; 
and Khedivial Mail Line , office, 
Rue de la Bourse ; to Syria, Greece, 
Constantinople, and Cyprus. Tak¬ 
ing about 1 day to Jaffa, 2 days to 
the Piraeus (for Athens), and 4 days 
to Constantinople. 

Amusements.— Khedivial Sport¬ 
ing Club at Ibramyeh; Khedivial 
Yacht Club (see p. 35); Casinos at 
San Stefano and at Hex; Zizinia 

Arrival by Steamer. 

The coast of Egypt being very 
low, Alexandria is not seen until 
the steamer is within a very few 
miles of it. As the steamer ap¬ 
proaches, the forts of Adjmi and 
Marabout are seen, and when it 
gets within the large breakwater it 
passes on the right some low hills 
with forts and windmills. One of 
the first points that comes into view 
is Porapey’s Pillar, which stands 
on rising ground. The fort on the 
left is Ras et-Tin, with a lighthouse 
at its extremity; the British Mili¬ 
tary hospital and the Palace of R&s 
et-Tin, opposite to which the British 
man-of-war is moored, there being 
usually one stationed here, are also 
to be seen on the left. This is 
the great Harbour of Alexandria. 
The eastern harbour, which was 
chiefly used in ancient times, is 
now only accessible to small craft. 
The breakwater that protects the 
western harbour is two miles long. 
The inner harbour is protected by a 
mole a thousand yards long. The 
steamer rounds the point of this 
mole, and comes to the quay. 
It is only within the last four or 
five years that ships have been able 

to go in and out of the harbour at 
any hour of the day or night; for 
the entrance channel, which used 
to be tortuous and unlighted, has 
been _ deepened and straightened, 
and lighthouses have been put up. 
Many other improvements have 
been executed within the last few 
years; and in 1904 the Council of 
Ministers decided on further “con¬ 
siderable extensions in the shipping 
accommodation, to be accomplished 
in the near future.” It is very 
pleasant to sail about the harbour 
in a small boat. Boats may be had, 
at a fixed tariff, at the Port Police 
Station on the Marina Kadim. 

Even the largest steamers come 
alongside the fine new Quays, and 
here carriages are waiting to take 
the traveller to the Custom House, 
which is quitenear(see £ ‘ Preliminary 
Information ”), and on to the hotels, 
which are all some distance from 
the harbour. There is very little to 
remind the newly-arrived traveller 
that this is the East; the modern¬ 
looking dwellings, and numbers of 
Europeans (or people in European 
clothing), the imposing buildings of 
the Mohammed Ali Square, remind¬ 
ing him rather of some Italian 
towns. For Alexandria is a busy, 
flourishing, commercial town, with 
a large population of Greeks, Levan¬ 
tines, and Italians, more than a 
quarter of the population (350,000) 
being Europeans. 

Ancient Alexandria. 

Among towns of classical and 
early Christian interest, Alexandria 
holds a foremost place. Founded 
in B.c. 332 by Alexander the Great, 
built by his architect Deinochares on 
the strip of land between the sea 
and Lake Mareotis, on the site of 
the ancient Rhakotis, its harbour 
protected by the island of Pharos, 
it speedily became one of the finest 
port-towns on the Mediterranean. 
Pharos, on the eastern extremity 
of which was the famous lighthouse, 
was connected with the mainland 
by a causeway called the Hepta- 



Section 1 

stadium, from its length of seven Julius Csesar, he caused the harbour 
stadia. This causeway, which shipping to be set on fire, that fire 
divided the harbour in two, en- extended to the Library, and 400,000 
croached on the sea until it now volumes that had been gathered 
forms a large part of the modern together at so much care and ex¬ 

town, and the strip of land on 
which now stands the Palace of 
R&s et-Tin represents the island of 

The ancient Pharos, built under 
Ptolemy II (circa 260 B.C.), was a 
structure of four tiers—the base 
being square, the second storey 
octagonal, and the third circular— 
surmounted by a lantern. Its total 
height must have been about S00 
ft. It is said that the aseent was 
by an inclined plane, up which a, 
horse could be ridden, and that its 
interior was a labyrinth of chambers. 
Almost more interesting than the 
tower itself, and an object of great 
interest and admiration, was the 
“mirror” in the lantern, to which 
various uses were ascribed, some 
Arab writers saying it was used to 
burn the enemy’s ships, others that 
it was for the purpose of seeing 
things at a distance, thus fore¬ 
casting the telescope. That the 
building must have been substantial 
and of excellent workmanship is 
certain, seeing that in spite of 
earthquakes and deliberate destruc¬ 
tion the lowest storey still remained 
in 137b a.d. 

Under the Ptolemies Alexandria 
became a great centre of learning, 
to which flocked all the great artists 
and scholars of the time, partly on 
account of the great Library and 
Museum founded by Ptolemy I. 
Among the famous names connected 
with 'Alexandria we find those of 
Euclid; Apelles and Antiphilus, 
the painters; Aristophanes of 
Byzantium ; Herophilus and Eras, 
istratus, the physicians ; Demetriu- 
Phalereus, the orator ; Strabo, the 
geographer j Eratosthenes, Hip¬ 
parchus, Ctesibius, Origeu, Athan¬ 
asius, The&n and his daughter 
Hypatia. It was Ptolemy Phila- 
delphus who ordered the Scptuagint 
translation of the Bible for his 
library. When, during the war of 

pense were destroyed. The loss to 
the world was irreparable. It has 
been so often affirmed that the 
great Library was destroyed at the 
instigation of Amru that the world 
came to believe in the act of vandal¬ 
ism, and to hold it up as an example 
of the Mohammedanism which it 
wished to think barbarous. But 
the belief rests on the testimony of 
one recorder, writing five hundred 
years after the supposed event, 
whereas earlier evidence goes to 
support the statement just made. 
Excavators on the ancient sites have 
hoped to find some traces of these 
treasures ; but it appears that the 
land has sunk in many places, so 
that even if anything remained in 
the way of papyri or parchments, 
the infiltration of water must have 
long ago destroyed them. The site 
of the Museum is probably opposite 
the Khedivial Hotel. 

The Serapeum, a magnificent 
building containing the statue of 
Serapis, was destroyed by order of 
Theodosius in a.d. 389, at the final 
overthrow of the Egyptian religion. 
It probably stood on the hill now 
crowned by Pompey’s Pillar. 

Of the other buildings of ancient 
Alexandria, the Csesargum, the 
Paneum, and the Gymnasium were 
the most famous. Foundations of 
the Csesareum were found near the 
present Ramleh Station. It was on 
the steps of this temple, which was 
begun by Cleopatra, that Hypatia 
was murdered in a.d. 415, and it 
was within its enclosure that the 
two obelisks stood, of which one is 
now in London and the other in 

The site of Alexander’s Tomb 
is thought to be now covered by the 
mosque of “Nebi Daniel,” where 
it is impossible to excavate, as it is 
the burying-place of the vice-regal 

In Christian Times Alexandria 


London r Macmillan & Co.Irtd. Stanford's GeogiEtabiLondxiru 



was a great centre of theological 
controversy, and there seem to 
have been alternate persecutions of 
Jews and Christians, Connected 
with this period are the names of 
Clement, Athanasius, and the patri¬ 
arch Cyril (see p. 13). 

When the Mohammedans con¬ 
quered the city in 641 a,d., they 
were amazed at its dazzling bright¬ 
ness, caused by so much white 
marble being used in its construc¬ 
tion. One writer says that no one 
entered the city without veiling his 
eyes; and another affirms that to 
relieve the glare, awnings of green 
silk were hung over the streets. 
The whole city they describe as 
built on a labyrinth of subterranean 
cisterns. Many of these cisterns 
still remain. In these the in¬ 
habitants stored water from the 
flood Nile to last them all the 

The Egyptians, Romans, and 
Jews occupied separate quarters 
of the town. But the most magni¬ 
ficent quarter, called the Bruchion, 
had been largely destroyed by Aure- 
lian. The Museum and Library, 
Alexander’s Tomb, the Palaces of 
the Ptolemies, were all situated in 
this quarter. 

Modern Alexandria. 

The centre of activity lies in the 
Mohammed Ali Square, which takes 
its name from the equestrian statue 
of that ruler which adonis it. The 
buildings are mostly modern, the 
square having suffered considerably 
by fire during the Arabi rebellion 
in 1882. The English Church 
stands at the S.-E. corner. On the 
west side of the square stands the 
fine large building of the Inter¬ 
national Tribunals. Here also are 
the Bourse Kh&livial, the Abbas 
Hilmy Theatre, and good restaur¬ 
ants and eaffis. 

Out of the S.-E. corner of the 
square runs the Rue Chiirif Pasha, 
which leads to the main Station. 
Nearly all the principal shops are in 
this street. The English business 


houses are chiefly in the streets be¬ 
tween the N.-E. end of the square 
and the sea. 

The Bazaars must be visited on 
foot or on donkey-back, there being 
no room for a carriage to pass down 
the narrow streets. They lie in the 
Arab quarter, which covers the 
site of the Heptastadium. To one 
who has never seen an Oriental 
bazaar they will prove most inter¬ 
esting, not so much because of the 
articles displayed for sale, as from 
the real glimpse of native life 
afforded. So few travellers spend 
more than a day in Alexandria that 
these bazaars have not been spoilt 
by European tourists, the natives 
in no way laying themselves out to 
please the sightseer. The Rue Reis 
et-Tin, leading to the Khedive’s 
Palace, runs through the native 

Victoria College is an institution 
opened in 1902 for the purpose of 
affording a high-class education for 
the sons of the gentry of Egypt. 
Hitherto such an education was 
only to be obtained in the Jesuit 
schools, to which it was of course 
impossible for those with other 
strong religious beliefs to go. There 
is every reason to believe the venture 
will prove successful. 


I. To Pompey’s Pillar ; The Cata¬ 
combs ; Mahmfidlya Canal: Rosetta 

II. To the Palace of RSs et-Tin ; 
Site of the Pharos ; Yacht Club; 
The Arsenal and Roman Tombs. 

III. To Gab&ri. 

Drive I.— Pompey's Pillar ; The 
Catacombs; MahmMiya Canal; 
Rosetta Gate .—Leaving the Place 
Mohammed Ali, and passing through 
the Place de l’%lise,with the Roman 
Catholic church and Abbat’s Hotel, 
we drive through the Rue de la 
Colonne to the Porte de la Colonne 
Pomp4e. Beyond the Arab cemetery 

Pompey’s Pillar.— It stands on 



Section 1 

a hill, a solitary witness to the 
former greatness of the ancient, 
city, the last remaining relic of 
the magnificent buildings of the 
Ptolemies and Caesars for which 
Alexandria was famous. Its modern 
name is misleading, for it does not 
mark the site of Pompey’s tomb, as 
was once thought. The history of 
the actual shaft is uncertain, since 
it was probably part of some earlier 
temple—or may even have been an 
obelisk—before it Was set up by the 
prefect Posidius, in honour of the 
Emperor Diocletian. 

The total height of the monument 
is nearly 99 ft. The shaft of the 
column is of red granite from 
Aswan, beautifully worked and 
polished. It is 73 ft. high, and 
tapers from 9 ft. in diameter at the 
base to 8 ft. The work of the 
pedestal and capital are not worthy 
of it, a fact which points to the 
possibility of their being of a later 
date. The Corinthian capital has a 
depression in the top which prob¬ 
ably at one time received the base 
of a statue. The blocks which 
form the pedestal come from differ¬ 
ent ancient buildings. One bears 
the cartouches of Seti I and Psam- 
metichus I (Psamthek). 

The excavations of Dr. Botti, late 
director of the Museum, in the hill 
tend to confirm the supposition that 
this was the site of the Serapeum. 
He found a fine Serapis torso, and an 
inscription to Serapis. He also 
excavated two ancient subterranean 
passages, having curious niches in 
the walls. But no inscriptions of 
value were found. According to 
Rufinus there were vaults and long 
passages under the Serapeum. 

The Catacombs are a short dis¬ 
tance to the S.-W. of Pompey’s 
Pillar, by the Rue Karmouss and 
the gasworks to the Kom Esh- 
Shakafeh, a hill on the top of which 
is Fort Tebaneh. The carriage- 
driver will fetch the keeper (fee 
P.T. 2). These early Christian 
tombs are excavated in the side of 
a steep hill crowned by a fort. 
In one or two are sarcophagi; 

but the most interesting are those 
discovered by Dr. Botti in 1893. 
There are columns at some of the 
entrances, and in one are early 
Egyptian paintings. Still more 
interesting is a late Egyptian 
rock-cut tomb on the south slope.' 
Entrance, P.T. 5 (lighted by 
electricity). It belonged to an 
Egyptian nobleman and his wife 
in the 2nd cent. a.d. ; but besides 
their sarcophagi, which are cut out 
but not separated from the solid 
rock, some hundreds of bodies 
were found. The whole plan is 
most elaborate. A circular stair¬ 
way leads down to a great rotunda, 
where a shaft leads down to two 
lower storeys, the lowest being 
flooded with water. The decora¬ 
tions are partly Greek and partly 
Egyptian. Passages, chambers, 
and tomb - niches lead off from 
the staircase, rotunda, and the 

Turning back and driving a little 
way south, we come to 

The Mahmhdiya Canal, and 
drive along by the side of it. This 
is the prettiest drive in the neigh¬ 
bourhood, there being many pictur¬ 
esque places along the banks. The 
canal goes from Atf ih on the Rosetta 
branch of the Nile, 50 miles, to 
Alexandria harbour. There are 
fine houses and gardens along its 
north bank. 

Leaving it by the Avenue des 
Lazaristes we go round by the Dis¬ 
tribution des Eaux to the Rosetta 
Gate, and driving along the new 
Rue de Rosette we pass the Zizinia 
Theatre, turn along the Rue Chcrif 
Pasha, and arrive again in the 
Place Mohammed Ali. 

Drive II.— The Palace of RAs et- 
Tin ; Y acht Club ; Site of the Pharos ; 
The Arsenal and Roman Tombs .— 
Before starting, an order to view 
the Palace should be obtained 
from the Governor of Alexandria 
at the Gouvernorat. Leaving the 
Place Mohammed Ali by the Rue 
RSs et-Tin, which takes half-way 
a sharp turn to the left, we pass 


London: Macmillan & Co.l^ 

.ection 1 


through a crowded native quarter 
to the open space in front of 

Palace of Ella et-Tln.—There is 
nothing much to be seen in the 
building but a marble staircase and 
some fine inlaid floors. The view 
over the harbour obtained from the 
balcony is fine. The Khedive’s 
yacht, the “Mahroussa,” may be 
seen lying not far from the British 
mau-of-war. Leaving the Palace, 
and continuing westwards, we 
reach on our left hand the new 
Khedivial Yacht Club, built and 
opened in 1903, and having a 
magnificent view of the inner and 
outer harbours, as well as of the 
sea to the north-west. Here are 
reading-rooms, etc., and a wide 
balcony having steps leading down 
to a pier, at the extreme end of 
which stands the starter and judge’s 
box. Weekly regattas are held 
from May to November, and form 
one of the principal amusements 
in the summer season. H.H. the 
Khedive is Patron of the Club, and 
his cousin H.H. Prince Aziz Hassan 
is Commodore; Vice-Commodore, 
Admiral Sir R. M. Blomfield, 
K.C.M.G. A little farther west is 
the hospital of the army of occupa¬ 
tion. Returning, and proceeding 
eastwards, we come to the end of 
the promontory on which stood the 
famous lighthouse of Pharos, once 
one of the seven wonders of the 

At Am Fushi, N.W. of Rfls et- 
Tin, Prince Omar Tussoun has 
excavated some Ptolemaic tombs, 
which may be visited. Some of 
the paintings on the walls are 
interesting. Returning past the 
front of the Palace, we drive along 
the harbour, past the disused 
arsenal and inner basin, where 
there is a floating dock, by the 
quays and a narrow street to the 
Place Mohammed Ali. 

Drive III.— To Gab&xi.—This 
drive towards the south - west 
may be taken in order to see the 
view across Lake Mareotis. The 


country is laid out in market gar¬ 

The Museum. 

Open daily-from 9-12 and 3-5, 

except Friday, and Saturday 

afternoons. Entrance, P.T. 2; 

Friday and Sunday, P.T. 1. 

The collections in the newmuseum 
axe of ancient Egyptian, Greek, and 
Roman antiquities. It is a new 
building near the Rosetta Gate, 
opened in 1895. Prof. Brescia is 
the curator. Turning to' the left 
on entering, the first room contains 
Coptic tombstones, and a fine sarco¬ 
phagus-lid in porphyry. On the wall 
(right), a plan of ancient and modem 
Alexandria by Admiral Sir R. M. 
Blomfield. Passing through to the 
end room, the old Egyptian exhibits 
will be found. One of the treasures 
of the museum is the colossal red 
granite statue of a king of the 
nineteenth dynasty. In the room 
to the right are glass cases, contain¬ 
ing the smaller Egyptian objects. 
Returning to the entrance hall, we 
see a fine torso (Greek) which was 
found in Alexandria. Turning now 
to the right, in Salle A, there are 
some charming Greek heads. Near 
a colossal white marble arm in the 
centre of the room is a head of one 
of the Ptolemies in black granite. 
Rather curious is No. 1775, the 
head of a woman. No. 485, in a 
glass wall case, is Alexander the 
Great. There are cinerary urns 
from the necropolis at Hadra, and 
objects from the different excava¬ 
tions in the neighbourhood of Alex¬ 
andria. The terra-cotta figures in 
Case G, somewhat resemble the 
Tanagra figures. Case U, a second 
century mummy from the Fayfim. 
In Salle E, is a colossal seated 
statue of Zeus-Serapis, found during 
diggings in the Rue Ch4rif Pasha. 
A good example of Ptolemaic work 
is the Apollo seated on the Delphic 
omphalos. The glass cases contain 
some interesting stamped wine-jar 
handles (Greek), and Ptolemaic 
coins. Salle O, Contains several 


Sections l, 2 

funeral stela, a collection of Roman 
coins, and a cast of the Rosetta 
stone. Salle D. — B, A bust of 
Serapis, curiously set upon a colos¬ 
sal votive white marble foot; H, 
portions of marble sarcophagus, 
with the angel of victory; L, part 
of a candelabrum of fine workman¬ 
ship ; R, limestone head with eyes 
in obsidian and ivory. Salle E .— 
Some good reliefs, especially J, 
Stratonikfi on her death-bed ; I, a 
charming head of a woman, found 
in Alexandria, wearing close-fitting 
cap with' chin-strap ; B, colossal 
head of Serapis. Salle F. —Egyp - 
tian. Demo tic, a nd Greek papyri. 
There are some' sSfcrrphagf mtlTe 
court-yard of the museum. Salle 
G. — Noble Apis bull (restored) 
found on the site of the Serapeum. 

Considerable additions to the 
Museum building have been made 
in 1903, in accordance with a design 
of the late Dr. Botti, but the new 
rooms are not yet open to the 
public. Prof. Brescia, the new 
curator, is engaged on a chrono¬ 
logical arrangement of all the 
Museum collections, which had not 
before been attempted. 

The Harboor and 
“ Mahroussa.” 

This is a most delightful little 
expedition. Obtain first an order 
to view the “Mahroussa,” the 
Khedive’s yacht, at the Gouver- 
norat. Drive • down to the Port 
Police Office on the “ Marina 
Kadim ” (the cabman will under¬ 
stand this direction) and ask for a 
boat—a sailing boat is best—to see 
the hafbour and the yacht. The 
“Mahroussa” is one of the largest 
steam yachts afloat. She is fitted up 
in magnificent style, the saloon being 
handsomely decorated, and the 
Khedive’s bedroom upholstered in 
rich white satin. Its commander, 
Hassan Ibady Bey, is most pleased 
to show off his vessel to visitors. 
If the wind is suitable, the sail 
should be continued to the end of 
the breakwater. 



Excursion I .—To Ramleh and San 

,, II .—To Mex and Adimi, 

„ III .—To Abukir. 

„ IV .—To Rosetta. 

„ V. —To Lake Mareotis. 

I. To Ramleh and San Stefano. 

This expedition may be done 
either by road or rail. If driving, 
a special bargain must be made 
with the driver. 

Trains leave the Ramleh (electric) 
railway station (at the end of the 
Boulevard de Ramleh) every five 
minutes (return fare P.T. 4). There 
are eight stations, about a mile 
apart. At the second, Sidi Gaber, 
there is a.junction with the Rosetta 
line for Abukir. 

Ramleh, — Hotels: see “Hotel 
List.’’ English Ohv/rch, All Saints, 
at Bnlkeley station; services, 11 
a.m. and 6 p.m. Post office at 
Bacos station. 

The suburb of Ramleh is the 
growth of but a few years, during 
which time what was practically a 
piece of desert has been turned into a 
rambling collection of villas standing 
in beautiful gardens. The climate is 
good, the temperature in June being 
quite pleasant for Europeans. 

The route by road starts from the 
Rosetta Gate. Passing the Christian 
cemeteries, over mounds of the 
ancient city, and across the old 
wall where were once the French 
lines, we come to the racecourse, on 
the left, the grounds of the Alex¬ 
andria Sporting Club. After driving 
three miles we come to a Roman 
camp, where, in 1801, the English 
and French fought a battle. It is 
also the site of the ancient Niko- 
polis. Here were found, beside the 
foundations of the camp, the system 
for supplying it with water. The 
wells, of which the water is now 
brackish, are 33 ft. deep. 

Section 2 



The gardens, passed before reach¬ 
ing San Stefuno, produce the most 
beautiful roses. 

The charm of San Stefano lies in 
its climate, the sunshine, and the 
blue of the Mediterranean. There 
are pretty varieties of shells of the 
smaller kinds to be picked up in 
quantities on the shore. 

II. To Mex and Adjmi. 

This excursion—as far as Mex— 
can be made by boat in calm 
weather, but when rough it is 
impossible to land. (Boat from the 
Port Police Office.) There is also 
a bad carriage road, and a tramway. 

Adjmi in 1798 was the scene of 
the landing of Napoleon’s troops. 
There is a fine view of the harbour 
from Fort Marabout. The ride is 
very pretty. The Salt-works are 
conceded by the Egyptian Govern¬ 
ment to a company, which has 
the monopoly of supplying the 
interior. In the distance are the 
chimneys of the great pumping 
station for keeping down the level 
of Lake Mareotis. The Catacombs, 
the Necropolis of ancient 'times, 
are very extensive. One has the 
best example of Greek work in 
Egypt shown in a Doric entabla¬ 
ture and mouldings. The so-called 
Baths of Cleopatra were probably 
at one time tombs, but, owing to the 
encroachments of the sea, some are 
under water. 

At Mex there are now good sea 
baths and a Casino. 

III. To AbokIb. 

Train to Abukir from Bab el- 
Guedid station. Donkeys must be 
ordered the day before from Ramleh 
to be at the Abukir station. Lunch 
must be taken. It is best to take 
an early train to Abukir. The 
village lies on the neck of laud to 
the west of the bay in which was 
fought the “Battle of the Nile.” 
The old Canopic mouth of the Nile 
emptied itself into this bay. Leav¬ 
ing the station, ride in a northerly 
direction, and many remains of 

buildings will be found, fragments 
of Mosaic pavement, painted plaster, 
foundations of walls, fluted granite 
columns, and part of a black granite 
statue with a hieroglyphic inscrip¬ 
tion. There are traces of extensive 
Roman baths. Crossing the hill on 
to the shore, there may be seen in 
the water mutilated portions of red 
granite sphinxes, and the remains of 
the “Baths of Canopus. ” The slopes 
of the shore here are covered with 
flowers in the spring. Lunch should 
be taken here before starting to 
ride to San Stefano, whence the 
train may be taken to Alexandria. 
On the way to San Stefano, the 
Khedive’s summer residence, Mont- 
aza, is passed. 

IV. To Rosetta. 

This excursion can be accom¬ 
plished without staying a night in 
Rosetta, where there is no first-class 
hotel. Train leaves the main station 
at 7.30 a.m,, arriving at Rosetta at 
9.50. Train leaves Rosetta, 5.20 
p.m., arriving at Alexandria 7.30 
p.m. Fares, P.T. 34 and P.T. 15. 

The line passes Ramleh and 
Abukir, and, crossing a stretch of 
sand, reaches Rosetta, 43J miles. 
There is no hotel. The rise of 
Alexandria as a port has been the 
eclipse of Rosetta. Its population 
and trade have greatly diminished, 
and it has rather a deserted appear¬ 
ance. But it is interesting to see the 
various ancient fragments which lie 
in the different open places, or are 
built into the khans and mosques. 
There are good fruit gardens. The 
branch of the Nile on which the 
town stands is the ancient Bolbitine 
mouth. It was a little further 
down the river that a Frenchman 
discovered the famous trilingual 
inscription now in the British 
Museum, called the Rosetta Stone, 
which was the key to the reading of 
the hieroglyphs (see p. 25). 

V. To Lake Mareotis, 
or lake Mary&t. 

By carriage, about P.T. 80. The 
expedition will take the best part 



Sections 2, 3 

of a day, .and; should be done 
in March, the start should be made 
not later than 9 a.m., so that 
Alexandria may be reached again 
by 6 p.m. 

It is a drive of about 15 miles 
from the Gab&ri Gate, along the 
narrow embankment of. Said Pa¬ 
sha’s railway, having the lake on 
either side. Lunch should be taken 
in the ruins of Said Pasha’s Palace, 
near which the wild flowers seem 
finest. There are many coloured 
ranunculuses, irises, daisies, pop¬ 
pies, and asphodels. Two miles 
further on are Roman quarries. 



From Bab el-Guedid station by 
express trains, in a little over 3 hrs., 
at 7 a.m., 9 a.m., 12 noon, and 
4.25 p.m. Fare, 1st class, P.T. 
87J; 2nd class, P.T. 43J. Ladies 
travelling alone may travel 2nd class 
if they ask for a harim compart¬ 

The route to Cairo lies through 
the well irrigated, and consequently 
cultivated, land of the Delta, from 
which the traveller will get no idea 
of the Egypt of the Nile Valley 
proper. The line takes a N.-E. 
direction, until it turns S.-E. over 
the narrow neck of land that 
separates Lake Mareotis from the 
Lake of Abukir. Passing cotton 
fields, at 

17 miles, Kafr ed Dawar is 
reached, a sporting centre, wild 
boar being found in the neighbour¬ 
hood. The express train makes its 
first stop at, 

38£ miles, DamanhUr. Hotel: 
see “Hotel List.” This flourish¬ 
ing capital of the Behera province 
occupies an ancient Egyptian and 
Roman site, of which no remains 
are to be seen. 

[A branch line from Damanh&r 
vii t Desflkj joins the line from Tanta 
to Damietta at Mehallet Rfth.] 

53 J miles, Teh el-BarUd, a junc¬ 

tion with another line to Cairo 
which keeps to the west bank of 
the river and joins the railway to 
Upper Egypt. About six miles 
west the remains of the Greek city 
of Naukratis were discovered in 
1884. For those interested .in 
archaeology this may be made a 
day’s excursion from Cairo. ' Before 

64 .miles, Kafr ez-Zayy&t, the 
Rosetta branch of the Nile is 
crossed by an iron bridge, which 
opens to let the boats pass. An 
excursion by boat or donkey can 
be made from here in about three 
hours to the site of the ancient 
Sais (Sa el-Hagar). There is very 
little, however, to be seen. A mail 
steamer runs from Kafr ez-Zayy&t 
to Atfih, near Rosetta. 

75 miles, Tanta ( Hotel: see 
“Hotel List”), with a consular 
agent and hotel, is the capital of 
the province of Gharbiya. There 
are three great fairs here annually, 
in honour of a Moslem saint, in 
January, April, and August. These 
fairs afford a good opportunity for 
observing native life. 

[A branch line goes from Tanta 
to Damietta. Hotel: see “Hotel 
List.” Consular Agent. Damietta, 
situated on the tongue of land 
between Lake Menzaleh and the 
Nile, less than four miles from its 
mouth, has a population about 
three times that of Rosetta and 
only one-ninth that of Alexandria,. 
Its harbour is much silted up, hence 
it is little used as a port. It is un¬ 
like any other Egyptian town when 
approached by ■ the river. Being 
built chiefly of burnt bricks instead 
of the sun-dried bricks of Upper 
Egypt, and many streets being 
paved with stone, it has a more 
substantial and cleaner appearance. 
The houses and mosques along the 
river front, with steps descending 
to the water, remind- one of the 
gh&ts of Indian riverside towns. 
The windows of the houses are fitted 
with wooden lattices of saw-work, 
instead of the mushrabiya which 

Sections 3, 4 



prevails at Cairo. Specimens of 
this graceful work may be seen in 
the Arab museum in Cairo. 

There are still some fine interiors 
among the old half-deserted houses, 
where much good woodwork may 
be seen. Of the forty mosques in 
the town, none are of special interest, 
but their minarets are very slender 
and picturesque. 

Outside the town to the north, in 
the suburb of el Gabana, is a ceme¬ 
tery in which is a very interesting 
tomb-mosque. Its very unusual 
form of dome is horseshoe-shaped 
or bulbous. Some of its columns 
are of green marble and porphyry. 

An excursion on Lake Menzala 
can be conveniently made from 
Damietta (see p. 43). 

Half-way between Tanta and 
Damietta is the flourishing com¬ 
mercial town of Mansflra (30,000 
inhabitants) (see Hotel List), at 
the junction of the Damietta branch 
of the Nile with a big canal which 
goes to Lake Menzala. The new 
buildings and churches witness to 
the number of Europeans who live 
here. Of the mosques, that of Sanga 
is of some interest. 

Mansflra is the starting-place for 
the expedition to Behbit-el-Hagar, 
the site of the ancient Iseum. It 
takes about 2 hrs. by boat (P.T. 
25-30), and then there is a pretty 
walk of about two miles to the 
ruins. These date from the 3rd 
century b.c., the great temple 
of Isis having been begun by 
Nectanebus i, and continued by 
Ptolemy n. The hieroglyphs on 
some of the granite blocks of the 
great pile are very finely executed. 
This excursion cannot be done from 
Cairo in a day. 

From Mehallet Rflh on this line 
there is a branch to Zifta on the 
Damietta branch of the Nile, where 
there is an important barrage similar 
in design to that at Asyfit. It was 
completed in 1903, and consists of 
50 openings, each 5 metres wide. 
It was constructed with the object 
of holding up the water passed 
through the Delta Barrage into the 

Damietta branch of the Nile, and 
(by constructing new canals connect¬ 
ing this branch with the distributing 
canals of the provinces of Gharbiya, 
Dakaliya, and Sharkiya) enabling the 
water required for the irrigation of 
these provinces to be supplied direct 
from the Damietta branch of the 
Nile, instead of by way of the main 
canals, whose heads are situated at, 
and which draw their supply from, 
above the Delta Barrage (see p. 76). 
In July, when the early flood-waters 
arrive at Cairo, it would be danger¬ 
ous to maintain more than a certain 
head on the Delta Barrage, con¬ 
sequently water has to be passed 
through it, and before 1903 used to 
go to waste in the Mediterranean 
Sea. This water is now, at the 
most critical period of the whole 
year, when the watering of the 
cotton crops coincides with the sow¬ 
ing of the maize, impounded at the 
Zifta Barrage and turned into the 
new canals above mentioned, thus 
giving full supply to the provinces 
they serve about three weeks 
earlier than was possible before the 
construction of this valuable work.] 

101 miles, Benha. N.-E. of the 
town the modern village of Atrib 
marks the site of the ancient 
At hr ibis. 

[Branch line viA Zagazig and 
Ismailiya to Suez.] 

120 miles, Kalytlb. Junction 
with the liue from Cairo to Suez. 

133 miles , Cairo. If alone, the 
traveller is advised to look for the 
porter of the hotel to which he 
intends going. 



The Suez Canal . . .40 

From Port SaId to IsmaIlIya 
and Suez by the Canal . 41 
Port Said to Ismailiya and 
Cairo by Rail . . .43 


Hotels.— See “HotelList." 
Consuls.— British and American. 



Section 4 

Doctors.— Dr. Grillet (English), 
D’Arband (French). 

Railway to Cairo, see p. 43. 

Landing. — Small boats from 
steamers to thequays,ls.eachperson. 

Port Said stands on land which 
has mostly been reclaimed from the 
sea, for the narrow strip of land on 
the point of which it is situated, 
which divides Lake Menzala from 
the Mediterranean, is sometimes 
covered with water when the lake 
is high. It owes its importance 
entirely to its position at the en¬ 
trance to the Suez Canal. Its his¬ 
tory only dates from 1859, when 
the first surveyors for the canal 
landed there. In ten years time it 
had a population of 10,000, which 
has now more than trebled, about 
one-third of the inhabitants being 
European. On the western jetty 
is a statue of M. de Lesseps, put up 
in 1899. Port Said is a great coaling 

The Suez Canal. 

A mile and a half before reaching 
Port Said by steamer we see on 
the west the commencement of the 
unfinished mole or breakwater 
which serves to protect the outer 
harbour from silting up with the 
deposit brought down by the 
Damietta branch of the Nile, only 
about thirty miles west. The Outer 
Harbour is formed by this mole 
and another to the east, which is 
one mile long. These moles are 
built of blocks of concrete weighing 
22 tons. The lighthouse, showing 
a red light, is also a mass of con¬ 
crete, 176 ft. high. The channel, 
300 ft. wide and 30 ft. deep (the 
depth of the Canal), had to be 
dredged out through this outer 

It was in 1859 that M. de Lesseps 
commenced the greatwork of cutting 
the Canal through the Isthmus of 
Suez, a work only accomplished at 
the cost of great self-denial on the 
part of the chief engineers, and loss 
of life among the poor Fellahin, 
forced to work under the lash. 
An idea of the hardships endured 

may be gathered from the fact that 
until distilling machines were put 
up the nearest fresh water pro¬ 
curable was at Damietta, thirty 
miles away. 

The present canal is not the first 
one that has been constructed to 
join the Red Sea with the Medi¬ 
terranean. Aristotle, Strabo, and 
Pliny tell us that Sesostris (pro¬ 
bably Ramses II) conceived and 
carried out such a plan. But both 
his plan and that of Necho made 
use of the easternmost or Pelusiac 
branch of the Nile for their purpose, 
connecting it by a canal with the 
Heroopolitan Gulf—now the Gulf 
of Suez. The Pelusiac mouth of 
the river was considerably east of 
the present Port Said. 

Under Napoleon Buonaparte two 
or three plans were brought forward 
for connecting the two seas, but 
none were practicable. It was in 
1855 that a firman was obtained by 
M. de Lesseps from the Viceroy, 
allowing him to form a company to 
carry out a project drawn up by 
himself with M. Liuant-Bey and 
M. Mougel-Bey to make a canal 
from Suez to the ancient Pelusium. 
This project having been submitted 
to, modified, aud accepted by an 
international commission, M. de 
Lesseps commenced work in 1859, 
regardless of the fact that owing to 
English influence the Sultan had 
refused to confirm the permission 
given by the Viceroy Said. After 
many enormous difficulties had 
been overcome the canal was 
opened in 1869 with festivities on 
such a scale that Ismail Pasha, 
the Khedive, is said to have 
spent over £4,000,000 on them. 
The total cost of making the 
canal was about seventeen millions 

The length of the canal is 100 
miles, and its surface width varies 
from 65 to 110 yds., its depth 
being nearly 30 ft. Dredging is 
constantly going on in order to 
maintain this depth. Canal dues 
are the same for vessels of all 
nationalities, viz., 7 shillings per 



x SEA 

r TfcS* 


£ Plain ° f T*\ 


Ru-df PELU$liij 



0XXLTl Jl oust e 


Hu-.of SER/ 

R = MLW*V = 





Railways, shewn thus 

I-ond^n : Macmillan Mo..!# 

Section 4 



ton on the net tonnage, and 7 
shillings for each passenger. 

The number of vessels that passed 
through the canal in 1903 was 3761, 
and owing to the introduction of 
electric light a large proportion 
were enabled to make the passage 
during the night. Of the total 
number 2278 vessels were English, 
494 German, 261 French. 

The Suez Canal Company’s re¬ 
ceipts from 1st January to 10th 
June 1904 were 60,321,756 francs. 
In 1903, 196,024 passengers went 
through the canal. 

It takes now only 17 hours 40 
minutes to go through the canal. 
It is hoped that by 1905 there will 
be stations where the largest ships 
can pass one another at every 5 
kilometres, which should shorten 
the passage still farther. 

From Port Sa!d to IsmaIlIya 
and Suez by the Canal. 

Those arriving in Egypt at Port 
Said sometimes continue the journey 
to Ismailiya in the steamer, for the 
purpose of seeing the canal. For 
about 20 miles the canal passes 
through Lake Menzala (see p. 43), 
a low bank separating it from the 
waters of the lake. Progress is 
slow, the speed of all steamers 
being limited to 6 miles an hour. 

2l| miles, Kant&ra. A low chain 
of sand hills divides Lake Menzala 
from the first of the series of small 
lakes. It was by this neck of land 
that the comings and goings of 
Egyptian and foreign armies be¬ 
tween Syria and Egypt took place 
in ancient times. West of Kant&ra, 
about 10 miles, are some mounds, 
called Tel el-Defenna, which have 
been found by My. Petrie to mark 
the site of the Tahpanhes of Scrip¬ 
ture, the Daphnss of the Greeks. 
The remains are of the time of 
Psammetichus I of the 26th dynasty. 
The large building of which Mr. 
Petrie found traces may possibly 
have been the “ House of Pharaoh," 
where Jeremiah prophesied the 
downfall of Egypt. 

Nearer the town are remains of 
a temple of Ramses II. 

The journey to the site of the 
ancient Pelusium would take the 
best part of a day on camels. 
There is little to be seen. 

The canal now enters the Balah 
lakes, then passes through a cutting 
at El Ferd&n, and through the high¬ 
est ground of the isthmus (60 ft.) at 
3E1 Gisr. A flight of steps ascends 
to the deserted village with a ruined 
mosque and chapel to the Virgin. 
Leaving the cutting, Lake Timsah 
is entered. 

50 miles, Ismailiya. 

Hotels.— See “Hotel List.” 

Railways. — To Port Said and 
Cairo three times, and Suez twice 
daily. Eestaurant-car on the after¬ 
noon and the evening trains. 

Chemist.—Shop in Place Cham- 

Lake Timsah, or the “ Lake of 
Crocodiles,” by some thought to be 
the old limit of the lied Sea, was 
converted by the admission of water 
from theMediterranean.from asmall 
brackish lake into a pretty sheet of 
water about six square miles in area. 

The fresh water supply for Is¬ 
mailiya comes by canal from the 
Nile. Port Said is also supplied 
from this canal, the water being 
pumped through fifty miles of cast- 
iron pipes. The gardens at the 
waterworks are very pretty. 

The road leading from the quay 
to the town is bordered by lebbekh 
trees. It crosses the fresh-water 
canal to the Quai Mchemet Ali, 
a broad avenue beside the canal. 

In the public park are some 
monuments brought by M. Naville 
from Tel' el-Maskhuta, the site of 
the ancient Pithom. 

To Tel el-Maskhttta, an excur¬ 
sion of 11 miles across the desert. 
The most ancient monuments dis¬ 
covered here were of the time of 
Ramses II, the Pharaoh—as is gener¬ 
ally supposed—of the oppression. 
The ruins are of great storehouses, 
probably depots for provisioning 
the army on its way to Asia. This 



Section 4 

accords with the Scripture ‘ ‘ treasure 
cities," which, would be better inter¬ 
preted “ store cities.” 

Passing .Gebel Maryam, we reach 
Tustlm, . marked by the white¬ 
washed dome of a shfikh’s tomb. 
Near this place were found, during 
excavations, fossil remains of large 
animals of the Miocene-Tertiary 

At Serapeum, so called because 
of supposed finds of a temple to 
Serapis, is about 3 miles of high 
ground. Then, after a few miles of 
low ground, the Bitter Lakes are 
entered. The banks are flat, except 
on the right, where they rise into 
the Gebel Geneffa range. There is 
no vegetation but the tamarisk 
shrubs. The lakes are divided into 
two basins, the first 15J miles long, 
the second about 7 miles long. 
The course of the canal is marked 
out by buoys. At each end of the 
large basin is a lighthouse 65 ft. 
high. Leaving the small basin we 
enter the Shalfif cutting, where 
the canal excavators came to a bed 
of limestone, of which they had to 
remove 40,000 cubic yards. 

Just on entering the shallow 
Gulf of Suez we pass the ruins of 
a monument of Darius, some dis¬ 
tance from the right bank. 

100 miles, Suez. 

Hotels.— See “ Hotel List.” 

Post aud Telegraph offices at 
the station. 

Railway.—Stations—(a) At docks, 
(6) Gare, and (c) Rue Colmar (trains 
from Cairo for Suez town), ( d ) Terre- 
plein, for Port Thewfik near the 
docks. Two trains daily to Cairo, 
Alexandria, etc. 

Steamers. — Passengers from 
Egypt for India, the East, and 
Australia embark here. 

P. and O. Co. steamers for Bom¬ 
bay on Wednesdays. 

Khzdivwl Mail Steamship Co., 
fortuightly steamers to Aden, vid 
Jeddah, Suakin, Massowah, Hodei- 
dah, in 5J days. 

Austrian Lloyd to Mombasa (for 
Uganda, see p. 168). 

On arrival from India, passengers 
are landed in a tender. They will 
—so long as India is plague-stricken 
—be taken to the quarantine station, 
where they will have to leave soiled 
linen to be disinfected. 

Suez is a modem town, but the 
old town of Olysma was somewhere 
in this neighbourhood. Since the 
completion of the canal its popula¬ 
tion has decreased, and truly there 
is nothing to induce anyone who 
has not business in the place to 
live here, the town being most 
dreary and unattractive. The prin¬ 
cipal street is the Rue Colmar. 

The new Quays and Harbour at 
the end of the canal are about 2 
miles from Suez. (Railway fare, 
P.T. 3 ; return, P.T. 4§ ; or donkey, 
P.T. 5-8.) The large basin to the 
south is the Port Ibrfihim, and on 
the north of this artificial island is 
Port Thewfik. To visit the island 
by water, take a boat from in front 
of the post-office (P.T. 8-10 an 
hour). The statue on the Avenue 
Helene is that of Lieut. Waghom, 
who was the means of re-establish¬ 
ing the Egyptian route to India 
before the time of the canal. 

To the Wells of Moses. —Ain 
Musa. The excursion to this little 
oasis on the east side of the gulf is 
a pleasant way of spending the 
best part of a day. It is the 
quarantine station. 

A steam launch or sailing boat 
mustbeproeuredatthejetty. This 
will go over to the jetty on the 
other side, where pilgrims are re¬ 
ceived on their return from Mecca. 
Donkeys should be taken, or sent 
on before from Suez for the ride to 
the wells, about 2 miles. The wells 
get their name from the tradition 
that it was into the largest of them 
that Moses threw some shrub which 
sweetened the water. The place, 
Dean Stanley says, “lias become 
the Richmond of Suez.” The palm 
plantations and vegetable gardens 
are certainly a restful change from 
the barrenness of the country round. 

The shells on the shore of the 
gulf are interesting. 

Section 4 



Port SaId to Isma!l!ya and 
Cairo by Railway. 

Railway. —There is now a direct 
service of through trains from Port 
Said to Cairo. Fares—1st class, 
P.T. 95; 2nd class, P.T. 47J. Time, 
by express train, 4J hrs. Leave 
Port Said 8.10 a.m., 12.30 p.m., 
6.45 p.m. . The two latter are ex¬ 
press trains, and have restaurant- 
cars attached. Distance, 146 
miles. ' . 

This new direct service. on the 
standard gauge railway iwas only 
commenced in June 1904. .It super¬ 
sedes the light railway or steam 
tram from Port Said to Ismailiya, 
and by obviating the necessity of 
the tiresome change and wait at that 
place, has considerably shortened 
the journey to Cairo. 

The railway follows the canal 
embankment on the west side to 
Ismailiya. On the right hand the 
broad expanse of Lake Menzala, 
where there are quantities of wild 
birds. This, the largest lake in 
Egypt, is only separated from the 
sea by a very narrow strip of land) 
through which there are several 
narrow openings. It is so shallow 
that, during low Nile, boats have to 
keep to certain tortuous channels in 
its bed. At this time of year the dis¬ 
trict is not healthy. Of the many 
small islands only one is of interest 
—Tennis, near the north-east, on 
which are the remains of some 
Roman baths 'and tombs. Not 
more than a thousand years ago 
the whole district was a fertile 
cultivated tract of country, formed 
by deposit brought down by the 
Mendesian, Tanitic, and Pelusiac 
branches of the Nile ; but earth- 
waves have caused its settlement 
below sea-level. 

The fishermen of Lake Menzala 
are industrious but very poof, 
quiet and obliging to ; a stranger. 
Many of them have a tame pelican 
on their" boats', i these birds, and 
flamingoes, ; cranes, -. and . many 
waders, abounding .on -the lake.' 
Their life is a hard one, and was at 

pne time’ little better than slavery, 
by reason! of the middle men ” or 
“ tax farmers,’’who oppressed them. 
But now a direct tax, varying accord¬ 
ing to the size of the boat and the 
value of the fishing ground, is levied. 
Fish, fresh or salted, is one of the 
chief foods of the Fellah. Quanti¬ 
ties are turned into fessik, i.e. partly 
sun-cured, salted, and steeped in 

49 miles, Ismailiya (see p. 41). 

The line from Ismailiya to Cairo 
follows the cultivated strip of 
land, known as the Wady Tfimi- 
l&t. Its fertility is owing to the 
fresh-water canal, from which the 
towns along the canal receive their 
supply. On the right hand or north 
is the desert, on the south the nar¬ 
row belt of cultivation. 

67 miles, Mahsama. Some dis¬ 
tance to the left are the mounds of 
Tel el-Maskhfita, the ancient Pithom 
identified by M. Naville. (See 
“Ismailiya,” excursion.) 

81 miles, Tel el-Keblr. It was 
here that Ar&bi Pasha’s army 
suffered final' defeat by Lord 
Wolseley in 1882. Near the station 
is the cemetery where the English 
officers and men who fell then are 
buried. The line passes through 
the fortifications. The country 
passed through to 

94 miles, Abfl el-Akhdar, is 
robably part of the Goshen of 

99 miles, Zagazig (junction with 
the lines to , Mahsura - Damietta; 
Salhiya; and-.the alternative route 
to Cairo vid Belbes). Hotel: see 
“Hotel List.” This is a thriving 
town of 35,500 inhabitants, number¬ 
ing many European residents. It is 
the centre of a large trade in cotton 
and grain. About a mile to the 
south is .Tel Basta, where lie the 
remains of the ancient Bviastis, the 
Pibeseth ' of . Ezekiel. Herodotus 
gives a description of the temple 
that once stood here, which was 
built of fine red.granite, and dedi¬ 
cated , to' the goddess Bast.. The 
chief names connected with this site 
are those of Ramses ii, Osorkon n. 



Sections 4, 5 

Many remains of colossal figures, 
columns, etc., were found here. 

118 miles, Benlia (see p. 39). 
Passing Kalyfib, the train reaches 

146 miles , Cairo. 




Description op Cairo . . 48 

Centres op Interest . . 49 

The Bazaars .... 50 

The Citadel and the Sultan 

Hasan Mosque . . .51 

Tombs op the MamlOks . 53 

The Mosques . . .53 

The Gates . . . .56 

The Museum . . . .57 

Coptic Churches . . .66 

The Arab Museum . . 67 

The Khedivial Library . 69 

The Tombs op the KhalJps 70 
Old Cairo . . . .71 

Drive to Shubra . . .73 

Hotels. — The best and most 
healthy lie in the new European 
quarter of the town, that is, west 
and south of the Esbeklya Gardens. 
They are equal to good European 
hotels, having electric lights, lifts 
and baths. See “ Hotel List.” 

Restaurants and Carts.—The 
best cafes are in the Esbekiya. 
Santi, dinner 3$ francs. Grill¬ 
rooms at the Savoy and Shepheard’s 
and other hotels. Anglo-American 
buffet and grill-room (St. James’), 
Chareh el-Maghrabi. Kovatz, near 
Shepheard’s. The usual charge for 
a cup of coffee is P.T. 1; glass of 
lager beer, P.T. 2. 

Railway Stations.—(a) Princi¬ 
pal station in N. - W. of town. Lines 
to Alexandria, Ismailiya, Suez, and 
Delta; to Bedrashen, Upper Egypt, 
Tel el-Barfid. ( b) Pont Lim&n 
station, separated from (a) by the 
canal. The short line to Matariya 
and el-Merg. (c) Bab el-IAk 
station, PI. B 2, in the S.-W. of 
the town. Line to Helw&n. See 
p. 195. 

Steamship Co.’s Offices.— Agent 
for P. it 0. Co., Orient, Anchor, 
and Bibby Lines, Thos. Cook & Son. 
Messageries Maritimes, beside Shep- 
heard’s Hotel. Austrian Lloyd, 
4 Chareh Maghrabi. Navigazione 
Generate Italiana, Place de l’Op6ra. 
North German Lloyd, Place de 

Guides. —The names of good ones 
can always be had at the hotels. 
See section on Dragomans in “Pre¬ 
liminary Information. ” 

Forwarding Agents. — E. P. 
Blattner & Co., Chareh Kasr en-Nil. 
John B. Caffari, Rue Kamel. 
Anglo-Egyptian Forwarding Co., 
Chareh Maghrabi. 

Tourist Agents. —Messrs. Thos. 
Cook <b Son, just north of Shep- 
beard’s Hotel. Anglo-American 
Nile Steamer and Motel Co., in 
the Grand New Continental Hotel 
Buildings; branch opposite Savoy 
Hotel. Agence Lubin, Chareh 
Kamel Pasha. Charles Mornstein' 
<fc Co., opposite Savoy Hotel, ex¬ 
cellent for camping. Carl Stangen, 
Grand Continental Hotel Build¬ 
ings. . 

Consulates. — British —Consul-’ 
Gengral and Minister Plenipotenti- 
aryfEarl of Cromer, Kasr ed Dubarap 
Consul, A. D. Alban, Esq.; Vic£ 
Consul, Mr. Pio Sciortino, 14 Chareh 
el-Maghrabi; hours, 10-4. United 
States, in the Chareh Gamia el- 
Sherkess, which starts at the Rond 
Point de Kasr en-Nil,.PI. B 2. 

Banks. — BanlFvf Egypt, Charen 
Kasr en - Nil. Anglo - Egyptian 
Bank, same street. Credit Lyon¬ 
nais , near the post - office. Im¬ 
perial Ottoman Bank, Chareh el- 
Manakh. National Bank of Egypt, 
Chareh Kasr en-Nil. 

There are money-changers in the 
streets, but until the traveller knows 
the coins well, it is better to ask 
the hotel hall-porters for small 

Post-office. — S. of the Esbekiya, 
between the Opera and the Mixed 
Tribunals; PI. B 2; 7.30 a.m. to 
9.30 p.m. Letter-boxes at the 

Section 5 



hotels. Mail information is posted 
up in all hotels. (For Mails and 
Postal Rates see “ Preliminary 
Information. ”) 

Telegraph Offices (see “Pre¬ 
liminary Information”). Eastern 
Telegraph Co., Chareh el-Manakh, 
near German church. Egyptian 
Government Telegraph , Chareh 
Bfilak, near the Esbekiya. Reuter, 
Chareh el-Manakh. There is also a 
Telephone Company. 

Tramway (Electric).—The meet- 
ing-point of the various lines is at 
the W. end of the Muski, in the 
Atabet el-Hadra, PI. C 2. Thence 
there are lines to Bftlak, to the 
Citadel, to Kasr en*Nil (quite near 
the bridge), through Old Cairo 
(whence steam ferry to Gizeh), to 
the Railway Station, to Shubra and 
Rod el Farag. First and second 
class. Fares from 5 to 10 milliemes. 

Another line starts from the 
further side of the Kasr en-Nil 
bridge, and runs to the pyramids of 

Cabs .—Government tariff— 

By distance— 

Special Fares. 







Polo ground 




Ghezireh Hotel . 




Grand Stand (race 





Gizeh Zoological Gar- 





Pyramids . 




FCtm-el-Khalig . 




Old Cairo . 




Abbassieh Barracks . 








Heliopolis and Virgin’s 








Tombs of Khalifs 








Shfibra Palace . 




Extra payments, whether hired 
by distance or time— 


For each package carried 
outside .... 1 

If more than 3 persons 
carried,each extra person 2 

If hired and discharged within 
city circle 4 kilometres (about 2£ 
miles) radius from Opera Square. 


For one kilometre, or part 3 

For each extra kilometre, 
or part .... 2 

If hired within and. discharged 
without, an additional 2 piastres 
will be paid for every kilometre 
or part of kilometre outside the 


If hired by distance, for 
each wait of 15 minutes. 2 

By time— 

If hired by time, driver to be 

„ . p.t. 

For one hour or less, by 
day or night ... 8 

Above one hour, every 15 
minutes or less . . 2 

For 12 hours, by day or 
night .... 60 

Although there is a tariff, it is 
wise to make a bargain with the 
driver before going any distance. 
The cabs outside the large hotels are 
clean and superior, and the drivers 
expect a bigger fare. On Fridays 
and Sundays and holidays, extra 
fares are expected. 

Riding Horses .—Gennaro Bene- 
volmza, Chareh es-Saha. Saveri 
Yelo, Chareh Bab-es-Hadid. An¬ 
tonio Amato, El-Marouf. P.T. 80 
per day; P.T. 50 half day; to the 
Pyramids, P.T. 80. 

Donkeys.—The donkey boys gene¬ 
rally have a smattering of English, 
and know what the tourist wants 
to see. The donkeys have an easy 
pace, and the best way to see the 
bazaars, if walking is fatiguing and 
time precious, is on donkey-back. 
The price to be paid should always 
be arranged beforehand. For short 
ride in the town, P.T. 2; by the 
hour, P.T. 3-4; for the day, P.T. 
10-15. Whole day outside town, 



Section 5 

P.T. 20. Besides the. pay agreed 
Upon, the hoy will - always expect a 
little bakshish, the amount of 
which should depend upon the 
merits of his donkey and his own 
good behaviour. 

Doctors. — English —H. M. N. 
Jlilton, surgeon; • F. Milton ; F. 
Madden, surgeon ; A. A. W. Muri- 
son, M.B. ; F. M. Sandwith, M.D., 
M.B.C.P. ; W. H. Wilson, M.B.; 

L. E. C. Phillips, M.D., F.R.C.S., 
Kasr-el-Eini Hospital; D. M. Bed- 
doe, F.E.C.S. ; P. C. E. Tribe, 

M. B., l:r.C.P. ; E. C. Fischer, 

M. D., F.R.C.S. German — Dr. 
Wildt. Italian — Dr. Fornario. 
Swiss —Dr. Hess. Dentists — Dr. 
Faber (American); opposite Shep- 
heard’s Hotel; Dr. V. H. Richard, 
Chareh el - Manakh (American). 
Oculist— M. Eloui Pasha. 

Chemists.—Stephenson & Co., 
Place de l’Opera. The Savoy Phar¬ 
macy, Chareh Kasr en - Nil. 
Robert's English Pharmacy, Chareh 
el-Maghrabi. The New English 
Dispensary. Mandofia’s Anglo- 
American Pharmacy, both in the 
Place de l’Opdra. 

Churches and Missions.— Eng¬ 
lish church —All Saints, in the 
Chareh Bfdak, Very Rev. Dean 
Butcher, D.D. Sunday Services, 

8.30 a.m., 10.30 a.m., and 6 p.m. 
St. Mary’s Mission Chapel, attached 
to the English schools in connection 
with Bishop Blyth’s misson to Jews, 
Chaplain, Rev. N. Odeh. Services 
on Sunday—Holy Communion, 8 
a.m.; morning and evening prayer, 

10.30 a,m. and 6 p.m. Daily Ser¬ 
vice at 6 p. m. 

Church of Scotland— St. Andrew’s 
Church, beside the British Army 
headquarters. Sunday, 10.30 a.m. 

Presbyterian service at the Ameri¬ 
can Mission in the Esbekiya. 

Roman Catholic churches, Eglise 
St. Joseph, in the Ismailly a quarter; 
and others in the Frank quarter, 

N. of the Muski. 

German Lutheran church, in 
Chareh el-Maghrabi, opposite Hotel 
d’Angleterre, with a French service 
on the last Sunday in the month. 

American Mission, under control 
of the United Presbyterian Church 
of North .America. Headquarters, 
nearly opposite Shepheard’s Hotel. 
■Branches in several other towns, 
and two in the Slid an, with hos¬ 
pitals at Asyfit and Tahta. The 
schools are good. Its aim has been 
to stimulate every kind of profit¬ 
able development throughout the 
country. . . Foreign workers, 78; 
native workers, 493. 

Church' Missionary Society. — 
Secretary, Rev. R. Maelnnes, 2 
Chareh , el- Manakh. Connected 
with the. mission are four clergy, 
three medical men, five wives of 
missionaries, and fourteen lady 
missionaries. Church in Old 
Cairo. Arabic Services on Sun¬ 
day. Hospital (30 beds); girls' 
and boys’ schools also in Old 
Cairo. Girls’ and boys’ schools 
and book dep&t in Chareh Mo¬ 
hammed Ali. Girls’ boarding 
school near Bab el-Lftk. 

Young Women’s Christian Associ¬ 
ation. —Just off the Sharia Kasr 
en-Nil. Secretary, Miss Mae¬ 
lnnes. Some bedroom accommoda¬ 

Clubs .—The Khedivial Club and 
The Twrf Club —Strangers are not 
easily admitted. Gezira Sporting 
Club — Subscription, £5. Polo, 
golf, tennis, riding course, cricket, 
gardens, gymkana, and race-meet¬ 
ings through the winter. Pro¬ 
fessional golf player. Subscription 
for non-playing members, P.T. 50 
per month. At Gezira. 

Theatres.— Opera House, in the 
Place de l’Opera, where there are 
performances during the season by 
fair French or Italian companies. 
The opera of “Aida,” written by 
Verdi for the festivities at the open¬ 
ing of the Suez Canal, can be seen 
with the original scenery. A small 
open-air theatre, in the Esbekiya 

Baths. — The Hammam, near 
Shepheard’s, just out of the Esbe¬ 
kiya, is a new establishment, al¬ 
most entirely patronised by Eng¬ 
lish residents and visitors. Every 

Section 5 



kind of bath, and massage. Prices 
begin at P.T. 5 for swimming or 

Barbers and Hairdressers, - 

In the larger hotels. Also —Salon 
de Club Khedivial, Chareh Manakh; 
Savoy Hairdressing Saloon, opposite 
Savoy Hotel. 

General Outfitters. — Davies 
Bryan, next door to the Grand 
Continental Hotel. Philipps, 
Chareh el-Manakh. Collacott, same 
street. Walker Je Meimarachi 
Ltd., in the Esbekiya. 

Gunsmith.— Baiocchi, near the 
Credit Lyonnais. 

Booksellers and Stationers,— 

Diemer near, and Zacharia and 
Livadas opposite Shepheard’s 
Hotel. Rosenfdd, next to the 
Grand Continental Hotel. Barbier, 
Chareh el-Manakh. International 
Library, opposite Savoy Hotel. 

Provision and Wine Merchants. 
— Zigada, near Shepheard’s Hotel. 
Walker <b Meimarachi Ltd., in the 

Photographers. — Zacharia, Die¬ 
trich, beside Shepheard’s Hotel. 
Lekegian, near Shepheard’s Hotel. 
Reiser, Chareh el-Manakh. For 
photographic materials, Diradour, 
Place de 1’Opera. International 
Library, opposite Savoy Hotel. 

Optician. — Sussmann, in the 

Arab Woodwork, etc. —The finest 
collections of both old and new ob¬ 
jects are found at Parvis, next to 
Shepheard’s Hotel, and Hat&n, in 
the Muski. MallUk, on the right 
hand side of the Muski. At all 
these places the workshops may be 
seen. A higher price than will 
eventually be taken is generally 
asked in the bazaars. 

Antiquities are best obtained at 
the Museum, it being impossible 
for an amateur to tell the true from 
the false, of which many will be 
offered to him. 

Hospitals.—The Kasr el-Eini 
Hospital, PI. A 4, with a school of 
medicine, under Dr. Keatinge. On 
the Nile, between Old Cairo and 
Bfilak. The Anglo-American Hos¬ 

pital, at Gezira. Opened in 1903. 
Special wards, P.T. 100; private 
wards, P.T. 30; general wards, 
P.T. 15. Staff of . British and 
American practitioners. Open to all 
nationalities, but preference given 
to British and American subjects. 
Military Hospital, in the Citadel. 
The European Hospital (Dr.- For- 
nario), in . the' Abbasiya; well 
managed under supervision of the 
Consuls. Paying patients,. 6-12 
francs a day. The Victoria Hos¬ 
pital, near the German Consulate; 
under good management. Nurses 
are Kaiserwerth Deaconesses. Pay¬ 
ing patients taken. 

Newspapers. — The Egyptian 
Gazette, Journal du Caire, Echo 
d' Orient, La Rlforme, The Sphinx. 

Suggested Itineraries for see¬ 
ing the Sights of Cairo. 

[It should be remembered that 
Friday, being the Mohammedan 
Sunday, is not a good day for the 
bazaars or shopping, but it is the 
fete day when all the world goes 

(a) Morning. —Walk to the Esbe¬ 
kiya, and see gardens and shops. 
Take a cab or donkey thence along 
the Muski and Rue Neuve to the 
Khan el-Khalil, Dismiss the cab, 
and walk through some of the 
bazaars. Drive back to the hotel. 
Afternoon. — Drive through the 
Abdin Square to the Citadel (fine 
view about sunset), and see the 
mosques in the neighbourhood. 
Tombs of the Mamlfiks. 

(fi) Morning. —Drive, or take a 
donkey or tram to the Arab Mu¬ 
seum ; to the Mosque el-Burdeni, 
Bab ez-Zuwela. Visit shoemakers’ 
and tent bazaars, Mosque el-Muay- 
yad, Mosque el-Ghfiri, Mosque el- 
Azhar, and return by the Muski. 
Afternoon.— Drive to Heliopolis. 

.(c) Morning.—To the Kasr en- 
Nil Bridge. Afternoon. —Start 
early. Drive or take tram to Old 
Cairo ; Howling dervishes on 
Fridays ; Mosque of Amru ; Old 
Babylon, with Coptic churches; 



Section S 

Island of R3da; and Nilometer. 
Return by tram, unless (best plan) 
the carriage has been kept. If 
driving, visit Mosque of Tulfin on 
way back. 

(' d ) Morning.— Drive to the Mfir- 
istanofKalaun; Barkfikiya; Mosque 
el Hakim ; Bab el-Futfih ; Bab en- 
Nasr; and, if time, Tombs of the 
Khalifs. Afternoon. —By train to 

(e) The Egyptian Museum, several 
visits necessary. On Friday drive 
round Gezira, the fashionable drive. 

The Excursions to the Pyra¬ 
mids and to the Barrage are 
whole-day excursions. See “Ex¬ 
cursions from Cairo. ” 

Note about Cab-drivers. —The 
ordinary arabiya driver does not 
know the names of many of the 
streets as they are indicated on the 
map, and he cannot read them. 
But by using the map and saying 
“ yaminak," if it is desired to turn 
to the right, and “ shemdlak” for 
turning to the left, the ordinary 
traveller can go about Cairo a great 
deal without the aid of a guide. 
See also Arabic phrases in “Pre¬ 
liminary Information.” Every 
driver understands the direction, 
“ Muslci.” The Arabic for mosque 
is G&mi. 

Description op Cairo. 

To the traveller arriving at the 
central railway station and driving 
straight to his hotel in the Ismailiya 
quarter, a first view of Cairo may be 
very disappointing. The large Euro- 
pean-looking houses, the watered 
roads, the people ' in European 
clothes, the hotel omnibus—these 
all belong to Western civilisation. 
But the Arab in his long white 
garment with a red tarbUsh on his 
head, or the lower-class native in 
blue galabtya and curious brown 
cap, are evidences that this is truly 
the East, and that not far off is the 
Cairo of his imagination. He may 
be wakened in the morning by a 
steam-hooter, or by two at once, 
making a prolonged whistle. These 

belong to corn mills, and the call is 
to let people know that they are 
waiting for more corn to be brought. 
Whenever the immediate supply is 
finished, they begin hooting again. 

The natives call Cairo Masr or 
Masr el-Kahira, and are very proud 
of being Cairenes, considering them¬ 
selves superior to the inhabitants 
of other towns in Egypt. Of the 
600,000 souls that make up its 
population, no less than 21,650 
are Europeans. 

It was about a thousand years 
ago that this city of El-Kfihira or 
“the Splendid” was founded by 
one Gohar, a general of the Fatimide 
dynasty. This town was but a 
successor to the ancient town called 
Babylon, a Roman fortress, which 
ray a little south of the present 
town, now beyond the mounds of 
“Old Cairo.” When this fortress 
was conquered by the Khalif Omar, 
a.d. 639, the new portion of the 
town that sprang up was called 
FosUt, the Arabic for “ tent,” from 
the fact of the conqueror’s tent 
having been pitched there. 

Cairo was the residence of the 
Khalifs during their period of 
power, and it is to them we owe 
so many of the beautiful mosques 
that form one of the attractions to 
travellers. Under Mohammed Ali 
the town was much improved by 
the making of wide new streets, and 
under his successor Ismail the new 
European quarter began to grow 

The city lies between the Nile and 
the Ismailiya Canal, which bound it 
on the north and west, while the 
Mokattam Hills overlook it on the 
south-east. Close to the hills is 
the Citadel, which is practically on 
their northernmost spur. The area 
of the city, not including the Is¬ 
mailiya quarter, is about 3 square 
miles. It is customary to speak of 
the different Quarters of the town, 
though the strictness with which in 
the oriental part of the city they 
were originally shut off from one 
another is a thing of the past. A 
few of their gates remain. The 





Scale : V 27,548 




du'Nil I 

iBDlN 1 


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AU-Su nkur) 



r \\ // 

■^4 j 1 


Z\\// \\ 





L on don: Macmillan & C?, 

Section 5 


quarters were called after the 
people who lived in them, or after 
some well-known man or building, 
or according to the trades of their 
inhabitants. The principal quar¬ 
ters were the Christian, Copt, 
Jews, and Frank quarters. The 
modem Ismailtya quarter includes 
all the new part commenced under 
Ismail, where the chief hotels and 
European houses are. Newer still 
is the Kasr ed-Dub&ra quarter by 
the river, south of the Nile bridge, 
where live the British consul- 
general, and many English officials. 
Some of the houses have pretty 
gardens. Many of the English 
residents now live at Gezira. 

In the Nile at this point are two 
Islands. The great Nile Bridge 
leads over to the Gezira (island 
of) Bfilak, commonly called Gezira. 
Here are the large palace of Ismail 
now turned into an hotel, and the 
grounds of the sporting club. (See 
also p. 74.) 

Of the old Walls of Cairo built 
by Salah-ed-din (Saladin) in a.d. 
1180, only portions on the north 
and east of the town remain. The 
principal Gates remaining are the 
Bab [gate) en-Nasr near the Arab 
Museum, the Bab el-FutAh a little 
further west, and the Bab ez-Zuwila 
at the end of the Sukkariya, beside 
the Mosque el-Muayyad. These 
gates are worth seeing when the 
mosques near them are visited. 

Centres of Interest. 

The modem centre of Cairo is the 
Esbeklya Square, PI. B C 2, with 
its pretty gardens. It was Ismail 
Pasha who turned what was a piece 
of low-lying ground, flooded during 
the inundation, into this charming 
pleasure-ground. Round the square 
cluster many of the principal build¬ 
ings in Cairo. At its S.-W. comer 
is the Place de l’Opfra with the 
opera-house, and a statue of IbrShim 
Pasha. Passing up the west side 
we come first to the large terrace of 
the Grand Continental Hotel, fol¬ 
lowed by several shops, some good 

4 • 

jewellers, and cafes. Continuing a 
little way out of the square we come 
to Shepheard’s Hotel, beside which 
a military band often plays, and 
Cook’s office. Opposite are offices 
of tourist and forwarding agents, 
etc., and the headquarters of the 
American Mission (see p. 46). 

Returning to the S.-W. comer 
arid continuing along the south side 
of the square, we pass the opera- 
house, and presently the road 
widens out in front of the Interna¬ 
tional Tribunal. The Post-office 
is to the right, in the Chareh Taher. 
Behind the International Tribunal is 
the Place Atabet el-Hadra, where the 
tram-line crosses, and where there 
is a good opportunity of observing 
native life. The Muskl, PI. C 2, 
leaves the N.-E. comer of this 

Returning to the Esbekiya, we go 
up the east side and pass the Crridit 
Lyonnais, then further on the 
Bourse, facing the small square 
Midan el-Khaznedar. The Hotel 
Bristol is on the north side of this 

The north side of the Esbekiya 
presents little of interest to the 

The Muski and its continuation 
the Rue Neuve, off which are most 
of the bazaars, is the chief centre of 
interest to the traveller. The west 
end of this street has become much 
Europeanised, and there are a few 
ood shops in it. But here is a 
urry and bustle and noise which 
form a different atmosphere from 
that of the quiet broad roads of the 
Ismailiya quarter. The shrieking 
of the aramya (carriage) drivers, 
the cracking of their whips, the 
sharp cry of vendors of various 
goods, the rattle and tinkle of the 
two brass bowls, or two glass cups, 
of the sellers of cool drinks, and 
the braying of donkeys, make such 
a din as the Arabs seem to love. 
Occasionally a poor camel comes 
lumbering along, and if you are in 
a narrow side street you have to 
step into a doorway to let him pass. 
There is much colour and great 



Section 5 

variety of costume. The better- 
class women all wear black silk 
cloaks (habara) over their gay 
clothes, so that no colour is seen 
but their bright stockings, usually 
pink. They wear the long strip, 
of veiling which covers their faces 
from the eyes, and a cruel-looking 
gold ornament on their noses. The 
poorer women wear this veil too ; it 
is only the very poorest who do not 
use it, and these generally tattoo 
blue lines on their chins. 

The smart Arab gentleman wears 
a striped silk kaftan, and over that 
a loose flowing cloak of French serge 
or some such material. All the 
men except the very poorest wear 
the red tarbfish, but many wind a 
scarf or turban round their heads 
as well. A green turban signifies 
that the man has been to Mecca. 

The blind beggar is a sadly fre¬ 
quent sight, ophthalmia, carried so 
much by the flies, doing deadly 
work among the poor. The general 
cry is “ meskin,” i.e. poor man. 

Oa, i.e. take care, is the com¬ 
monest street warning. Riglak 
“your foot,” shemMak “your left,” 
yaminak “your right,” are the fre¬ 
quent cries of the driver. 

Sometimes in passing an open 
door or lattice, the sound of a 
number of young voices in unison 
may be heard. This is a Kuttab , or 
elementary native school, in which 
are taught reading, writing, and 
the Koran. The little figures may 
be seen swaying backwards and 
forwards in true Arab fashion as 
they recite passages from their 
sacred book. 

The Kasr en-Nil Bridge, PI. A 
2,3, is a very lively centre of interest. 
It is approached from the Ismailiya 
quarter by the Chareh Kasr en-Nil 
and the Chareh Suleiman Pasha. To 
the right on approaching it are the 
New Museum and barracks. It is 
an iron bridge on stone piers. 
Once a day a section of the bridge 
swings round on its pier and a 
passage is thus left for boats to 
pass up and down the river. Quite 
a crowd collects here at these times, 

waiting for the bridge to close. A 
motley collection of Fellahin with 
camels variously laden, with 
donkeys and sheep, of arabiyas 
and native carts, and a small crowd 
of mixed nationalities, fill the 

To direct an arabiya driver to 
take you to the bridge, it is sufficient 
to say El Kubri, “the bridge.” 

The Bazaars. 

The bazaars should not be visited 
on Friday, as most of the shops 
will be found closed. 

The would-be purchaser must 
remember that the great feature of 
“shopping” in the East is the bar¬ 
gaining that has to be done. The 
seller usually asks about double 
the amount that he will eventually 
take, and patience and good-hum¬ 
oured courtesy are necessary if a 
good bargain is to be made. Many 
of the vendors know a little English 
or French, and in the larger shops 
in the Khan el-Khalil some Euro¬ 
pean language is spoken. 

It is more satisfactory to walk 
through them than to go on donkey- 
back, as one is then more indepen¬ 

Drive to the Mosque of Hasanen 
(p. 54), opposite which is the en¬ 
trance to the Kh&n el-Khhlil, PI. D 2. 
This large covered-in bazaar is said 
to have been founded at the end of 
the thirteenth century. Passing 
shops with amber, turquoises, and 
trinkets, we come to the silk stuff 
and carpet bazaars. On Mondays 
and Thursdays, from about 9 a.m. to 
11 a.m., there is a kind of auction 
market here, the articles being 
carried about by the dell Alin. On 
the left we find a little picturesque 
branch bazaar where the brass 
workers live. There is here a very 
pretty Arab gateway. Continu¬ 
ing along the Khan el-Khalil, after 
a sharp turn we find ourselves in 
the open street called the Chareh 
(street) el-Khordagiya f nearly oppo¬ 
site the Mfiristan of Kalafin {p. 65). 
Crossing this street, through the 

Section S 



coppersmiths’ bazaar, we enter 
through a gateway the 
SHk ea-Salgh, or bazaar of the 
gold and silver smiths. This and the 
little lanes off it are extremely nar¬ 
row and dirty, and perhaps, there¬ 
fore, more truly characteristic. 
The goods for sale are uninteresting 
and poor. Passing through part of 
the G6ha.rgiya, where are jewellers, 
we return to the Muski, or Rue 
Neuve, by the Rue des Serafs. 
Cross the street continuing in a 
straight line until—first big turning 
on the left—we reach the 
SHk el-HamzdvA, where the shop¬ 
keepers are Christians and Copts. 
Their wares are chiefly European 
articles. At the Mosque el-Ashraf, 
instead of going right into the open 
street called Chareh el-AkkSdin, 
turn to the right down the 
SAk el-Att&rin, where so-called 
attar of roses is sold, and other 
perfumes and spices. The Mosque 
el-Ghflri (p. 54) is at the junction 
of this bazaar with the 

Suk el-Fahhdnun, the Moorish 
bazaar, where articles from the 
Barbary coast are sold. At the 
end, turn into the open street, here 
called Man&khillya , one of the most 
amusing streets in Cairo—crowded, 
noisy, and gay—at the same time 
more truly Oriental than the Muski. 
Here are many drapery shops. 
Where the street joins the Sflkkariya 
at the Mosque of Fflkih&ni with a 
sebil or fountain, the 
SAk el-Menaggidin turns off to 
the right. This is the tailors' and 
cloth-merchants’ bazaar. Undressed 
wool is also sold. Returning to 

Sukkarlya , the bazaar for sugar, 
dried fruits, etc., and continuing 
south, we reach the Mosque el- 
Muayyfid (p. 54) and the Bab ez- 
Zuwlla (p. 56). Outside the gate 
to the right are 

Shoemakers' Bazaar, where the 
scarlet and yellow shoes make bril¬ 
liant patches of colour, and further 
on the very picturesque 
Tent bazaar. Here are made the 
curtains, coverings, tents, and 

smaller articles in coarse muslin 
applique on sail cloth. The effect 
of some of the conventional designs 
in bright red, blue, yellow, and 
green, is very striking. 

The Silk es-S-uddn, where objects 
from the Sudan are sold, and the 
Bookbinders' Bazaar are near the 
Mosque el-Azhar (p. 54). 

It is better to take bazaars and 
mosques together, making two visits 
of it, and one may divide them into 
mosques and bazaars north of the 
Muski, and mosques and bazaars 
south of the Muski. 

North of the Muski. —Mosque 
of Hasancn, Khan el-Khalil; car¬ 
pet, brass, copper, gold, and silver 
bazaars. Mhristfin of Kalafln. 
Barkfikiya. Mosque el-Hakim for 
the Bab en-Nasr. 

South ofthe Muski.— Hamziiwi, 
Sudfin goods, bookbinders’ bazaar, 
Mosque el-Azhar, scent and tailors’ 
bazaars, with Mosque el - Ghfiri. 
Sukkariya. Mosque el - Muayyad 
and Bab ez-Zuwela. Shoe and tent 

The Citadel, and the Sultan 
Hasan Mosque. 

The drive to the Citadel should be 
made to include a view of the Abdln 
Square, PI. B 2, 3, where is the 
Khedive’s Palace. On starting from 
the square ofthe post-office, the elec¬ 
tric tram maybe taken, which goes 
vid the wide, straight, and rather 
uninteresting Sharia Mohammed 
Ali. Passing on the left the Khe- 
divial Library and Arab Museum, 
and further on, the Mosque el-Kesfin, 
which was ruthlessly mutilated when 
Mohammed Ali ordered the boule¬ 
vard to be made irrespective of 
obstacles, we reach the 

Mosque of Sultan Hasan, PI. C 3 
(see section on “ Mosques ”), just be¬ 
low the Citadel Hill. It is one of 
the first and most imposing mosques 
in Cairo, but unfortunately is not 
in a good state of preservation. It • 
was built by Hasan, a grandson of 
Kalafln, jn the fourteenth century. 
The design is on a broader and 



Section 5 

grander scale than that of most 
of the Cairene mosques, and the 
massive gateway, 60 ft. high, has 
served as a model for other 
mosques in the Mohammedan 
world. The stalaetitie cornice of 
the facade projects 6 ft. from 
the wall. The south minaret is 
280 ft. high, being the highest in 

Entering, we pass through two 
rooms and a corridor to the main 
court. This is cruciform, according 
to the style of the period. The 
court is lofty, and the four arches 
of the recesses very grand. In the 
centre is the large fountain for 
ablutions, and a smaller one beside 
it. The eastern recess is as usual 
the largest, the span of the arch 
being nearly 70 ft. Here is the 
labia, or sacred niche, indicating the 
direction of Mecca, and the mdmbar 
or pulpit. 

The beautiful door, inlaid with 
gold and silver and bronze, to 
the right of the pulpit, leads into 
the mausoleum of the founder 
of the mosque. In the centre under 
the dome is the sarcophagus of the 

The building has at various times 
done duty as a fortress. 

The unfinished mosque opposite 
the Sultan Hasan is the Rifaiya. 
It contains the burial-vault of the 
Khedive Ismail. 

Leaving the mosque, we come to 
(right) the Place Rum 61a, whence 
the Mecca pilgrimage starts. Out 
ofitleadsthe long Place Mohammed 
Ali. From the N.-E. side of the 
Place Humela the road winds up 
to the 

Citadel, PI. D 4.—There is a 
steeper road (notfor carriages) which 
goes through the Bab el-Az4b, by the 
place where, in 1811, Mohammed 
Ali treacherously trapped the 460 
Mamlfiks and massacred them, one 
only escaping. 

The fortress dates back to 1166, 
when Saladin, according to Arab 
history, brought stones from the 
small pyramids at Gizeh to build it. 
Though it commands the city, it is 

itself commanded by the surround¬ 
ing Mokattam Hills, and is there¬ 
fore practically useless in these 
days of modem artillery. 

Passing through two gateways, 
we come to the terrace with the 

Mohammed Ali Mosque, PI. I) C 

4. —The dome, and two extremely 
slender minarets of this mosque, form 
one of the most striking and pictur¬ 
esque features of Cairo. The country 
being so flat, with the exception of 
the Mokattam Hills, it can be seen 
for a great distance all round. In 
the court, which is paved with 
white marble, is a pretty hanefiya 
(fountain) of alabaster. The clock 
in the tower to the west was pre¬ 
sented to Mohammed Ali by Louis 

The interior of the mosque is a 
mixture of gorgeousness and taw¬ 
driness, but the proportions are 
rather pleasing. The columns are 
encased and the walls lined with 
alabaster up to a certain height, 
beyond which there is painting in 
imitation of the precious material. 
The coloured glass in the windows 
is unpleasing, but the number of 
hanging lamps has a pretty effect. 
In the S.-W. comer is the tomb of 
Mohammed Ali. On the evening— 
between 8 and 10—of the 14th day 
of Ramadan, there is a crowded 
attendance, at a service in memory 
of the founder of the reigning 
dynasty. Travellers should try 
and visit the mosque then, or on 
the night of the 27th of Ramadan, 
when a somewhat similar scene 
takes place, and all the mosque is 

Leaving the mosque, walk round 
the outside to the parapet at the 

5. -W. corner, whence a very fine 
view of the city and country is 
obtained, with the Nile and the 
Pyramids in the west. The view 
is particularly charming at sunset. 

The Mosque of Sult&n Kalattn 
was for some time used as a store¬ 
house, but it has been somewhat 
renovated. Its minarets are parti¬ 
ally coated with green tiles, similar 

Section S 



to tlie green-tiled mosque in 
Damascus. The interior is worth 
a visit. 

The Palace built by Moham¬ 
med Ali is now the quarters of the 
English officers. Here also is the 
Central Military Hospital. 

The Well Of Joseph is to the S. -E. 
of the Mosque of Kalattn. It takes 
its name from Saladin, whose name 
was also Joseph (Ytisuf), who dis¬ 
covered it and caused it to be cleared. 
It is probably the work of the ancient 
Egyptians. It is cut out of the 
limestone to the depth of 290 ft., 
where it is supposed by some to 
have a connection with the Nile. 
A pathway winds round the well, 
damp in places and steep. But the 
descent may be made for a short 
distance. The water is not now 

Descending from the Citadel, a 
visit may conveniently be made to 

Tombs of the MamlCks. 

Passing through the Place 
Mohammed Ali, we leave the city 
by the Bab el-Karafa, whence a 
good carriage road leads to the 

The tombs are in a more ruinous 
state than the tombs of the Khalifs, 
and are less interesting. But few 
of them have been identified. The 
most conspicuous is the large dome 
of the Tomb of the Im4m esh- 
Shaflh, who died in a.d. 820, the 
founder of one of the four great 
Mohammedan sects. The walls of 
the interior have a high dado of 
marble, but the whole effect is 
inartistic. The Imfim’s tomb is 
covered with gold - embroidered 

Near this tomb is the burial 
place of the reigning family. 
The building consists of two domed 
chambers and a long corridor. 

The Mosqdes. 

Tickets for the mosques, P.T. 2 
each, can be obtained at the Post 

Office, from tourist agents, or from 
the hotel porters. 

Of the 264 mosques in Cairo, 
many are unfortunately in a more 
or less ruinous state. But the 
Egyptian Government has been in¬ 
strumental in appointing a com¬ 
mission for the preservation of these 
monuments of Arabic art. 

It is better to avoid the mosques 
at 12, the hour of prayer; indeed, 
the caretakers will sometimes hardly 
admit a Christian at that time. 

No Christian may walk in a 
mosque in his boots. Wide slippers 
are therefore provided at the 
entrance for the use of visitors, for 
the use of which a trifling sum is 

The true Moslem should say his 
prayers five times a day, and this 
need not be done in a mosque. 
But he must remove his shoes and 
turn to the east— i.e. Mecca—and 
do a certain amount of washing 
first. It is for the purpose of 
these ablutions that there is a 
fountain in every mosque. 

There are two distinct plans, 
according to which the mosques are 
built. ( a ) The court surrounded by 
columns and arcades with a Liwdn 
with many columns, of which the 
Tulfin mosque is the type. 
( b ) The cruciform, of which the 
Sultan Hasan is the type. 

The mosques are called after the 
names of their founders. 

The Mosque of Amru (see “ Visit 
to Old Cairo ”). 

The Mosque of Tilltln, PI. C 4, 
is isolated from all the other 
places of interest, but it may be 
taken on the way back from Old 
Cairo. This is the oldest mosque 
in Cairo itself, that of Amru in Old 
Cairo being older. The Kufic in¬ 
scription tells us that it was founded 
in a.d. 879. It is built of brick 
and covered with stucco, and the 
decorations are in wood and carved 
stucco. But the chief interest in 
the mosque is its curious minaret. 
The Sultan is said to have told his 
architect that he wished to be able 
to ride up it on horseback. The 



Section 5 

outside .staircase, therefore, first 
takes the form of a mere sloping 
plane instead of steps, 

The Mosque of el-Azhar, PI. D 2, 
was originally built by Gohar , the 
founder of Cairo, about a.d. 973, but 
since it was turned into a university 
in 988 it has been so added to and 
altered by different sultans that 
none of the old building remains. 
The mosque is so surrounded by 
houses that little but its six 
minarets can be seen. The interior 
presents a sight different from any 
of the other mosques. Entering by 
the ‘‘Barber’s Gate,” between a 
•small mosque and the steward’s 
office, we come into the large open 
court, which has several small 
cisterns instead of one central 
Kanefiya. Opposite the entrance 
is the LiwAn with its 140 marble 
columns. In the centre is a kind 
of pulpit, from which certain 
portions of the Koran are recited, 
and behind it in the east wall is the 
kibla, or sacred niche. The Liwdn 
covers an area of 3600 sq. yds. The 
arches of the colonnades are of the 
pointed horse-shoe type. But here, 
Instead of the usual emptiness and 
silence of the mosques, is a crowd 
of young men and the noise of 
voices in unison. Out of the glar¬ 
ing sun of this court, under the 
roof of the Liwan , are many groups 
of boys and men clustered round 
various teachers. They are mostly 
seated in circles. Some are repeat¬ 
ing the Korin, some are taking 
notes, and some are only listening. 
The chief of all these teachers, 
the President of the University, 
called the Shikh el - Azhar, is 
elected by the other principal 
teachers, who brook no outside in¬ 
terference in this matter. The 
teaching is not education in the 
modern sense, consisting as it does 
merely of learning by heart various 
old treatises on religion, juris¬ 
prudence, logic, rhetoric, poetry, 
&c. The student stays from three 
to five years, and when he has 
qualified in every subject he 
■receives a diploma. The SMkh el- 

A receives a salary of P. T.10,000, 
but .the other teachers receive 
nothing, nor do the students pay 
fees, the mosque being considerably 
endowed. The number of students, 
which rose to nearly ten thousand 
fifteen years ago, has much de¬ 
creased since the British occupation. 
The IAwAns north and south of the 
court are divided into apartments 
for the students from the various 
parts of the Mohammedan world 
who come to learn here. The 
mosque possesses a fine collection 
of Korans, which may be seen. 

The Mosque el-Ghtiri, PI. C D 2, 
is in the Chareh Akkadin,at the junc¬ 
tion of the scent and Moorish bazaars 
(p. 51). Opposite is a medrisa , or 
school, and a most effective sebtl or 
fountain. This is one of the most 
picturesque places in Cairo. The 
thronged street full of colour, hav¬ 
ing the domes and minarets of the 
handsome mosque on the west and 
the decorated sebil on the east, 
makes a striking picture. The 
mosque dates back to 1513. The 
interior is interesting from its in¬ 
laid floor, the kiblcc, the roof, the 
windows, and the Kujie inscriptions. 
It has been well restored. 

The Mosque el-Muayy&d, PI. C 
2, 3, at the end of the Sukkariya , 
and beside the Bab ez-Zuw8la 
(p. 56), is sometimes called the 
GAmi el - Ahmar, from its red 
colour outside. It was founded 
about 1412, but is being re¬ 
stored, so that only the original 
LtwAn remains. This is one of the 
most richly decorated in Cairo. 
We enter by a flight of steps from 
the Sukkarlya , and pass through a 
beautiful marble archway with a 
fine bronze door which came from 
the Sultan Hasan mosque. To the 
right is the tomb of Muayyad the 
founder. The lofty LtwAn has 
been most tastefully redecorated, 
and the pulpit in red wood, inlaid 
with ivory and silver, is worthy of 
notice. The windows are old, the 
stucco work and coloured glass 
being wonderfully preserved. 

The Mosque of el-Hasan6n, PI. 

Section 6 



D 2—at the east end of the Kh&n 
el-Khalil (p. 50) — or Mosque of 
Hus§n, a grandson of the Prophet, 
whose head was supposed to be 
buried here. It is dedicated to 
Husen and Hasan, grandsons of the 
Prophet. The building, entirely 
modernised, is not very interesting. 
No Christians are allowed into the 
chamber behind the green curtain, 
where is the head of Hus§n. An 
annual festival is held here. 

The Mosque and MhristAn of 
Kalatln, PI. D 2, near the west end 
of the Khan el-Khalil in the Chareh 
el-Khordagiya. This is a group of 
buildings. The Murist&n or hos¬ 
pital and madhouse, built by Kalafin 
(1287), has almost entirely dis¬ 
appeared, there being coppersmiths’ 
and tinkers’ shops on its site. 
There is much in the architecture 
of this group that reminds one of 
the Romanesque or Norman style. 
Entering by the imposing black and 
white marble arch, we come, through 
a similar arch on the left, to the 
mosque. It is in a sad state of dis¬ 
repair, incrustations of salt spoiling 
the fine inlaying of marble, tortoise¬ 
shell, mother-of-pearl, and other 
precious materials. 

Returning to the passage, we find 
on the right the Tomb of Kalatln. 
The antechamber, formerly a library, 
is divided from the mausoleum by 
a screen. This mausoleum, fortun¬ 
ately better preserved than many of 
the Cairo mosques, is unique in 
structure. In the centre is the 
tomb, surrounded by a wooden 
screen. Round it are eight columns 
supporting a kind of octagonal 
canopy on pointed arches. Some 
of these columns are said to pos¬ 
sess miraculous virtues. Sick people 
come and rub a lime on them, 
and, licking up the juice that runs 
down, believe they will be cured. 
Idiots also are cured with a knock 
on the head from a stick which 
hangs on the railing of the tomb. 

The Mosque Mohammed en- 
Naslr is next to the Mftristan. 
The Arabic inscription over the 
portal tells us that the mosque was 

built in 1303 by Kalaiin, the father 
of Mohammed en-Nasir. The fine 
doorway, with its marble pillars, is 
said to have been brought from Acre 
after its fall. Entering, we find the 
tomb to the right and the mosque 
to the left. 

The Mosque of Sultan Barktlk, 

or the Barkftkiya, is a few steps 
north of the M-AristAn. Here are 
buried the wife and daughter of the 
Sultan Barkuk. But the mosque 
presents little of interest to the 
ordinary traveller. 

The Mosque ofel-Hakim, PI. D2. 
—Leaving the Barktikiya, and con¬ 
tinuing north in a straight line, we 
reach this mosque. It is the oldest 
mosque in Cairo proper preserving 
its original plan, which is like that 
of the Tfilfin mosque. Some of the 
pillars and arches with the bands of 
Kufic inscription remain. At the 
north and south ends of the west 
side are two picturesque towers 
called mabkharas, one of which was 
fortified by the French (see Gates). 
The fine collection of Arab antiqui¬ 
ties now in the Chareh Mohammed 
Ali was until recently housed in this 

The Mosque of Ak-Stlnkur, PI. 

D 3, usually called the Mosque of 
Ibrahim Agha, or the “ Blue-tiled 
mosque," is in the Derb el-Wesir, 
which is a continuation of the Derb 
el-Ahmar, a street which turns sharp 
to the left as one comes through the 
Bab ez-Znwela from the north. 

The charm of this little mosque 
is the east wall, which is entirely 
covered with beautiful blue and 
green porcelain tiles. Among the 
designs the favourite cypress tree is 
conspicuous. The effect of this 
blue wall, as it were, seen from the 
other side of the court, with its trees 
and palms, is exceedingly pretty. 
The mosque was built in 1328, and 
enlarged and repaired in 1617. 

The Mosque of el-Burd6ni, 
PI. C 3, which is somewhat difficult 
to find, is one of the most perfect 
and richly decorated in Cairo. It 
is to the east of the Chareh Mo¬ 
hammed Ali, and some distance 



Section B 

south of the Bab ez-Zuwela. It is 
very small, was built in 1630, and 
restored in 1885. The mosaics in 
beautiful marbles, lapis - lazuli, 
malachite, mother - of - pearl, and 
tortoise-shell, give a very rich effect. 

Plan for seeing the Principal 
Mosques in one Afternoon. 

The following plan does not in¬ 
clude the citadel mosques and those 
near to it. 

Drivestraighttothe Bab ez-ZuwSla 
(see below) and visit the Mosque 
el-Muayyad (p. 54), which is just 
inside. Go up the Sukkariya and 
the Chareh el-Akkadin to the Mosque 
el- Ghuri (p. 54). Continue the same 
street, then turn off to the right 
along the Chareh es-San£i,dikiya to 
the Mosque d-Azhar (p. 54). On 
leaving this turn to the right, up 
the Chareh el-Halwagi, which leads 
into the Rue Neuve. Cross this 
street and continue, until, passing 
the end of the Shan el-Khalil, the 
Mosque el-HasanSn (p. 54) is passed 
on the right. Come back and go 
through the Khan el-Khalil to the 
Khordagiya, where, a little to the 
right, on the opposite side of the 
street, is the MuristAn of Kalailn 
(p. 55), and the BarkHkiya. In the 
same street, but a good deal farther 
north, is the Mosque d-Hakim. 

This tour takes one almost in a 
straight line from the Bab ez- 
ZuwSla to the Bab el-Futfth, which 
distance could be easily done by a 
good walker. If the last mosque were 
omitted, the walk would be much 

The Gates. 

The three gates worth visiting 
are the Bab en-Nasr, the Bab el- 
Futfih, and the Bab ez-Zuwela. 

The Bab (gate) en-Nasr, PI. D 2, 
or “Gate of Victory,” is at the end 
of the Chareh el-Gamfiliya, at the 
north-east of the Mosque el-Haklm. 
(Caretaker with key.) In one of the 
tortuous streets on the way there, 
notice a house with mushrabiya, 
one of the few now left in Cairo. 

This gate, and the Bab el-Ffttfth or 
“Gate of Conquests,” on the other 
siffe of the mosque, date back to 
the Fatimide period of the eleventh 
century. They are the most im¬ 
portant of the sixty gates that Cairo 
possessed in those days. They each 
consist of two massive towers, with 
outer and inner gates, and chambers 

Outside the Bab en-Nasr is the 
following inscription in Kufic char¬ 
acters :— “In the name of God, the 
Compassionate, the Merciful: the 
One, and without equal. There is 
no Deity but God. Mohammed is 
the Apostle of God. Ali is the 
Vicar of God.” The inscription on 
the frieze states that the walls and 
gates were built in 1087. Inside 
the gate a later inscription says 
that a tax was levied on every 
camel entering the gate. The west 
tower may be ascended, and from 
it one can walk by the wall to the 
next gate. This portion was forti¬ 
fied by the French in 1799. One 
walks to the Bab el-Futfth on the 
top of the wall, protected by battle¬ 
ments, and returns by a passage 
below this, in the wall. The Bab 
el-Futfth has no Kufic inscription, 
and is rather different in plan. The 
makhbara of the mosque of El- 
Hakim is close beside it. This was 
fortified by the French; and one 
can ascend and descend for short 
distances a staircase between the 
fort wall and the actual wall of the 
makhbara, and examine the inscrip¬ 
tions on the latter. 

Outside these gates are large 
Moslem cemeteries. Burckhardt— 
called by the Arabs Shekh Ibrahim 
—is buried here. This famous tra¬ 
veller and Oriental student died in 
1817, but it was not until 1870 
that the present handsome tomb 
was put up to mark the spot. 

The Bab ez-ZuwMa, PI. C 3, is 
beside the Mosque el-Muayyad, at 
the end of Sukkariya. It is now 
near the middle of the town, and 
the walls near it have disappeared. 
A tradition that the saint, Kutb el- 
Mutawelli, lived behind the western 

Section 5 



gate, and that a gleam of light is 
sometimes seen there, has caused 
the gate to be called the Bab *el~ 
Mutawelli. It belongs to the same 
period and is on the same plan as 
the Bab el-Futfih. On the inner 
east gate hang many votive offerings 
from sick people. Outside the gate 
was a place of execution. 

The Egyptian Museum. 

At Kasr en-Nil, near the bridge 
and barracks, PI. A 2. Open during 
the winter season every day except 
Friday from 9 a.m, to 4.30 p.m. 
Entrance P.T. 5. Visitors may 
draio or photograph any of the 
exhibits without special permission , 
so long as no easel or stand is set up. 
There is a Salle d’fStude for those 
who unsh to make a closer study of 
the monuments , for the use of which 
apply to the director or attendants. 
There are both English (P.T. 18) 
and French (P.T. 16) catalogues. 

The collection was commenced by 
Mariette.the great French Egyptologist, 
whose excavations brought to light so 
many of the treasures of ancient Egypt. 
In spite of many difficulties, the 
Museum was well managed under M. 
Maspero, the successor of Mariette in 
this direction, and many valuable ob¬ 
jects added. But there was no room 
to exhibit them, and much of extreme 
value and interest had to be merely 
stored away in sheds. It was not till 
some time after M. Maspero had left to 
take up professional duties in Paris 
that the pressure of public opinion, and 
the scandal of the imminent danger 
from Nile flood and from fire, in which 
the unique collection stood, caused the 
Khedive's advisers to bestir themselves 
in the matter. The Government could 
not afford to build, and though the 
Gizeh Palace seemed a very unsuitable 
place for a museum, at least it was 
large, and there would be room to ex¬ 
hibit the objects. And so, under the 
superintendence of M. Gr6baut, the 
director, and Brugsch Bey, the collection 
was successfully removed in less than a 
year. M. Gr6baut, owing to ill-health, 
was unable to complete the good work 
he had begun, and it was left to M. de 
Morgan, who succeeded him in 1892, to 
arrange the vast collection. He opened 
about fifty new rooms, making in all 
nearly ninety rooms with exhibits. He 

has also done excellent work in ex¬ 
cavating throughout Egypt. In 1897 
he was succeeded by M. Victor Loret, 
and in 1899 M. Maspero was induced to 
succeed M. Loret, and return to the 
post he had so ably filled when the 
museum was young. 

The arduous task of removing the 
vast collection of Egyptian an¬ 
tiquities from their old quarters at 
Gizeh to the new building in Cairo 
was completed in the autumn of 
1902, under the untiring supervision 
of Professor Maspero, Director- 
General of the Antiquities Depart¬ 
ment, within the marvellously short 
space of five months. 

The bringing of the museum into 
Cairo itself is a great boon to visitors 
and tourists, who are thus saved 
both a three-mile drive and having 
to time their visits according to the 
opening and closing of the bridge. 
It was also an absolutely necessary 
precaution for the safety of the 
priceless collection, the palace at 
Gizeh not being fire-proof. It was 
in 1892 that the Government became 
alive to the possibility of a disaster, 
and decided to build a new home for 
the antiquities. But the plan fell 
through for a time, and it was not 
until 1894 that the present site was 
fixed upon, and a prize offered for 
the best design for a suitable build¬ 
ing. A place was selected, a tender 
accepted, and the Khedive laid the 
foundation-stone on 1st April 1897. 
It was not, however, until the re¬ 
sponsibility for the completion of 
the building was handed over to the 
Director-General of the Tanzim, in 
1898, that any real progress was 
made in the matter. 

The museum, which has cost 
£E189,220, was opened by the 
Khedive on 15th November 1902. 
There is nothing striking or remark¬ 
able about the building either out¬ 
side or in ; indeed, the magnificent 
collection seems worthy of better 
housing. The buildings cover an 
area of 15,000 sq. metres, and the 
interior floor - space amounts to 
15,050 sq. metres, whereas at Gizeh 
only 9700 sq. metres were available 
as show-space. The ground floor is 

Ground Floor. 


Section 5 



capable of supporting weights up to 
6 metric tons per sq. metre, and 
there is a crane capable of lifting 
1000 kilogrammes up to the first 

The present arrangement of the 
objects is temporary, and, though 
'not satisfactory, is carried out 
on the same lines as at Gizeh, 
to avoid confusion in transport. 
But later, M. Maspero hopes to 
create out of this “depSt of an¬ 
tiquities ” a veritable Egyptian 
Museum. Hence the catalogue is 
provisory. But its notes and ex¬ 
planations are invaluable to those 
who know nothing of Egyptology. 
The system of transliteration of 
hieroglyphic names employed in 
the Catalogue differs from that 
most commonly in use. The more 
familiar form has therefore in many 
cases been added in brackets. 

Visitors who can only afford time 
for one visit to the museum should 
devote that time to the Grande Galerie 
d’Honntur, rooms A, B, H, /, M, 
on the ground floor; and Grande 
Galerie d’ Honneur, rooms A, C, D, 

H, P, Q, S, D', and Galerie des 
Bijoux, on the first floor. 

Ground Floor. 

On entering, on right and left, 

I, 2. Red granite sphinxes from 
Karnak, restored. Thutmfisis m 
(Thothmes). Advancing to the four- 
pillared Portico — against the two 
south pillars, two red granitestatues, 
the first of Ramses II, found at 
Eshmunen, sculptured from an 
architrave of an earlier temple; 
the second, of an Amenhetep of 18th 
Dynasty, for whom a religious cult 
sprang up in Ptolemaic times. 
Against the N.E. pillar, red granite 
statue, Uslrtasen III (Usertsen), 
from Abydos. Under the portico, 
two wooden funerary barks, con¬ 
structed in a manner mentioned 
by Herodotus. 111. A complete 
funerary chamber, brought from 
Sakkarah, 5th Dynasty. 

Grande Galerie d’Honneur. West 
Arm, South Colonnade. 15. Ala¬ 
baster sarcophagus, Dahshur, 12th 

Dynasty. 16. Fine limestone stele, 
5th Dynasty. 17. Red granite 
sarcophagus, possibly of a son of 
Khephren (Khafra), sculptured to 
represent a house. Like the fourth 
sarcophagus here, it was found at 
Gizeh in 1902. 4th Dynasty. 18. 
Limestone stele of Phtahhotpu 
(Ptah-hetep), perhaps the compiler 
of the “Precepts” of the cele¬ 
brated Prisse papyrus, “ the oldest 
book in the world.” 19. White 
limestone sarcophagus, interior pro¬ 
fusely decorated, 12th Dynasty. The 
large wooden sarcophagus at the end 
is that of Amenemhat, a prince of 
Hermopolis in the 12th Dynasty. 
24. 6th Dynasty stele from Sakkara. 

North Colonnade. 27. Fine red 
granite sarcophagus of 4th Dynasty. 
29, 31. Two red granite sarcophagi 
of 4th Dynasty—29 of a priest of 
Isis and Apis, 31 of prince Kama- 
sakhim. 34. Black granite stele of 
prince, with 1 ‘ false door ” such as 
is found in nearly all tombs—the 
impassable door between this life 
and the next. Against the pillars 
near the west stair, 6th Dynasty 
bas-reliefs from tomb of Sabu at 
Sakkara—Sabu receiving offerings. 

Staircase Vestibule, S. W. 37. 
Red granite sarcophagus of queen 
Nitocris from Der el Medina, 26th 

Rooms A to F contain monu¬ 
ments of the old Memphite empire, 
the finest period of sculpture. 

Room A. 54. Limestone. Frag¬ 
ment of a contract made with 
certain priests for the maintenance 
of funerary services in the chapel of 
deceased, 4th Dynasty. 55. Head¬ 
less diorite statue of Khephren 
(Khafra). After a second statue like 
55 comes a large block from a tomb 
now destroyed. 58. Agricultural 
scenes, carpenters, jewellers, sculp¬ 
tors, etc., 5th Dynasty. 60-64 are 
all 3rd Dynasty monuments from 

Room B. Two pillars with palm 
capitals from a temple of Unas, 5th 
Dynasty. Centre— 73. Fine diorite 
statue of Khephren (Khafra), 4th 
Dynasty. N.W. Angle —74. The 



Section 6 

famous Sh6kh el-Beled, a wooden 
(restored) statue of a man found 
at Sakkara. The eyes of white 
quartz, centres of crystal, with a 
polished splinter of ebony for pupil, 
bronze eyelids. The name by which 
the statue is now known was given 
to it because of the likeness to the 
then Shekh el-Beled, or mayor, of 
the village near which it was found. 
4th Dynasty. N.E. Angle —75. 
Alabaster, Khephren. 76. Men- 
kaura (Mycerinus). 77. Bed granite 
User-en-ra. S.E. Angle— 78. Lime¬ 
stone statue of Seated Scribe, 
another treasure of the collection. 
The eyes are similar to those-of the 
ShSkh el-Beled, the ebony pupil 
making them most life-like. It is 
an unmistakable portrait, and 
scarcely inferior to the well-known 
Seated Scribe of the Louvre. 80. 
Alabaster statue, probably Khufu 
(Kheops). S. W. Angle —81. Lime¬ 
stone seated statue found at Sak¬ 
kara, near 78, and a portrait of the 
same person, this time with a wig. 
The charming expression of the face 
makes it as fine a work as its com¬ 
panion. Southern portion of room 
—At the E. door. 82. Important 
historical stele, a 21st or 26th 
Dynasty copy of one of the time of 
Kheops, in which are mentioned the 
works carried out under him on the 
Gizeh plateau. The bas-relief son the 
south wall are from tombs at Sak- 
klra. Northern portion of room — 
100. Alabaster table of offerings. 

103. Belief showing a cynocephalus 
ape turning to bite a man’s leg, 
while his leader laughs sarcastically. 

104. Part of fine statue of a woman 
found with the Shekh el - Beled. 
106 and 108. Green basalt statues 
of Khephren (Khafra). 106. Head¬ 
less with cartouches on both sides 
of throne. 108. Bestored in parts. 

Room 0 may be passed through by 
the tourist who has a limited time 
for his visit. It contains a collection 
of funerary statues and stelae, the 
statues representing the double of 
the deceased, for whose use the 
chapel of the tomb was built. The 
inscriptions show little variety ex¬ 

cept as regards the names. Two 
objects maybe noticed—in theTV. W. 
angle, a portion of a large limestone 
statue of the god Min or Amsu from 
Coptos, dating probably from the 
1st or 2nd Dynasties, and hence one 
of the most ancient exhibits. 128. 
One of the earliest specimens 
known of a lotiform column. From 
the mastaba of Ptahshepses at 

Room D may likewise be rapidly 
surveyed. In the window recess, 
portion of a stele from Sakkara 
with very fine hieroglyphs. The 
granite blocks on either side of the 
window are among the oldest objects 
in the museum. Originally they 
were sculptured under Kha Sekhemui 
of the 3rd Dynasty, but the reliefs 
had been carefully mutilated at a 
later time, when the blocks were re¬ 
used. E. wall, north of the door 
—The remains of reliefs from a 
very fine 4th Dynasty mastaba at 
Dahshfir, of which there are 
other portions in the window of 
Boom E. 

Room E contains another series 
of the same objects, mostly of the 
5th and 6th Dynasties. 154. Fine 
4th Dynasty wooden statue. 155. 
One of the most precious historical 
documents in the museum. The 
inscription contains the story of 
Dna, a high official of the 6th 
Dynasty, who served under Teta, 
Pepi I, and Merenra. 

Room F. Against S. pillar of E. 
door—Fine red granite lotus-bud 
pillar, 5th Dynasty. 163. Limestone 
statues of Prince Ra-hetep and his 
wife, Princess Nefert, which rank 
with the Shekh el-Beled among the 
museum’s treasures. The group 
comes from a mastaba near the 
pyramid of Medfim. The manner in 
which the wig of the princess is 
placed over the real hair, and held 
in position by the pretty fillet, is a 
unique example. Fine 5th and 6th 
Dynasty statues in the four angles 
of the room. 164 and 165. Two 
statues of Ra-nefer, a priest of Ptah. 
166. Statue of Thi, from his tomb 
at Sakkara. In the last comer, a 

Section 5 



unique and very fine example of art 
about 3500 B.C., a restored statue 
in copper or bronze of Pepi I. The 
bust, arms, and legs consist of 
hammered plates of the metal, joined 
without the appearance of solder; 
the face, hands, and feet, cast. The 
middle part of the body probably 
consisted of an apron-like garment 
of gold or electrum, the headdress 
probably incrusted with lapis-lazuli 
or blue glass. The small statue 
beside it was found inside the larger 
one. It likewise represents Pepi i. 
From Hieraconpolis , opposite El 
Kab. On the walls , several frag¬ 
ments from tombs representing 
scenes in the life of the deceased, 
his pastimes and business, and re¬ 
ceipt of offerings, all of which was 
necessary for the Ka or “double” 
of the dead man, in order that it 
might live its full life again in 
regarding these pictures, and feast 
upon the viands depicted. Thus on 
169 we see servants making bread, 
catching a bull, milking cows, pre¬ 
paring birds and fish for cooking. 
Two dogs should be noticed. 170 
shows a game on the water, one 
sailor having fallen in. 

Rooms G to L contain monu¬ 
ments of the first Theban Empire. 

Room G. Centre —A mutilated 
sphinx, important historically as 
being probably Hyksos work, El 
Kab. The objects here are mostly 
of the transition period before the 
12th Dynasty. 

Room H. Centre —194. Wooden 
statue of a 13th Dynasty king, 
Horns. Unique example of a statue 
having the sign of the Ka on the 
top of the head. Discovered in the 
wooden naos beside it. 196. Red 
granite statueof Sovkumsauf (Sebek- 
em-saf), with figure of his son be¬ 
tween the legs. Best example of 
13th Dynasty work. 197. Alabaster 
table of offerings of princess Nofriu- 
phtah (Neferu Ptah). 197. S.E. 
Pillar —199. Limestone statue of 
Amenemhat III, the 12th Dynasty 
king-builder of the Labyrinth, and 
author of great irrigation works. 202. 
Interesting sandstone statue, prob¬ 

ably Mentuhetep I, 11th Dynasty, 
in garb of Osiris. Found in a tomb 
at Thebes, wrapped up in sheets of 
fine linen, lying on its side as if 
simulating a mummy. 

Room I. Centre—206. The tomb 
chamber of Harhotep, brought from 
Thebes, reconstructed and restored, 
having been rifled and mutilated in 
the 19th Dynasty. The decoration, 
unlike that of the 6th Dynasty 
tombs, is entirely on the flat. The 
subjects are different also, and are 
accompanied by long inscriptions. 
End wall —Lists of wines, beers, etc., 
and eatables. R. wall —Stuffs, orna¬ 
ments, arms. L. Pots con¬ 

taining perfumes, etc. The sarco¬ 
phagus is an epitome of the chamber; 
the texts inside are from the Book 
of the Dead, etc. The statues out¬ 
side the tomb are of Usertsen I, 
12th Dynasty, from Lisht. Six 
others of the same king, as Osiris, are 
arranged by the pillars. The rect¬ 
angular stone boxes from Dahshur 
were for Canopic jars. Of the stelae 
in this room, notice S. side , 219 of 
Khuu, and 220 of Antufi (Antef-aa), 
10th Dynasty. N . side —223. King 

Room 3 . 245. Sandstone seated 
statue of an old functionary. 252. 
From 12th Dynasty tomb at Aswan. 
249. From Bubastis. 

Room K. Stelae ; and Room L, 
Monuments, chiefly of the Hyksos, 
or “shepherd” kings. 270. From 
Tanis; notice the difference in 
style and cast of countenance from 
earlier monuments. 

Room M. Statues and stelae of 
18th and 19th Dynasties. S. Pillar 
of door in W. Wall —291. Fine head, 
probably Harmhabi (Hor-em-heb). 
293. Stele of Amenhetep in. 300. 
Stele, with a poem celebrating the 
victories of Thothmes in. 338. 
Chapel of the Cow, symbol of the 
goddess Hathor, from Der el Bahri. 
339. Cow, finely sculptured ; found 
in chapel. JY.E. Angle—Z12. Very 
fine head of a queen, probably 
of Amenhetep in. N.E, Pillar — 
315. Fine restored statue of Thoth¬ 
mes III. 316. Harmhabi (Hor- 



Section 6 

em-heb) as the god Khonsu, recently 
discovered at Kamak. The sculptor 
has given an exquisite expression of 
refined sadness to the face. W. 
Wall —Work of time of Khu-en- 
aten, the so-called “heretic” king. 
324. Stele showing Khu-en-aten 
adoring the solar disk. 329. Statue 
of Sen-mut, the favourite and archi¬ 
tect of queen Hatshepsu. 

Room N. Several statues of the 
lioness-headed goddess Sekhet, with 
cartouches of Amenhetep m and 
Ramses ii. 

Gallery 0. Stelae from Abydos 
and Thebes. 

North Portico, at top of stair lead¬ 
ing to central atrium, between the 
two pillars, 390, 391. Two very fine 
statues of Ptah, the god of Mem¬ 
phis, the most remarkable divine 
statues found in Egypt. 19th 
Dynasty. Against the N. Pillars — 
W., Seti IX, and a princess—from 
Kamak. E., Bamses III. 394. Black 
granite group of Bamses II between 
Isis and Hathor. To the E., be¬ 
tween 1st Column and Pillar .398- 
Large granite stele, called the Israel 
Stele, discovered by Mr. Petrie at 
Thebes. On one face, inscription of 
Amenhetep hi; on the other, one by 
Meneptah, recounting his campaign 
in Syria and enumerating the con¬ 
quered tribes. One of these has 
been translated Israel; and if this is 
correct, it is a unique example. The 
sentence is, “ Israel is wasted, and 
his seed brought to nothing.” 

Central Atrium. Arrangement 
unfinished ; intended for the largest 
and heaviest monuments. R. and 
L. of Staircase — 512, 513. Bed 
granite colossal statues of 12th 
Dynasty, re-used by Bamses II. 514, 
515, 516 likewise belong to both 

Room P. 18th and 19th Dynasty 
objects, including several cynoce- 
phali, the dog-headed ape sacred to 

Room Q. 19th and 20th Dynasty 
exhibits, chiefly from Abydos and 

Rooms R and S. Inferior monu¬ 
ments of the Eamesides. 

Room T. Several examples of the 
naos, or shrine, in which was kept 
the emblem of the god in the 

Room D. Monuments of the 
Bubastite, 22nd Dynasty, Sai'te, and 
26th Dynasty. 

Room V. Saite and Ptolemaic 

iJoomX. Ethiopian dynasty monu¬ 
ments. Centre — 685. Alabaster 
statue of Queen Amenartas. N. W. 
Pillar — 689. Head of Taharku 
(Tirhaka). Near the Window — 
690. Stele of Piankhi, 750 b.c. 

Room Y. Graeco-Homan monu¬ 
ments. Centre — 710. A Boman 
lady. To L. and R., two black 
granite statues, evidently by an 
Egyptian sculptor, in the Boman 
style. N. Side —725. Stele, with 
the celebrated Decree of Canopus, 
a celebration by the priests of the 
birthday of Ptolemy Euergetes I. 
The inscription is trilingual, being 
written in hieroglyphs, demotic, 
and Greek, in this being similar to 
the Rosetta stone in the British 
Museum. Another stele like this 
will be found at 728, and there is 
also one in the Louvre. Near W. 
Door — 730. Trilingual stele dis¬ 
covered at Philae. Inscription in 
hieroglyphs, Latin, and Greek. S. 
Side —738. Fine fragment. Head 
of a god. 

Room Z. Sai'te and Grseco-Roman 

Rooms A' and B' may be passed 

Rooms C' and D' contain monu¬ 
ments of Christian Egypt, that is, 
Coptic art. 

Grande Galerie d’Uonneur. Mast 
Arm — Sarcophagi of Sai'te and 
Ptolemaic dynasties. Those in the 
shape of a mummy were originally 
found inside rectangular sarcophagi, 
either of stone or wood. N. Colon¬ 
nade, W. end —Fine mummiform 
coffin, grey basalt, found at Sak¬ 
kara in 1902. The inscriptions on 
these magnificent monuments con¬ 
sist chiefly of chapters from the 
Book of the Dead. 

Section 6 



First Floor. 

Approach by East Staircase to 
Grande Galerie d y Honneur. 

Mummies and coffins of Priests 
of Amen, found in 1891 by M. 
Grebaut near Der el-Bahri. 21st 
Dynasty. The power of these 
priests had been gradually rising, 
until they became virtual kings at 
Thebes. The decoration of the 
coffins is similar to that of others of 
the same period, consisting usually 
of figures of the protectors of the 
dead,— Anubis , Horns, —the scene 
of the judgment of the soul, and its 
introduction into the realms of 
Osiris or Ra. 1146. Sarcophagus 
of Ankhufnimaut, son of Manakh- 
pirri (Menkheper-ra). 1151. Coffin 
of Nesestapenhertahat. On the sides, 
scenes of weeping women. 1135. 
A fine example. 1153. Coffin of 
Ankhufnikhonsu, “chief of the 
metallurgists of the house of Amen/' 
1156. Cartonnage from the coffin of 
the lady Maritamon, a singer in 
the temple. 1160. Pet-amen. 1166. 
Tanofir, an important personage. 

Southern Hall, collection of 
objects not yet put in their right 
classes. Glass Case A —Small ob¬ 
jects found with the priests’ coffins. 

1132. Unique example of mittens. 

1133. Ebony stick. Glass Cases 
along N .—Specimens of ancient 
flora. E. end of room —Several new 
discoveries. Glass Case G —Body 
of a triumphal chariot found in 
1903 in the tomb of Thothmes rv. 
Surface prepared of linen and stucco 
engraved, originally covered with 
gold. Very fine work. Glass Case 
JZ—747. A beautiful vase given by 
Amenhetep III to his queen Tii, 
blue Tuna ware. 1385. Lotus-flower 
cup. Case I —Objects chiefly from 
Egypt Exploration Fund diggings. 
S. part —Fine 2nd Dynasty schist 
palette, showing the king lifting 
his mace against an Asiatic prisoner. 
1383. Ivory statuette of Bes ; the 
handle of a mirror. CaseJ— 1388. 
Gilded wooden pectorals, and the 
chain of beads by which they were 
attached to the mummy. 1389. 

Charming perfume spoon. 1407, 
Bronze cup decorated with birds 
and flowers. Saite period. 

Room A. At the door, Case A — 
Collection of metal mirrors. Case 
B— 12th Dynasty painted wood 
statuettes. Blue glazed earthen¬ 
ware cat. This room contains 
objects of the toilette, linen and 
clothing, musical instruments, toys 
and -dolls, vases in stone and 

Room B .At the door, Case A — 
Alabaster, granite, and other hard 
stone vases. Case B —Terra-cotta 
vases, several in the form of animals. 
The room contains terra-cotta 
(simple and glazed), stone, copper, 
and bronze vases. 

Room C. Case A —Foundation 
deposits from Der-el-Bahri. Cases 
B and C— Statuettes of various 
epochs. D —689. Fine royal head, 
19th Dynasty. 692. Grey stone en¬ 
graved royal ka name, 20th Dynasty. 
698. Fine limestone statue, prob¬ 
ably Ahmes, 18th Dynasty. F, G 
{octagonal) and H contain a series 
of amulets, found with mummies of 
Saite, Ptolemaic, and Greek periods. 
They are of various stones, glass, or 
glazed ware. 

The principal forms are the ankh 
symbolising that life which 
belongs both to man and the gods. 
Dad jj , emblem of everlasting sta¬ 
bility; also of Osiris, with whom the 
deceased was identified. Thet (j^, 

the buckle of Isis, under whose 
protection it placed the deceased. 

Hez [ j , the white crown of Upper 
Egypt. Tesher ^, the red crown 

of Lower Egypt. Ab O, the heart 
which replaced in the mummy the 

Section 5 CAIRO—TEE MUSEVM 65 

actual heart. UseJch the 

collar placed on the neck of the 
mummy to give him power to free 
himself from his bandages. User 

the royal sceptre. Uaz a 

lotus column, symbolising the gift 

of eternal youth. Uzat the 

symbolic eye, often duplicated, re¬ 
presenting the sun and moon giving 
the deceased their protection. In¬ 
structions regarding the efficacy of 
and disposition on the mummy of 
all the amulets is given in the Book 
of the Dead. 

Room D. Atthedoor, “Ushabti” 
figures, or ‘‘answerers,” buried 
with the deceased in order to answer 
for him when he was called upon to 
work in the Elysian fields. The 
room contains chiefly funerary 
furniture. Case A—12th Dynasty 
funerary barks. Cases Cf and I — 
Blue glazed Ushabti. Centre of 
room, S. —Unique exampleof Middle 
Empire sailing-boat. 

Room E. Funerary statuettes, and 
Canopic jars, the vases—four to 
each mummy-—in which were placed 
the embalmed viscera. 

Room F. Funerary objects. 

Room G. Manuscripts on papy¬ 
rus and cloth. The famous writing 
material of Egypt was prepared 
from the cyperus papyrus. The 
outer rind was removed, and the 
stem then cut into thin layers. 
Several widths of this were laid 
side by side, other layers placed 
across these, with a thin solution of 
some unknown adhesive substance 
between, and the whole pressed 
and dried, forming finally a very 
fair writing surface. 

Room H. Papyri, scribes’ and 
artists’ materials. Case C —Moulds 
for making amulets. Cases D-H — 
Ostraca, i.e. little wooden boards, 
fragments of pottery, etc., inscribed 
with notes, inventories, texts, 

Room I. Papyri, sketches, and 

Room J. Furniture and domestic 

Room K. Weights and measures, 
and certain objects of civil archi¬ 
tecture. Case B —A collection of 


Room L. W. side —463, 464. 
Fragments of inlaid limestone from 
Tell-Yahfidiya, 20th Dynasty. A 
unique monument. 

Room M. Coptic monuments. 

Room N. Terra-cottas and port 
traits of Grasco-Roman period. ^ 

Gallery O. Monuments oTTJneco^ 
Roman times and of Alexandrian art. 

Northern Hall. Statues of gods 
in stone, *bronze, glazed, and other 
ware. Centre , Case A —Magnificent 
vase of black granite, heart-shape ; 
dedicated to Thoth by A pries, 26th 
Dynasty. Blue “enamel” rings, 
18th Dynasty. Case B— Objects 
remarkable for beauty of material 
or fineness of workmanship. Case 
D —1048. Hapi the Nile god. 1051. 
Bronze and gold, Imlietep. 1052. 
Goddess Hathor. 1054. Amen-Ra. 
1056. Isis. 1059. Bronze and gold, 
Anubis. 1060. Bronze and gold, 
Osiris, god of the departed. 1062. 
Horus, son of Osiris and Isis. 1067. 
Silver, vulture sacred to Mut. 
Case E — Figures of god Ptah 
and goddess Sekhet. Case F — 
Ibis-headed Thoth, jackal-headed 
Anubis. Cate K— Figure of Isis,' 
1117, in lapis-lazuli, with gold 
crown. Case A—Figures of Sekhet' 
and Bast. Case M —Figures of Shu. 
Case N —Figures of Bes. Case O — 
Osiris as a mummy. Case Q — 

Room P. The JEWEL ROOM. 

The series of objects in this room 
illustrate tbe art of the goldsmith 
and jeweller during a period of 5000 
years, i.e. from the 1st Dynasty to 
the Byzantine period. The visitor 
will be struck by the perfection 
reached in this delicate art in the 
earliest times. The larger number 
of exhibits were found on mummies 
—many made specially for the 
mummy, others worn during life 




Section 5 

and buried with the deceased, the 
latter class being the more sub¬ 
stantial. The chief stones used 
are lapis-lazuli, carnelian, jasper, 
garnet, felspar; the objects are 
collars, pectorals, chains, crowns, 
rings, amulets. W. case (centre of 
room)—Objects from Dahshhr, at D 
two beautiful crowns of Queen 
Khnumuit of gold, lapis - lazuli, 
carnelian, red jasper, and green 
felspar. E. case (centre of room)— 
Objects from Dahshur vases in ob¬ 
sidian mounted in gold, kohl pots 
in red jasper and lapis-lazuli; at 
D two line pectorals. Case IV. at 
B.—Four 1st Dynasty bracelets ; 
at G, begin the jewels of Queen 
Ahhotpu, 18th Dynasty. Note 
specially at I. 945. Gold chain 
with finest known scarab. 962. 
943, 944, 955. Case V. — 922. 
Silver vases, probably Saitic period. 

Vestibule — Small objects found 
with the mummies. 

Rooms Q to T contain the ROYAL 

Room Q. Along the south wall , 
18th and 19th Dynasty mummies. 
Along the north wall, 21st Dynasty. 
Case A, fine enamelled wood coffin 
almost covered with gold-leaf, and 
incrusted with stones and enamel. 
Queen Notmit. Case B, coffin and 
mummy of Ramses iv. Case E, coffin 
with mummies of Queen Makara 
and her newly-born infant. Case U, 
coffin and mummy of Thothmes IY. 

South Sid ?.—The principal Pha¬ 
raohs found in 1881 at Der-el-Bahri, 
and in 1898 in the tomb of Amen- 
lietepn. 1174, Saknunriya Tiuaken 
(Sekenenra), one of the last kings 
of the 17th dynasty. Case B. 
Aahmes L Case C. Amenothes r. 
(Amen-hetep), 18th Dynasty. Case 
M. Mer-en-ptah Se-ptah. Case L. 
jyigTPP^fri or Mer-en-ptah, son 
and successor of Ramses it ; ac¬ 
cording to tradition, the Pharaoh 
of the Exodus, supposed to have 
been drowned in the Red Sea. 
Case J. Ramses J I. Case N. 
Amenfltheslll . Case K. Ramses in. 
Case G. Above, a kind of winding- 
sheet with long hieroglyphic texts, 

chiefly from the Book of the Dead. 
It' tells Us that this copy was 
made by special order of Amenhe- 
tep n for his father Thothmes III. 
Case I t Seti I . Case W. Shroud of 
Ramses ill. 

Room R. Royal mummies. 

Room S. Objects found in the 
tombs of Amenhetep n and Thoth¬ 
mes in. 

Room T. Objects from tomb of 
Iuiya and Tuiyu, parents of Queen 
Tiyi, mother of Khuenaten. 

Room U. Complete contents of an 
18th Dynasty Theban tomb. 

Roo'm V. Scarabs and some monu¬ 
ments of the Memphite empire. 

RoomX. In the centre, two unique 
examples of funerary sledges. 

Room Y. Funerary monuments of 
the first Theban empire. 

Room Z. Coffins and sarcophagi, 
chiefly Greco-Roman. 

Gallery A'. Coffins of late period. 

itoowiB' Objectsnot yet classified. 

Room C'. Coffins and mummies of 
dynasties before the second Theban 

Room D\ The Oldest Egyptian 
Monuments yet known. Case 
B —1410. Ivory plaque. 1411. Lion 
in rock-crystal. Case C —1414. 
Very fine alabaster jar. Cases 
G-I~ Jar-sealings, objects which 
have for the excavator an immense 
importance, as they are often the 
only means by which a site can be 

Coptic Chueches. 

These churches are not so in¬ 
teresting as those in Old Cairo. 
The chief one or Cathedral is dedi¬ 
cated to St. Mark, PI. C 2. It is 
in the Chareh Beni es-Suren, which 
turns out of the Muski to the left 
just before the Rond Point. It is a 
large new basilica. Many tourists 
go at Christmas time to the services. 

The residence of the Patriarch 
Cyril is beside the church. 

The oldest Coptic church iu Cairo 
is the Church of the Virgin (el- 
Adra) iu the Hart ez-Zuwela. It 
consists of a nave, with two aisles 
on the north and one on the south. 

Section 6 



At the end of the latter is a chapel 
containing a much venerated picture 
of the Virgin and Child. Like all 
Coptic churches, it is divided into 
sections by screens. The sanctuary 
screen is the best piece of work. 

The Church of St. George on an 
upper floor is also old. There is 
little of interest in it. A convent 
of fifteen nuns is attached to it. 

The Arab Museum. 

The fine collection of Arab an¬ 
tiquities has been removed from 
its old inadequate quarters in the 
Mosque el-Hakim to a large new 
building at the corner of the Bab 
el-Khalq and the Chareh Moham¬ 
med Ali. Electric trams pass the 

It is due in the first instance to 
the efforts of Franz Pasha, the late 
architect to the Commission for the 
Preservation of the Arab Monu¬ 
ments, that the varied objects have 
been gathered together in a museum. 
Owing to the cupidity of its custo¬ 
dians, and the unscrupulousness of 
collectors and tourists, the Sara¬ 
cenic art treasures of Cairo were 
rapidly disappearing from the 
country, to swell collections and 
museums in other lands. This, and 
the fact that many of the mosques 
were falling into disrepair, caused 
the formation of the Preservation 
Society in 1881. But it was long 
before this that Franz Pasha had 
conceived the idea of forming an 
Arab Museum, which was actually 
founded in 1880. Since 1887 it has 
been under the directorship of M. 
Max Herz Bey, who has arranged 
and classified the collection and 
prepared an excellent catalogue. 

The order observed in the arrange¬ 
ment of the collection is as follows : 
—Stones and casts ; objects in wood, 
in metal, fayence, textile fabrics, 
leather (bindings), and glass. In 
the collection of objects in stone 
and wood, those having inscriptions 
have been arranged separately, 
allowing one to follow the develop¬ 
ment of epigraphy through the 

centuries. Wherever possible the 
arrangement has been carried out 

Room I. Objects in stone and 
marble with inscriptions. All 

these objects, with few exceptions, 
are funerary stones. The most 
ancient, No. 1, bears the date 
801 A.H. No. 35 is in fine Kufic 
characters. No. 60, with the name 
of Saladin, was found at Alexandria. 

Room II. Ornamental objects in 
stone and marble. — Nos. 1-23 
show the ornaments used in the 
first period of Moslem art. No. 
26, portion of coving, with foliage 
and an eagle with wings displayed 
—Fatimide. Nos. 31-39, wall-lining 
from the Serghafinach Mosque. No. 
78, wall-lining from the Mosque el- 
Muayyad. A. Marble inerusted 
with stucco ornament. No. 116, 
Moslem coats of arms. V. Jars 
with their supports. X. Vases, 
shafts, and capitals of columns. 
No. 156, Egyptian capital from the 
Mardani Mosque. 

Room III. Mosaics, casts, and 
marble.—Nos. 33-35, from the 
mosque of Ibn Tulfin. No. 36, 
from the Mosque el-Hakim. Nos. 
39-46, the only remaining orna¬ 
ments of el-Kamelyeh (1227). Very 
interesting windows in pierced 
plaster, filled in with coloured 
glass: No. 56, from the Mosque 
Mardani. No. 57, from the Mosque 
Inal. Nos. 1-7, Salsabils, slabs of 
marble from public fountains. The. 
water was cooled by running over 
the slab. The large chandelier 
comes from the mosque of Sultan 

Room IV. Wood. — At the en¬ 
trance— leaves of a door, with 
representations of figures. They 
are of an earlier date than the 
mosque of Kalafm, whence they 
came. No. 2, from the Mosque 
el-Hakim, whose name and title: 
they bear. Against the walls, ob¬ 
jects with inscriptions. Nos. 5-9. 
from the mosque of Ibn Tulfin. 
Nos. 27, 28, from the tomb of the 
Im&m el-Chafai, Ayyubide period. 
Nos. 58-77, of the time of Kait Bey, 



Section 8 

Prayer niches: No. 100, from the 
chapel of Sayyeda Rukayya. Koran 
reading-stands, or Kursi. Ceno¬ 
taphs : No. 107, three sides of a 
cenotaph, with the name of Husn 
ed-Dxn, 1216 A.D. The inside sur¬ 
faces have carving of the Tulftnide 

Room V. (passage). Wood. —The 
doors between rooms 4 and 5 come 
from the tomb of Saleh Ayyfib 
(13th century), those between rooms 
6 and 6 from an Okalah at Damietta, 
of Turkish times. Mushrabiyas: 
lattices of saw-work (see p. 38). 

Room VI. Carved wood orna¬ 
ments and doors. —Nos. 2 -23, frag¬ 
ments from tombs of the first 
centuries of the Hegira (Arab and 
Coptic). Nos. 26-38, from the 
mosque of Saleh Telayeh (12th 
century). Nos. 50-69, from the 
mosque of Mardani. On the parti¬ 
tion—some ceiling ornaments. No. 
89, from the ceiling of a doorway, 
with representations of figures. 
No. 128, from the old ceiling of the 
mosque of Barkfik in Cairo (14th 
century). Doors: No. 188, from 
the mosque of Sultan Hassan (14th 
century). No. 199, collection of 
small panels from two walls of the 
Mosque Bursbey (15th century). 

Room VII. Panels, doors, fur¬ 
niture, and ceilings. —No. 3, from 
the Mosque Sayyeda Nefissa. Nos. 
7, 5, fragments of the Ayyfibide 
period (?) No. 10, from the tomb 
of Sultan Kalafxn (13th century). 
In the large glass cases. —Panels 
in wood and ivory, carved and 
incrusted. Nos. 125,126, bone with 
inscription. Nos. 179-155, Kursis. 
No. 178, from the mosque of Sultan 
Cha’aban (14th century). No. 156, 
Koran box from the same. No. 172, 
ceiling of a fountain built by the 
Sultan Kait Bey (15th century). 

Room VIII. (intermediate). Mush¬ 
rabiyas, doors, cupboard fronts, 
screens, and furniture. —No. 35, 
cupboard door from a village in the 
Delta. Millibars (pulpits). The 
mosaic stone pavement, with water 
let, is from a house in Cairo. 

Room IX. Metal work. —Doors, 

bronze - plated: No. 1, from the 
mosque of Saleh Telayeh (12th cen¬ 
tury). No. 2, from the tomb of the 
Imam el-Shafai'. No. 3 (restored), 
from the mosque of Bursbey, in the 
village el-Khanka. No. 6, from 
the Mosque Tatar el-Hegazieh (17th 
century). In the glass cases.-- 
No. 15, Koran box in yellow metal, 
inlaid with silver, traces of gold. 
No. 17, vase, engraved. No. 18, 
ditto, with coat of arms (15th to 
16th century). Scales. No. 9, 
chandelier in yellow metal, inlaid 
with silver ; inscriptions and figure 
ornaments (dated from 1269). 
Kursis. One has the name of the 
Sultan Mohammed en-Nasir, and 
bears the date 728, i.e. 1327 A.D. 
The great chandelier is from the 
Mosque el-Ghfxri, 15tli-16th cent¬ 

Room X, Metal work.—Against 
the walls, portions of casings of 
doors; sills (Nos. 8-22); and some 
doors with remains of bronzes. In 
the centre of the room, two doors 
of the mosque of Sayeda Zenab. 
On the tables, crescents, chandeliers, 
and lamps (modem). No. 140, 
chandelier with the name of the 
Sultan el-Ghftri, from the mosque 
of the same name. 

Room XI. Fayence. —As a means 
of decoration, fayence played only a 
small part in Arab architecture in 
Egypt during the best period; it 
was introduced by the Turks after 
the 15tli century. On the other 
hand, pottery was one of the most 
notable industries. Against the 
wall, near room 10, fayence casing 
and other specimens of native make. 
The large white characters on a blue 
ground came from the mosque el- 
Ghfiri. Against the opposite wall, 
tiles imported and used during the 
Turkish period. Picture of the 
Ka’aba at Mecca, enamel on fayence 
made in 1726. In the glass cases, 
fragments of pottery noticeable for 
quality and design, and others with 
coats of arms. Lamps and sconces. 
Dish in corneliau, very valuable. 

Room XII. Fayence and part of 
an Arab room. —The specimens of 



fayence against the wall are of 
European manufacture, used in 
Arab buildings of the 18th and 19th 
centuries. Celadon vases found in 
the mosque of Sultan Hassan. 
Decoration in stucco of an Arab 
room behind the church of Abu 
Sephin in Old Cairo. Below, three 
cupboard doors from the village 
Mehallah el-Kobra. 

Corridor. —Cast of prayer niches. 
The largest—3—from the mosque 
of I bn Tulfin, and a little room 
from Rosetta (restored). 

Room XIII. Textile fabrics, 
leather, and ex voti. — All the 
stuffs were found in Coptic or 
Moslem tombs. Some fragments 
are very valuable. Nos. 1, 2, 4-6, 
9, 12, 13, 15, with inscriptions. 
No. 2, with coat of arms, a two- 
headed eagle. Nos. 6, 7, 10, with 
printed design and inscription. 
No. 98, silk, with Kufic inscription 
showing the name of the eldest son 
of the Khalif Harftn er-Rashid, 
Amin, and of his minister (13th 
century). Many specimens of other 
materials have had to be imported 
from Europe. Work in leather is 
represented by two Koran cases 
from the mosque of Sultan Hassan, 
—the large one with the name 
of the Sultan el-GhCm,— and by 
bindings. Notice also the good 
designs with which the insides of 
the bindings are decorated. Among' 
the ex voti, one with picture of the 

Room XIV. Glass. —The exhibits 
consist of a number of lamps richly 
enamelled, bottles, vases, and frag¬ 
ments of glass. Of these very 
beautiful hanging glass lamps there 
are only about a hundred extant, of 
which the larger number are here. 
No. 1, the most ancient lamp of the 
collection, end of the 13th century. 
No. 2, of a raamlftk of the Sultan 
Mohammed en-Nasir (13th to 14th 
century). No. 3, with the name of 
the chamberlain (Hagib), Almas 
(14th century), and his coat of 

In the. s&me building with the 

Arab Museum, but with its entrance 
on the other side, in the Sharia Mo¬ 
hammed Ali, is 

The Khedivial Library. 

This very fine collection has been 
recently moved here from its old 
quarters in the Darb el-Gamamiz, 
and has been reopened to the public 
since March 1904. The director 
is Dr. Moritz. It was the Khedive 
Ismail who conceived the idea of 
forming the library, gathering to¬ 
gether. for that purpose books and 
MSS. from various other insti¬ 
tutions, principally from mosques, 
since which time it has been greatly 
enlarged by purchase and presenta¬ 
tion, the volumes now numbering 

The Museum will be open every 
day except Friday from 8 to 6; 
shorter time in Ramadan. The 
collection forms a splendid Free 
Public Library, every facility being 
offered to students and foreign 

The great treasure of this library, 
and one which can in no other col¬ 
lection be enjoyed by Christians, is 
the magnificent collection of illu¬ 
minated copies of the Kor&n. 

The oldest specimen is one in the 
Kufic or old Arabic character. It 
is said to be nearly 1200 years old, 
and is in a very damaged condition. 

Most of the fine large copies of 
the Koran date from the Mamlfik 
period, between the years 1350- 
1517. One, of En-Nasr , in 30 
volumes, is written entirely in gold 
characters, the work of a Persian. 
The largest copy in the collection, 
measuring 43f by 35 in., belonged 
to Kait Bey. 

In the adjoining room (Arabic 
exhibition) is a collection of the 
oldest Arabic documents (on papy¬ 
rus and parchment), most of them 
from the first century. In the same 
room is a fine collection of old 
Arabic bookbindings. 

The Persian and Turkish exhibits 
in another room include Persian, 
Turkish, and Indian miniatures 
Korans (15th-17tk centuries). 



Section 5 

Turkish and Persian bindings, auto¬ 
graphs of Turkish Sultans, and a 
splendid collection of specimens of 
the most celebrated ealigraphers. 

The Tombs op the KhalIfs. 

If there is moonlight this makes 
a charming drive after dinner. At 
that time the tombs cannot be 
entered ; but nothing like the effect 
of the bright moonlight on the 
desert can be seen in Europe, and 
the ruinous aspect of many of the 
buildings is softened down in this 
beautiful light. 

From the Esbekiya the tombs 
are reached almost in a straight 
line by the Muski and the Kue 
Neuve. Then just outside the town 
we turn abruptly to the south 
round the foot of Windmill Hill, on 
the other side of which lie the 
tombs. This place is also called 
the “ Cemetery of Kait Bey.” It 
would be more correct to call this 
group the tombs of the Circassian 

The first tomb to be visited, 
approaching the cemetery from 
this end, is that of es - Sitt 
Khaw&nd, a princess, and prob¬ 
ably sister of Kait Bey. It is half 
ruined, but there are some fine 
tiles in the dome, and some good 
stucco work. 

Near the centre of the cemetery is 
the very beautiful mosque— 

Tomb Mosque of Kait Bey, 

PI. D 2.—In its good proportions 
both of the exterior and interior, 
its graceful minaret, and its taste¬ 
ful decorations, it holds a place 
second to no building in Egypt 
of that kind of architecture. As 
a model of elegance it surpasses 
the Alhambra. Its date is about 
1470. It is conspicuous among the 
rest by its high dome, so beautifully 
decorated in lace-like arabesque 
patterns. A flight of steps on the 
north - east leads to the principal 
entrance. The court is paved and 
the walls decorated with inlaid 
coloured stones. Over the Liwdn, 
■yvhich 13 raised a step above the 

court, is the dome, finely decorated 
in the stalactitic way. The Liwdn 
is divided from the court by a 
pointed horse - shoe arch, there 
being similar ones on the other 
sides of the court. They are built 
of alternate white and black blocks. 
The tracery of the window is very 

The actual tomb is in front of the 
Kibla. The little curtained domes 
of bronze and wood cover two stones, 
said to have been brought from 
Mecca by Kait Bey, and to bear the 
imprint of the Prophet’s feet. 

Some little distance north is the 

Tomb - mosque of El - Ashraf 
Bursbey.— Date about 1430. The 
decoration of the exterior of the 
dome is very fine. Inside there are 
some good mosaics in the Liwdn, 
and some of the stucco tracery of 
the window remains. Part of an 
inscription remains in the. ruins 
beside the mosque, stating the 
amount of money devoted to 
various charities. 

Next in importance, continuing 
northwards, is the 

Tomb mosque of Sultan Barkflk, 
dating from 1390. Unlike any 
other mosque in Cairo, it has two 
similar domes. These and the two 
fine minarets make a very striking 
group. The principal entrance 
with its fine stucco work is closed. 
We enter from the opposite south¬ 
west corner. The hanefiya is in 
the domed vestibule. There are 
colonnades, partly ruined, round the 
court, and on the east side or Liwdn 
there are three rows of pillars. 
These colonnades are vaulted with 
brick cupolas. The m&mbar or 
pulpit is one of the most beautiful 
in existence. It is of delicately 
sculptured limestone. The tomb 
of Barkflk is beneath the north-east 

The return to the town may be 
made through the Bab en-Nasr 
past the Mosque el~Ildkim. If the 
tombs are visited in the afternoon, 
the Windmill Hill should be 
ascended about sunset time for the 
sake of tho charming view, 

Section 5 



Old Cairo. 

This rather long excursion is best 
doue by driving; but there is an 
electric tramway which may be 
taken from the Place by the post- 
office, or from the Place IsmaUiya. 

The road to Old Cairo is called 
the Chareh Kasr d-Eini. Passing 
through the Kasr ed-Dubdra we 
come to another sight, the Kasr 
el-Eini Hospital with its school of 
medicine. Quite near this is the 
Kasr el-Eini Mosque, PL A 4, 
where the Howling Dervishes per¬ 
form. If this excursion is made on 
a Friday, the mosque may be visited 
on the way and the extraordinary 
performance be seen. It commences 
at 2 p.m. After the performers 
have begun to work themselves into 
a frenzied state the traveller will not 
care to stay long. It is an un¬ 
pleasant, almost sickening sight. 
The performance is called a Zikr, 
that is, a pious devotion or invoca¬ 
tion to Allah. A “Dervish” was 
originally a Mohammedan ascetic 
ana mystic ; but in these days the 
Dervish in Egypt means little more 
than a man who belongs to one of 
the various orders of Dervishes, 
and who is capable of some remark¬ 
able physical exertion or endur¬ 
ance ; or who leads a vagrant life, 
dressed in a patch-work coat. 

The Howling Dervishes arrange 
themselves round a raised oblong 
platform and usually commence by 
crouching down. But as the ecstasy 
grows they stand up and jerk them¬ 
selves about, swaying and turning 
from side to side, backwards and 
forwards, groaning and heaving, 
and shouting “Hfi,” i.e. “He” 
(God) alone, until sometimes one 
or another will fall down in a fit. 
Such an one is left to recover by 

The affair now is very much a 
performance for the benefit of 
tourists, who are expected to pay 
something for being allowed to look 

Leaving the mosque we continue 
pur way along the s^me street, and 

further on on the left are the 
Christian Cemeteries, the English 
Protestant, the Roman Catholic, 
then those of the Greeks, Armenians, 
and Copts. 

The Head of the Old Aqueduct, 

built in 1518, which until com¬ 
paratively recently supplied Cairo 
with water, is not far south of the 
canal. In the massive building 
were the sdkiyas or water-wheels 
for raising the water. 

The Island of Roda is seen over 
the houses, and a turning to the 
right leads down to the ferry 
(P.T. 1 there and back). Three 
new bridges are to be built across 
the Nile here, and it is hoped will 
be completed in three years. There 
will be two from Old Cairo to Roda, 
and one across the main branch of 
the Nile in a straight line with the 
southernmost of the small ones. 
The opening spau for the passage 
of Nile traffic will be in the main 
bridge, comparatively near the 
Island of Roda. The Nile arm 
is very narrow ; but during the 
inundation the island is almost 
submerged. It is better to take a 
guide—one can be easily found— 
if there is no dragoman with you. 
The minaret with three balconies, 
a conspicuous feature of the island, 
belongs to a mosque of Kait Bey. 
Unfortunately the waters of the 
inundation do much damage to its 

Turning first to the north end of 
the island, we find in a garden a 
wonder-working tree of the Saint 
MandCira. It is hung with rags, 
all of which have come from sick 
persons, and have been exchanged 
for two leaves which have been 
applied to the part affected. 

Returning through gardens to 
the south end of the island, we find 
the chief object of interest— 

The Nilometer, dating from 
a.d. 715, consists of a square build¬ 
ing or well, with a pillar inside, 
marked with 17 cubits. The dome 
that formerly surmounted the 
building has disappeared. The 10 
upper cubits, eacn about 2l£ in. 



Section 5 

long, are divided into 24 Mr&t. 
At low Nile the water covers the 
7 fch cubit, and, the bed of the river 
having risen since the column was 
erected, the high Nile reaches to 
If cubits above the top of the 
column. When the height of the 
river, which is proclaimed every 
day in Cairo, reaches 15§ cubits the 
we/a is proclaimed, that is, the 
time for cutting the canals. This 
ceremony takes place with festivities 
between the 6th and 19th of August. 

Returning to the east bank and 
regaining the road, the branch to 
the left leads to the north-east end 
of Old Cairo, or Masr el-Atika 

The Mosque of Amru.— The 

mosque site is the most ancient in 
Egypt; but the mosque itself has 
suffered so frequently from fire and 
earthquake that little of the original 
remains. It is remarkable for its 
great size. It- is of the square court 
shape, with colonnades. Th eLiwdn 
has six rows of columns, of which 
altogether there are about 230 in 
the mosque. They are of various 
sorts of marble, and have many of 
them been taken from Roman and 
Byzantine buildings. 

Near the pulpit is a column care¬ 
fully railed in. The names of 
Allah, Mohammed, and Suleiman 
in Arabic can be traced in veins 
of the marble. Near the entrance, 
in the west colonnade, are two 
columns very close together. None 
but honest men and true believers 
in the Koran and Prophet are 
supposed to be able to pass be¬ 
tween them. The tomb of Amru 
is in the south-east corner. 

Continuing our way south, we 
pass through the bazaar of Old 
Cairo and come to a separate part 
of the town circled by an enclosing 
wall. This is the 

Roman Fortress of Babylon, 
which once defied the attacks of 
Arab invaders for seven months. 
Strabo accounts for its name by 
telling us that it was originally- 

founded by some Babylonians who 
liad a grant of land here from the 
then Egyptian king. At one time 
the Nile flowed quite near to it, and 
there is said to have been a bridge 
of boats connecting it with Roda and 
the opposite shore. [ The Churclm f 
Babylon, of 1 Pet, v. 13. is probably; 
& relere ase t,o a~ Christian com¬ 
munity that existed he re.t The 
town, called by the natives Kasr 
esh Shama , is almost entirely in¬ 
habited by Copts. 

Ascending the road to the south 
end of the town, we find on the left 
the imposing remains of the * 1 Iron 
Gate,” between two massive bas¬ 
tions. It is owing to the energy of 
M. Herz Bey that this great gate has 
recently been cleared of rubbish, and 
will be preserved from destruction. 
It is the only substantial remnant 
of the once great fortress, which 
unfortunately until recently had 
served as a quarry for the natives. 
It is evident that the Nile, or some 
arm of it, came right up to this 
gate; and there still remain great 
grooves in the masonry, in which 
the portcullis ran. 

Retracing our steps for a short 
distance, we come to the two great 
round towers on the west wall. 
Entering between them, we proceed 
again to the south and up a stair¬ 
way to the Church of el-Adra, 
which is situated over the Roman 
gateway, and hence is also called 
El-MoalRLka, or “the Suspended.” 
The church has a nave and double¬ 
aisles, three apses, but no choir. 
The cedar and ivory screens are 
very fine. But the pulpit is the 
treasure of the church, resting on 
its sixteen slender columns. 

Passing out again through the 
gate, we find a little further north 
another entrance to the fortress. 
This is a Mediaeval Coptic gate¬ 
way. Proceeding by narrow 
tortuous streets, we reach the 
finest church in the town, that of 
Abfi Sirga. It contains some very 
fine specimens of wood carving 
and inlaid work. The plan of the 
church is like that of most Egypto- 

Section 5 OLD CAIRO 73 

Byzantine basilica* now used by 
the Copts. It has a nave, and two 
aisles with galleries. But on enter¬ 
ing one does not realise the size of 
the building, by reason of the 
screens which divide it into three 
parts. The first part contains the 
basin for ablutions. The third 
screen dividing the choir from the 
nave is a very beautiful piece of 
wood-carving and ivory inlaid work. 
The sanctuary with the altar is 
enclosed by walls and curtains. 
Behind the altar rise in semi - 
eircular form six high marble steps. 
In the centre is the image of Christ. 
The wall is a beautiful mosaic of 
marbles, motlier-of-pearl, and blue 

From the choir two small stair¬ 
cases lead down to a little crypt 
chapel, which is much older than 
the church. It is dedicated to 
Mary, Sitt Miriam , because of the 
tradition that it was here the Holy 
Family rested on their flight into 
Egypt. It consists of a nave and 
two aisles with marble columns. 
The floor is often under water. 
(Guide, P.T. 1.) 

A little north of this church are 
those of Mari Qirghis (St. George) 
and Sitt Miriam lying near together. 
They are in a ruinous condition, and 
contain nothing of interest but the 
choir screens. 

A little north-east of the Ch arch of 
Abu Sirga is the Kedlsa Berbarra, 
built probably in the 8th century. 
Some of the wall paintings are very 
interesting, and the wood and ivory 
carvings are good. One of the 
marble columns has a palm-leaf 

In some of the Coptic Convents 
lying near Babylon there are 
interesting churches. 

D§r (i.e. Convent) Mari Mena, 
was a church, a Syrian chapel, and 
a new Armenian church. In the 
Church of Mari Mena are some 
interesting pictures and a very 
curious old candlestick. The pulpit 
has a beautiful carved stone panel. 
M#ri Mena was a certain St. Menas, 

whose name recalls that of Egypt’s 
first king. 

Ddr AM Sephin, contains three 
churches. The Church of Abd 
Sephin dates from the 10th century. 
The original crocodile-scale cover¬ 
ing of the door lias almost dis¬ 
appeared. The screens and decora¬ 
tions of the church are of the same 
order as those in the Church of 
Abd Sirga. There is a very fine 
marble pulpit. 

The Church of Anba Shendda 
possesses a silver gospel - cover, 
and two silver diadems used in 

There are four or five Dirs south 
of “ Babylon,” one called DSr Bab- 
Idn, retaining the ancient name of 
the town. 

The Mosque, of Tdldn (p. 53) 
may be taken on the way back 
through Cairo; or the Tombs of 
the Mamldks (p. 53) might be 
visited, the return being made 
through the Bdb el-Kardfa. 

Drive to Shubra. 

The road is good and near to 
the desert, with better air perhaps 
than any of the driving roads about 
Cairo. But it is not particularly 
interesting. At one time the 
fashionable drive, it has been 
superseded by the drive round 
Gezira, and is now only interesting 
as a rather busy thoroughfare into 
the country. There is an electric 
tram. The road is an avenue of 
lebbekh and other trees, extending 
about four miles from the station 
to the Khedive’s palace. We pass 
villas and houses, on the left Kasr 
en-Nfizha, a former palace of the 
Khedive. Opposite, the Villa Cieco- 
lani with good gardens. The road 
crosses the canal supplying water 
from the Nile to the Ismailiya Canal 
which provides the fresh - water 
supply for Port Said, Ismailiya, 
and Suez. The palace is almost on 
the Nile. It was Mohammed Ali 
who built this palace and made the 
gardens. The latter are somewhat 
neglected ; but the beautiful marble 



Sections 6, 6 

colonnaded courtyard, with enorm¬ 
ous hath and fountain in the 
centre, is worth seeing. One of 
the rooms leading off the court 
has most beautiful inlaid wood floor 
and walls. Permission' to visit the 
gardens must be obtained at the 
office of Prince Aziz Pasha in the 
Kasr Ali in Cairo. 



I. The Zoological Gardens. 

II. To Matariya, Heliopolis, and 
Ostrich Farm. 

III. To Helwan, Tura, and Masara 


IV. To the Delta Barrage. 

V. To the Petrified Forest. 

I. The Zoological Gardens. 

It is a pleasant drive out beyond 
Gezira to the Gardens ; or one can 
go by electric tram from the other 
side of the Nile bridge. Entrance, 
P.T. 2, weekdays ; P.T. 5, Sunday ; 
children, half-price. A band plays 
on Sundays. The gardens belonged 
to the harim of the Gizeh Palace 
built by Ismail Pasha, whence the 
collection of Egyptian antiquities 
has been moved to the Museum in 
Cairo. Some of the paths are of a 
pretty form of mosaic work. There 
are nearly 1000 animals. 

There is an Aquarium in the 
Grotto at Gezira, which is also 
worth a visit. Entrance, P.T. 2. 

II. MatabIta and Heliopolis 


See “ Cab Tariff.” Or the excur¬ 
sion may be made by train. Station, 
Pont Lim&n, near the Central 
Station. One train in the hour. 
Alight after five stations at Matar¬ 
iya station. The drive occupies 
about one and a half hours. 

- Tb e rpu^e l|es through Ahbaslya, 

and passes over the scene of two 
great battles; one in 1517, which 
established Turkish rule in Egypt, 
and the other in 1800, when General 
K16ber defeated' the Egyptians. 

We pass the Garni edh-Dhahlr, 
a 13th century mosque, turned into 
a fort by the French, and now the 
commissariat depot of the English 
army of occupation. After pass¬ 
ing the Bab el-Hasaniya we see on 
the left an open space. It is here 
that the Mahmal assembles before 
starting for Mecca. Further on 
there are the barracks, where, in 
1882, Arabi Pasha surrendered to 
General Sir Drury Lowe the day 
after the battle of Tel el-Kebir. 

We pass on the right the entrance 
to the Palace of Ktlbba, the resid¬ 
ence of the Khedive. The road 
goes through a fine olive plantation, 
traverses a richly cultivated plain, 
where the chief crop is cotton. 

Ezbet ez-Zeitftn (see Zeitun in 
“Hotel List”) and Matariya, 
only a mile apart, are growing 
suburbs of Cairo. There are two 
small hotels and some private villas, 
and at the former there is a good 
tennis club. From Matariya a visit 
may be made to an 

Ostrich Farm, about a mile east 
of the village (admission, P.T. 10). 
It is kept by Frenchmen, who have 
about 800 birds. 

After leaving the village there 
may be seen on the right a garden 
in which is a very fine old sycamore 
fig tree. This is called 

The Virgin’s Tree, because tradi¬ 
tion says that the Holy Family 
rested under it after their flight into 
Egypt. It has been much injured 
by believers in the tradition. The 
tree is probably between two and 
three hundred years old. 

Half a mile beyond Matariya are 

Obelisk and Remains of Heliopolis 
—“City of the Sun.” This place was 
the “On” of Scripture (Genesis xli. 45), 
a famous university or college for the 
education of priests. In "Egyptian it 
was called “Annu of the north,” in 
distinction from Hermonthis or “Annu 
of the south.” Ar$b tradition says 


Section 6 



that Moses was a professor of literature 
in the college here. The reputation of 
the university was still very high in 
Greek times, Herodotus and Plato 
having paid visits to the priests. But 
by the time of Strabo (b.c. 40) the 
town had disappeared, though the 
temple was almost intact. This temple 
was founded by Amenemhat I. (12th 
dynasty), the 

Obelisk having been erected 
subsequently by his son Usertsen I. 
This is the oldest Egyptian obelisk 
known. It is of red granite from 
Aswan. Its height is about 66 ft., 
but about 4 ft. are concealed by 
accumulations of earth. The in¬ 
scription, which is the same on each 
side, records the time of the setting 
up of the obelisk by Kheper-ka-Ra, 
i.e. Usertsen I. Some of the in¬ 
scriptions have been so filled up by 
the work of the mason bees as to be 
quite illegible. 

Like many other Egyptian 
obelisks, there had been originally 
a cap of metal, probably "bronze 
gilt, or copper. Its companion 
obelisk—they were always put up 
in pairs—was still standing in the 
12 th century. 

All that remains of the temple 
are a few blocks of granite inscribed 
with the name of Ramses ii. Of 
the town only traces of the walls 

Some distance east of Matariya is 

Birket el-Hagg, or Lake of the 
Pilgrimage, only interesting as the 
rendezvous of the Mecca pilgrims. 

III. HelwXn and Quarries op 


By train from the Bab el-Lflk 
station in 25 to 45 minutes. Trains 
about every hour. To H el win 15 
miles. Fare, 1st class, P.T. 5; 
return, P.T. 8. 

Leaving Cairo the train passes 
through a cutting between the 
Mokattam Hills and the citadel. 
From the stations of Tfira or 
Masara an excursion may be made 
to the quarries. Donkeys must be 
taken jn the train fron) Cairo. 

They may, after the fairly long 
expedition, be ridden on to Helwan, 
and the return may be made by 
train. The quarries are one and 
a half hour’s ride from Helwan and 
a half hour from Masara. Candles 
should be taken. 

The Quarries have been used 
from the very earliest times, and are 
still in use. They yield a fine 
white limestone, of which stone the 
Pyramids are built. The huge halls 
and caverns have pillars left in the 
rock here and there to support the 
roof. There are many royal in¬ 

Continuing by rail the line 
ascends to the plateau on which are 

Baths of Helw&n, often called 
Helouan les Bains. 

Hotels: see “Hotel List.” 
Various pensions. 

Church. —A newly-built English 
church, opened iu November 1902. 

Doctors.— Dr. Bentley; Dr. Hob¬ 

Chemist. — Joanavich, Anglo- 
German, opposite railway station. 

Helwan has become a favourite 
health resort. It is 150 ft. above 
the Nile level, surrounded by desert, 
and possesses a very good recently 
built bath establishment with sul¬ 
phur and salt waters. The indis¬ 
criminate planting of trees has been 
prohibited, so that the place may 
keep its dry atmosphere. Helwan 
is unique in that it is the only place 
near Europe where efficient treat¬ 
ment by natural waters and baths 
can be had during the winter in a 
dry summer climate. It is there¬ 
fore an excellent resort for rheu¬ 
matic and gouty patients, and for 
those suffering from various other 

The New Royal Baths belonging 
to the Egyptian Government were 
opened in 1900. They are very com¬ 
plete in their arrangements, having 
every kind of bath, and there are 
European masseurs and masseuses 
in attendance. The baths were 
planned by Dr. Page May, to whose 
efforts their excellence is 


Section 6 


The old baths are now reserved for 
second-class bathers. 

Helwan is well supplied with 
amusements. The desert-riding is 
good, and a visit to the Wady Hof 
should not be omitted. The ex¬ 
cursion over the river to Sakkara 
and Memphis can be made from 
here, the drive to the river being 
only three miles. The golf club 
has a good club-house, the links 
providing an 18-hole course. 

IV. The Delta Barrage. 

This excursion is most pleasantly 
done by steam launch, which may 
be obtained for the day through 
any tourist agent, who should 
arrange for luncheon and tea on 

The way by train is from the 
Central station. Six trains daily. 
Return fare, P.T. 18,1st class ; P.T. 
9,2nd class. Time, about one hour. 

Passing Skubra and KalyDb we 
reach the Barrage station, with 
a small restaurant. Donkeys or 
trolleys on rails can be hired here 
to take one across the structure, and 
to all points of interest in the 
immediate neighbourhood of the 

Another way is by tram and 
steamer. On Sundays., Tuesdays, 
and Fridays the Tramway Co. 
runs a steamer from Bfilak-Sahel 
to the Barrage, stopping at Rod 
el-Farag, the tramway terminus, 
where the traveller cau join it. 
The steamer, which makes the ex¬ 
cursion twice in the day, leaves 
Cairo 8 a.m. and 3 p.m., Rod el- 
Farag 8.20 and 3.30, and arrives 
at the Barrage 9.35 a.m. and 4.35 
p.m. It leaves the Barrage on the 
return journey at 11 a.m. and 6 
p.m., arrives at Rod el-Farag at 
12.20 and 7.30; and at Cairo at 
12.50 and 7.50. First-class return 
fare, P.T. 8. Refreshments can be 
obtained on board. 

Description .—This Barrage is the 
largest work of the kind in the 
world; from extreme east to west 

its length is 1£ miles. It spans 
the two branches of the Nile im¬ 
mediately below the bifurcation. 
The work consists of two bridges, 
each of 61 arches — one across 
the Damietta and one across the 
Rosetta Nile. They are connected 
by a revetment wall 1000 metres 
long, which runs across the inter¬ 
vening peninsula, and in the middle 
of which is the head of the Menufiya 
Canal, which is the main source of 
water supply to that portion of the 
Delta lying between the two arms 
of the Nile. The beautiful Barrage 
gardens lie on the point of land 
which is the apex of the Delta. 
The extensive lawns, the large 
shady trees, and the charming 
arrangement of the whole, make 
this place a most delightful retreat 
from the heat and glare of Cairo. 
It is the only place of the kind in 
the whole of Egypt. Begun in 1843 
by French engineers, the Barrage 
took twenty years to build, costing 
£ El, 800,000, but owing to faulty 
foundations was practically useless 
till repaired by the Anglo-Indian 
engineers under Sir Colin Moncrieff 
between 1883 and 1890. 

* Object .—Its object is to act as a 
barrier,—the arches being closable 
by iron gates,—and by impounding 
the limited summer water supply to 
a high level, enable the canals to 
draw o£F the ponded water near 
land-level to irrigate the Delta: 
these canals of shallow depth can¬ 
not silt, as they would in flood time 
were they dug deep enough to draw 
in the low summer supply running 
free. Silt in canals is the bane of 
Egyptian irrigation. This raising 
of the water-level has produced 
such a saving in labour of clearing 
canals from silt, and has allowed 
them to draw a so much more 
plentiful summer supply — in fact 
often all that comes down the river, 
a supply which formerly largely 
flowed to the sea—for irrigating the 
cotton crop, that the natives have 
named them “ The Bridges of Bless¬ 

As the benefits accruing from 

Sections 6,7 TUB PYRAMID FIELD 77 

this work are so great, and as its 
foundations were not sufficiently 
secure to allow of its holding up a 
4-metre pressure head 1 with abso¬ 
lute safety,—for the branches of the 
Nile are often dry in summer,—it 
was decided to reduce it (the head) 
by building two supplementary 
weirs or solid dams downstream, 
and make them support some of it. 

These weirs, lying 480 and 1600 
metres north of the Damietta and 
Rosetta Barrages, and of 418 and 
500 metres length respectively, 
were completed by Sir Hanbury 
Brown in 1901. They enable a head 
of 3 metres to be put on the Bar¬ 
rage, and themselves support a head 
of 2| metres, making a total head 
of metres, with absolute safety, 
instead of, as formerly, 4 metres, 
with danger. 

V. The Petrified Forest. 

This excursion is best made on 
donkeys, for even with extra horses 
carriage wheels are likely to stick 
in the sand. It will take about 
four hours. The Tombs of the 
Khallfs (p. 70) may be seen on the 

There are the great and the little 
forests. Most travellers only visit 
the latter, the ordinary donkey-boy 
insisting that this is all there is to 
be seen. It is better to take a 
dragoman if the big forest is to be 
visited, and it will require nearly a 
whole day. 

Leave Cairo by the Bab en-JVasr, 
pass the Tombs of the Khalifs, and 
betweei^ the (rebel el - Ahmar, i.e. 
Red Mountain, and the Mokattam 
hills, until the road divides. That 
to the right leads to “ Moses’ Well ” 
(Ain Mftsa), that to the left, to the 
Great Forest. Climbing up to the 
plateau, about a mile farther on, 
the trees are seen. There are three 
trunks, respectively about 48, 39, 
and 21 ft. long. From this point 
it is about two and a half hours to 
the Great Forest, 

i “ Head" means difference of water- 
level above and below the structure. 

There are other such forests on 
the west banks of the Nile. 




Brief Account of the Pyra¬ 
mids .78 

The Gizeh Pyramids and 
Sphinx .... 79 

The Pyramids and Tombs 
of SakkXra ... 85 

The Pyramids of DahshOr . 90 

To see the whole of the plateau 
satisfactorily it is necessary to take 
tents and spend a week among the 
Pyramids, changing camp three or 
four times. Any good dragoman 
can arrange such a trip, and, if done 
about the end of March, this little 
expedition is exceedingly charming. 
A dragoman who is accustomed to 
Syrian travel will easily be found 
in Cairo, and he will charge be¬ 
tween £1,16s. and £2, 6s. per head 
per day for not less than four or 
five people. 

Few people, however, have 
sufficient interest in the Pyramids 
to spend so much time iu this part 
of Egypt. 

The usual way to see the most 
interesting groups of Pyramids is 
to take the Gizeh Pyramids and the 
Sphinx on one day and the Sakkdra 
Pyramids with surrounding tombs 
on another. 

It is possible to make a desultory 
inspection of both these groups in 
one day, but only a strong person 
would be equal to the fatigue. 

To see Sakkdra and Gizeh in one 
day.— Take the train on the Upper 
Egypt line to (46 minutes) Bedra- 
shen y leaving Cairo at 10 a.m. A 
ticket to view the monuments, P.T. 
5, must be procured beforehand or 
at tW- station—at 
(Those who are taking the com¬ 
plete Nile trip have to provide 
themselves with an “Antiquities 
Ticket,” £1, 5s.; this admits to all 
the monuments, and can be used 



Section 7 

at Sakkara and Gizeh.) Take 
donkeys from Bedrashen. Ride 
through Memphis, visiting the 
Colossi, to Sakkara, a long ride of 
about 2 hours. Visit Apis Mauso¬ 
leum, and tombs of Thi, Mem, etc. 
Ride to Gizeh, about 2| hours, 
passing Abusir. Return to Cairo 
by carriage or tram. 

This expedition may be varied by 
spending the'night at Mena House 
Hotel (see “ Hotel List”— Cairo) 
and visiting the Gizeh Pyramids 
next day. 

Brief Account of the Pyramids. 

It is perhaps not until the traveller 
is actually in Egypt that he realises 
that “ The Pyramids” does not mean 
the three that are so often seen in 
pictures; but a succession of these 
buildings extending for about fifty 
miles from Abfi Roash in the north to 
the Fayftm on the south. Within 
this area there are remains of no less 
than seventy Pyramids, the latest of 
which is probably that of Amen-em- 
hat in at El-Lahun. 

All these monuments are tombs of 
kings. The building of his Pyramid 
was commenced immediately the king 
began to reign, and at his death his 
embalmed body was placed in a secret 
tomb chamber, and the Pyramid dosed 
against everyone. Each Pyramid had 
its name, usually some epithet apply¬ 
ing to rest in the future life : such as 
“ the good haven,” “ the good rising,” 
“ the most enduring place,” etc. 

Among the “seven wonders of the 
world,” the pyramids puzzled the tourist 
writers of Greek times. Herodotus, 
Diodorus, and many others describe 
their visits to the Pyramids, and give 
theories as to the method in which 
they were built. Pliny rather severely, 
after enumerating eleven Greek writers 
on the subject, says, “Yet no one of 
them shows satisfactorily by whom 
they were built; a proper reward to 
the authors of such vanity, that their 
names should be buried in oblivion.” 
The ancient theory was that inclined 
planes were made, up which the stones 
were carried. Diodorus tells us: 
“ Some of the Egyptians try to make 
wonderful stories about them, saying 
that the mounds (inclined planes) were 
made of salt and nitre, which, by 
directing the water of the Nile upon 
them, were afterwards dissolved with¬ 
out human aid when the work was 
completed. This cannot be true, etc.” 

Herodotus speaks of “machines made 
of short pieces of wood ” for raising 
the stones, a statement which is ex¬ 
plained b} r Mr. Petrie’s theory. “For 
the ordinary blocks of a few tons each, 
it would be very feasible to employ the 
method of resting them on two piles of 
wooden slabs, and rocking them up 
alternately to one side and the other 
by a spar under the block, thus 
heightening the piles alternately, and 
so raising the stone.” 

All the Pyramids were not built 
of stone. The later ones were con¬ 
structed of crude brick, with chambers 
and passages of limestone. Even in 
the almost rainless climate of Egypt, 
such buildings are not calculated to 
endure the weathering of many 
centuries. So at Dahshfir some 
mounds of debris are all that is left of 
the 12th dynasty examples. 

The builders chose sites, as a rule, 
where they were able to get a mass of 
rock as a kind of core round ■which to 
construct the Pyramid. When finished, 
the whple surface was quite smooth, 
the present step-like surface being 
filled up with triangular blocks to 
form a straight face. 

Unfortunately the Pyramids have for 
centuries served as quarries to builders 
in the neighbourhood. 

Lepsius thought that the Pyramids 
in their original plans were small, that 
during his reign the king continually 
added to it by layers, and that when 
he died and his body was put into the 
tomb chamber, the building was com¬ 
pleted, and the outer casing put on. 
Thus the longer the king’s reign the 
larger the Pyramid. 

Mr. Petrie strongly opposes this 
view, being certain that the original 
plan was always for the building as it. 
was when completed. He has perhaps 
made a more exhaustive survey of this 
Pyramid plateau than any archaeolo¬ 

Burckhardt, however, brings strong 
evidence in confirmation of tie main 
points of Lepsius’ theory. 

Mediaeval writers say that the blocks 
of the smooth faces of the Pyramids 
then in sight were covered with in¬ 
scriptions in hieroglyphs. 

In spite of the precautions these 
early Pharaohs took that their “ eternal 
resting-places ” should not be dis¬ 
turbed, the Pyramids have been entered 
over and over again. Even as early as 
the 20th dynasty thieves tried to 
penetrate to the tomb chambers ; and 
Persians, Romans, and Arabs have 
successively searched for treasure sup¬ 
posed to be hidden there. 

Section 7 



They have been examined since 1721 
by at least thirteen savants, of whom 
the best known are Pococke, Niebuhr, 
Belzoni, Wilkinson, Howard Vyse, 
Lepsius, and Petrie. 


From Cairo by carriage, see 
“Cab Tariff,” p. 45, or by electric 
tram, in 40 minutes, terminus west 
side of river, by the Kasr en-Nil 
bridge. Fare, P.T. 3, 1st class. By 
starting early, a hurried glimpse of 
these Pyramids and the Sphinx may 
be had in half a day. But it is wiser 
either to take lunch or to lunch at 
the Mena House Hotel. 

The road from Cairo crosses the 
great Kasr en-Nil bridge and the 
south end of the Gezira, and then 
another bridge over the other arm 
of the river, which is dry during 
low Nile. The road leads to the 
left along a charming avenue of 
lebbekh trees skirting the Nile, the 
bank of which at this part is a 
favourite anchorage for dahabiyas. 
Passing the Palace of Gizeh, where 
the museum was, the road turns to 
the right, and from thence it is a 
straight line to the Pyramids. This 
fine shaded road was hastily made 
by Ismail Pasha in 1868, in order 
that his royal visitors, who came to 
the opening of the Suez Canal, might 
more easily view the Pyramids. 
Before its construction the traveller 
was obliged to go on donkey-back 
by a longer route. It is an em¬ 
bankment which is above the 
height of the water during the 
inundation. The cultivated land 
reaches nearly to the foot of the 
plateau. The drive ends at Mena 

It is advisable to take donkeys 
from here, as the ground is very 
rough and the scrambling about 
is very fatiguing. At the N.-E. 
angle of the Great Pyramid there is 
a small house built by Ismail for 
his visitors, in which a room for 
luncheon can be obtained. (Fee to 
the custodian.) The Bedawin 

Arabs of Gizeh are very importunate 
and impertinent, and are never satis¬ 
fied with their pay, however much 
extra bakshish is given to them. 

The Great Pyramid. 

For guides for the interior and 
ascent of the Pyramid application 
must be made to the Shekh of these 
Arabs, who is bound to supply two 
or three men for each traveller for 
the ascent, and one for each person 
for visiting the interior, for the sum 
of P.T. 12. If accompanied by a 
dragoman it is best to leave him to 
settle with these clamorous people. 
Besides the P.T. 12 each Arab will 
expect some bakshish. But no 
money should be given until the 
traveller has entirely finished all 
that he wishes to do with the men. 
Those who have not “Antiquity 
tickets” pay P.T. 10 to visit the 
interior or to make the ascent. 

The Great Pyramid is the tomb, 
the “eternal resting-place,” of 
Khufu , the “Cheops” of Hero¬ 
dotus, the second king of the 4th 
dynasty. He named it Khut, 
which may be translated “ the 
Lights,” It has seemed such a 
marvel to travellers and speculating 
minds of all ages, that many 
theories of its use have been pro¬ 
pounded. It has been said that 
it was built for purposes of astrono¬ 
mical observation, and again that it 
served as a standard of measure¬ 
ment ; while occultists regard it 
as “a majestic fane, in whose 
sombre recesses were performed 
the Mysteries, and whose walls 
had often witnessed the initiation- 
scenes of members of the royal 

ThePyramid is built of nummulitic 
limestone from the quarries of Tura 
and Masara, on the other side of the 
river. A great causeway had then 
to be made across the plain to the 
plateau, up which the blocks were 
brought, probably on sledges. 
This causeway can easily be traced 
even now. One can see, as one 
ascends, the forms of nummulites in 


IValker €r Cockerell si 

Section 7 



the polished surface of the stone, 
where it has been worn by many 
feet. The outer casing of the 
Pyramid was of granite and lime¬ 
stone blocks. But only a few of 
these, below the present ground 
level, remain. They were dis¬ 
covered by Mr. Petrie in 1881. 
The present surface of the Pyramid 
presents the appearance of a rough 
staircase, the steps varying from 2 
feet to 5 feet in height. 

The measurements of the Great 
Pyramid have been variously given. 
Those of Mr. Petrie are probably 
most correct. 

Original height, 481 ft. 

Present height, 451 ft. 

St. Peter’s at Rome is 429 ft. high. 

Length of each side, 755 ft. 

Area of original base, 63,444 sq. yds., 
over 13 acres, about the size of Lincoln’s 
inn fields. 

Solid contents, 85,000,000 cubic ft. 

Angle of face, 51° 50'. 

The ascent of the Pyramid is 
perfectly safe, but those at all 
subject to vertigo should not 
attempt it. It is very fatiguing, 
but one is repaid for that by the 
view from the top and the much 
better acquaintance with the 
wonderful structure that is thus 
obtained. The space at the top is 
about 30 ft. square. The Arabs 
would like to take the traveller to 
the top without pausing, but this is 
unwise, and they must be made to 
do as he wishes. The view during 
the inundation is very different 
from that seen after January when 
the waters have subsided. Towards 
-the west is an endless expanse of 
yellow and brown undulating 
desert. To the north may be seen 
the pyramids of Abd Ro&sh , and to 
the south are the Abusxr > SaJck&ra, 
and Dahshdr groups. On the east, 
from near the foot of the plateau 
to the Nile, extends the exquisite 
green of the cultivated land, inter¬ 
sected by canals and dotted with 
palm groves. Beyond the river are 
the Mokattam Hills, and then the 
Citadel, with the slender minarets 
of the Mohammed Ali Mosque, and 

Cairo. To the north is the Delta, 
an immense vista of flat greenness. 

The descent will be found almost 
more fatiguing than the ascent. 

The interior of this Pyramid 
should certainly be visited, but not 
by nervous people. It is almost 
more tiring to do so than making 
the ascent. The air is very close, 
the passages narrow, which makes 
the close proximity of the Arabs 
very unpleasant, and part of the 
climb up a passage is very slippery. 

The entrance is about 45 ft. 
from the ground, on the north face. 
The first passage, which is only 3 ft. 
11 in. high and 3 ft. 5 in. wide, 
descends at an angle of 26° 41'. 
The whole passage, which descends 
to the subterranean chamber, is 
320 ft. long, descending in a 
straight line, so that the sky is 
visible from the end. This chamber 
is 90 ft. below the Pyramid base. 
It measures 46 ft. x 27 ft., and is 
11£ ft. high. A blind passage 53 ft. 
long leads out of the south side. 

The guides do not take the 
traveller down here. At 125 ft. 
from the entrance, in the descend¬ 
ing passage, we come to one of the 
great granite doors characteristic 
of the Pyramid passages. Arab 
explorers could not work a way 
through this huge block, and there¬ 
fore forced a way round it. This is 
the most difficult part of the visit 
to the interior. We ascend a very 
slippery passage for 129 ft. to the 
entrance to the great hall. Three pas¬ 
sages join here, one, seldom visited, 
going in a horizontal direction to 
the centre of the Pyramid, another 
ascending to the ** king’s chambers,” 
and a third descending to the 
other descending passage. The 
former is only 3 ft. 9 in. high dur¬ 
ing the greater part of its length of 
127 ft. It leads to the so-called 
Queen’s Chamber, a beautifully 
built room measuring about 19 ft. 
x 17 ft., and 20 ft. high in the 
centre of the pent roof. The blocks 
of stone are exquisitely fitted 
together. Air holes pass out to the 
north and south face of the Pyramid, 



Section 7 

The passage leading down to the reason has been assigned, In the 
other descending passage joins it three uppermost chambers the name 
near the subterranean chamber, of Khufu was found painted in red 
It is vertical, in places only 2 ft. ochre, also quarrymen’s marks. 

4 in. square, and is 191 ft. deep. At the upper end of the king’s 

But leaving these two passages, chamber is a red granite sarco- 
we pass into the Great Hall, or phagus, mutilated, lidless, and unin- 
Gallery, which continues to ascend scribed. It measures about 7£ ft. 
at the same angle. It is 151 ft. x 3 ft. 3 in. x 3 ft. 4 in. 
long, 7 ft. wide, and 28 ft. high. This chamber lies a little south 
The joints of the masonry are and east of the centre of the 
marvellous. The courses of stones Pyramid. 

overhang one another, so contract- On the north and south sides of 
ing to the great horizontal slabs of the chamber, above 3 ft. from the 

the roof. At the end of this gallery 
a horizontal passage 22 ft. long, 
with an antechamber once pro¬ 
tected by four granite doors, leads 
into the 

King’s Chamber, the principal 
chamber of the Pyramid. It is 
built of wonderfully fitted blocks 
of granite. Its measurements are 
about 35 x 17 x 19 ft. The roof is 
formed of nine slabs of granite, 
each 18£ ft. long. Above this 
chamber are five chambers, for the 
building gf which no satisfactory 

floor, are apertures about 8 in. x 
6 in. ; these are the ends of the air 
shafts which have been traced to 
their opening on the outer faces. 

The temperature inside the 
Pyramid is about 79°. 

The Second Pyramid was built 
by Kha/ra, the successor of Khufu , 
the Khephren of Herodotus. It 
appears in the distance to be higher 
than the Great Pyramid, owing to 
its standing on higher ground. It 
was called in Egyptian “Ur,”i.e. 
“the Great” The name of Khafra 

Section 7 


was found on a casing stone of the 
Pyramid. A. considerable amount 
of the original casing stone work 
remains at the top of this Pyramid, 
from about 130 ft. to 150 ft. from 
the top. This makes the ascent 
difficult and rather dangerous. 


Original height. . 472 ft. 

Present ,, . . 450 ,, 

Length of side . . 706 ft. 3 in. 

Area.55,419 sq. yds. 

Solid contents . . 2,156,900 cub. yds. 
Angle of sides . . 52° 20'. 

There are two entrances to the 
interior, one at the base and one 
about 50 ft. above, in the north 
face. It was first explored by 
Belzoni in 1816. The passages 
descend parallel to one another for 
100 ft. The upper one is lined for 
some distance with red granite. 
It leads into a chamber measuring 
464 x x 224 ft., in which is 
the red granite sarcophagus. It is a 
little larger than that of Khufu, 
and, like it, is uninscribed. Belzoni 
found in it the bones of an ox. An 
Arabic inscription on the walls 
shows that it was entered by one of 
the Khalifa. 

The lower passage joins the upper 
one before it reaches the chamber. 

Before this Pyramid could be 
laid out, the ground had to be 
levelled; thus there is left on the 
north and west sides of the Pyramid 
platform a rocky wall, and that is 
why we descend on approaching the 
Pyramid. To our left, as we come 
through the narrow, natural cleft 
in the rock, we can see traces of the 
work that this involved, in the 
squaring out of the rock. There 
is an inscription of the time of 
Ramses n at this point. 

About 270 ft. from the east face 
of the Pyramid are the remains of 
the temple belonging to it, dedi¬ 
cated to Khafra. 

Passing the west face of the 
Pyramid and some rock-tombs, one 
with the ceiling carved to resemble 
palm trunks, we come to 
The Third Pyramid,— This be¬ 

longed to Men-kau-Ra, the Myker- 
inus of Herodotus. It was called 
"Her" or the “Upper.” It is 
much smaller than either of the 
other two Pyramids. The site in 
this case has been levelled by build¬ 
ing up a substructure on the east 
side. The height of the Pyramid is 
215 ft., and the length of side 346 ft. 
It is called by Arab writers the 
Red Pyramid, on account of its 
outer casing of red granite; about 
37 ft. of this remains on the west 
side. But the surface of the stone 
is undressed, except just round the 
door. The entrance is on the north 
face, about 30 ft. from the base. 
The descending passage is 140 ft. 
long, 28 ft. of it being lined with 
granite, the remainder cut in the 
solid rock. It leads to a vestibule 
decorated with door-shaped sculp¬ 
tures. Passing three granite doors 
we coine to a horizontal passage 
which leads into a chamber about 
12 ft. wide and 46 ft. long. A 
shaft leads down from this chamber 
about 20 ft. to a granite - lined 
chamber, in which was found a 
basalt sarcophagus, sculptured in 
panels, but with no inscriptions. 
The wooden coffin and remains of a 
human body were also found. All 
were sent to England, but the 
sarcophagus was lost at sea. The 
coffin and body are now in the 
British Museum. 

Another passage leads up from 
the upper chamber, through the 
Pyramid, but ends at about 50 ft. 
from the chamber. 

About 40 ft. from the east face 
of the Pyramid are the remains of 
a temple, used, as that of Khafra 
was, in connection with the rites 
erformed in honour of the dead 
ing. The causeway by which the 
stones for building were brought 
from the river can be traced part 
of the way from this temple. 

To the south of this Pyramid are 
three small ones. They all have 
passages descending to the centre. 
In the middle one is an uninscribed 
sarcophagus, and on the ceiling of 
the chamber is the name of Men■ 



Section 7 

kau-Ra. There is a sarcophagus 
in one of the others. 

The Sphinx. 

To the south (about J mile) and 
a little to the east of the Great 
Pyramid, on the edge of the great 
plateau, lies the Sphinx. On the 
way we pass three little Pyramids. 
The centre one and the south 
one belong to two daughters of 
Khufu. Nothing has been found 
in them. 

The Sphinx represented to the 
Egyptians a form of their god Horus. 
Hor-em-Khu, or “Horus on the hori¬ 
zon,” became in Greek times Harmak- 
his. Of its age it is impossible to speak 
definitely. At one time it was spoken 
of as prehistoric, then as belonging to 
the Middle Empire. But a stele having 
been excavated in front of it, which 
recorded repairs done to the “ temple 
of the Sphinx” in the reign of 
Thothmes iv (18th dynasty), the con¬ 
clusion was come to that it must be 
the work of the Old Empire, probably 
of Khafra. But the modern German 
school of Egyptologists brings it down 
as late as the 12th dynasty, and say 
that it probably represents Amen-em- 
hat III (circa 2300 b.c.). 

So impressive is the sight of this 
ancient face of stone, that one is 
helped to realise the millenniums 
that have passed since first it looked 
out over the landscape. 

It is carved out of the solid rock, 
masonry being employed to com¬ 
plete it where the contour was 


Length of body . . 

. . 150 ft. 

„ „ paws • . 

. . 50 „ 

„ „ head . . 

. . 30 „ 

Width of mouth . . 

• . 71 ,, 

,, „ face . . 

Height of ear . . 

. . 14 „ 

• • ^1 it 

From crown to base 

70 „ 

The sand has so much encroached 
on the monument, that its form is 
very much buried. Excavations 
took place under Caviglia, Mariette, 
and Maspero. Between the mas¬ 
onry paws of the Sphinx a kind 

of temple was discovered, reached 
by an ascending flight of steps. 
Here were memorial tablets of 
Thothmes iv and Ramses n. This 
temple was protected in ancient 
times from the sand which so 
rapidly drifts in and fills it up, by 
crude brick walls, traces of which 
still remain. In this temple were 
found an altar and a small lion, 
facing the Sphinx. On a broken 
part of the granite tablet is the 
cartouche of Khafra. 

The head wears the Klaft , or 
linen head covering, and had 
originally the urceus , the emblem 
of royalty on the forehead, and a 
beard. Parts of these two, with 
traces of colouring, are now in the 
British Museum. 

The mutilation of this great 
monument commenced in Arab 
times. A fanatic Arab Shekh did 
much to injure it in 1380, and 
some of the Mamluks used it as 
a target. 

If the traveller can see the 
Sphinx by moonlight, he should not 
fail to do so. 

To the south-east of the Sphinx 
lies a unique 

Granite Temple, called now the 
Temple of the Sphinx. It is 

connected with the temple of the 
Second Pyramid by a causeway, 
and was probably built by the same 
King Khafra , but no single in¬ 
scription is there to confirm this 
conjecture, or to tell us anything 
about it; but when it was exca¬ 
vated by Mariette in 1853, the fine 
statue of Khafra now in the 
Cairo Museum was found, also 
eight smaller statues in a well. 
The temple, built of red granite and 
alabaster, is entirely buried in sand 
and debris, but the interior has 
been excavated. A passage has 
been made and steps cut down to 
it. Its plan is curious, resembling 
somewhat two T’s, one issuing from 
the other. As we descend the 
passage, we find on the right-hand 
a small chamber built of blocks of 
alabaster. Opposite, on the left- 
hand side, is a staircase lined with 


alabaster, which led to the roof of 
the temple. 

We enter the temple at the north¬ 
west corner, into a hall 79 x 23 ft., 
with six pillars of single blocks of 
granite. Only two of the roofing 
stones remain. Out of the east 
side of this hall runs another, 
measuring 57£ ft. x29 ft., with two 
rows of five granite columns. 

From the south-west corner of the 
first hall a dark passage leads to 
six large niches in two stories, built 
of alabaster, supposed to be for the 
reception of mummies. 

Another small hall without 
pillars lies parallel to the first hall. 
In the well here were also found 
statues of Khafra. At each end 
of this hall are two small chambers. 
The fitting together of the granite 
blocks should be particularly 
noticed. Also the manner in which 
the corners of the building were 
made, the corner evidently having 
been cut out of the block after it 
was placed in position. 

Tombs near the Pyramids. 

The tombs of this cemetery, 
though not to be compared as 
works of art with those at Sakkara, 
are interesting. 

The Tomb of Numbers is one of 
a group of rock-cut tombs in the 
edge of the plateau east of the 
Pyramids, just above the village of 
Kafr. It is the tomb of Khafra- 
ankh and Herneka his wife. 
Khafra-ankh was a priest of the 
pyramid of Khafra. The tomb is 
so-called because of the lists of 
the possessions of the owner. 

Campbell’s Tomb,called after the 
British consul-general in Egypt at 
the time when the tomb was ex¬ 
cavated. It is late, belonging to 
the 26th dynasty. The mastaba 
proper has disappeared, but the 
shaft leading to the mummy cham¬ 
ber has been excavated. Of the 
four sarcophagi found, all had been 
plundered. One is now in the 
British Museunfc 


This is a whole day’s expedition 
from Cairo. Bedrashen, the start¬ 
ing-point, is reached either by train, 
leaving Cairo at 6.45 or 10 a.m., 
or by steamer. For the latter, see 
arrangements by various tourist 
agents posted up in hotels. Going 
by train somewhat shortens the 
donkey ride. Candles and mag¬ 
nesium wire necessary. 

From Cairo the line passes through 
many palm groves. The Pyramid 
of Khufu is seen on the right, and 
over the Nile and Old Cairo are the 
Mokattam Hills. Nearly opposite 
Bedrashen is Helwan. 

The ride from Bedrashen to 
Sakkara takes about two hours, in¬ 
cluding the d6tour to visit the ruins 
of Memphis and the colossi. If the 
traveller arrives at Bedrashen un¬ 
accompanied by a dragoman he will 
be besieged by a noisy rough crowd 
of donkey-boys, each extolling his 
articular animal. It is well to 
ave a stick with one. Fare, about 
P.T. 10 there and back. 

The ride is at first along the rail¬ 
way line, which is crossed and the 
modern village of Bedrashen passed, 
the route then leading along an em¬ 
bankment, on either side of which 
there is water from September to 
November. We then pass along 
the edge of some higher ground, 
another tract which is covered with 
water from September to February. 
Some remains of the temple of 
Ptah of Memphis lie on the west 
side of this tract, and are covered 
with water during that time. The 
path brings us to a huge statue of 
Ramses II lying on the ground. 

Remains op Memphis. 
Memphis.—The modern village of 
Mitrahina marks the site of one of old 
Egypt’s oldest towns. Herodotus says 
that it was founded by Mena, the first 
historical king, who turned the river 
out of its course in order to secure a 
good site. Memphis is the Greek 
rendering of the hieroglyphic Men-nefer^ 


Section 7 

the “beautiful dwelling” or “good 
place.” It was also called the “ white- 
walled city.” It flourished under the 
6th dynasty kings, its temple of Ptah 
being the largest in Egypt. But when 
the Theban God Amen-Jta superseded 
Ptah, and the Egyptian monarchs 
made Thebes their centre, Memphis 
began to decline. But even as late as 
the 20th dynasty its temple was the 
largest but two in the country. In 
Roman times it seems to have been 
an important place; but the rising 
Alexandria became a great rival, and 
from that time Memphis began to fall 
into ruins. Strabo, writing a few years 
B.C., tells of its ruined palaces. During 
excavations on the site of Memphis in 
1854, some blocks with the cartouches 
of A men-hetep IV ( Khu-en-aten ) were 
found. These are the farthest north re¬ 
mains of the “Disk worshippers” yet 

The Colossal Statues of 
Ramses II. —The one lying in the 
open is of granite. With the crown 
which now lies on the ground be¬ 
side it, it was 3l| ft. high. The 
relief on the left side represents 
Princess Bent-Anat. The king’s 
name occurs several times on the 
statue. In a little wooden build¬ 
ing near by (entrance, P.T. 4) is 
another colossal statue of Ramses n 
in a fine, hard limestone which 
takes a good polish. It also is 
lying on its back; but a little 
wooden staircase leads up to a 
platform over the figure, whence 
the features can be examined. It 
is 42 ft. high. The figures by the 
side are a son and a daughter. The 
king's name is on his belt. This 
statue was probably one of those 
in front of the great 

Temple of Ptah. —Of the original 
temple founded by Mena almost 
nothing remains. But two statues 
of Ptah were found, unique ex¬ 
amples of life-size figures of a god. 
To the north are the remains of a 
small temple of Ptah built by 
Ramses n. A very charming head 
in granite lies on higher ground 
near by. 

Returning to the main route, we 
continue through various crops and 
palm groves having the desert 

plateau with several pyramids in 
view, until we pass Sakk&ra, skirt 
a palm grove, and find ourselves 
ascending the somewhat steep path 
to the desert. Immediately we are 
in the vast 

Necropolis of Sakkara. — The 
principal and most interesting 
tombs are of the Ancient Empire. 
Several are kept closed by sand to 
protect them from the Arabs. But 
some have doors to them, and are 
looked after by a keeper. 

The chief monument we see, in 
point of size, is the 

Step Pyramid of King Zeser of 
the 3rd dynasty, therefore prob¬ 
ably the oldest pyramid in Egypt. 
It is 197 ft. high ; two sides measure 
351 ft. and two 393 ft., the plan 
not being square. It is not safe to 
visit theinterior, which is now closed. 
There are numerous passages of 
various dates. The tomb-chamber 
was excavated in the rock beneath 
the centre of the pyramid. Two 
chambers were lined with blue-green 
tiles, similar In type to those re¬ 
cently found by Petrie at Abydos, 
and in one was found a human skull 
and the gilded soles of two feet. 

Towards the left, about 300 yds. 
to the south - west of the Step 
Pyramid, is the 

Pyramid of Unas, which should 
be visited as a type of the 6th dynasty 
pyramids. Its original height was 
62 ft., and length of side 220 ft. 
The entrance, which Is constantly 
drifting up with sand, is in the 
north face. It is sometimes rather 
difficult of access, there being not too 
much room between the sand and 
the lintel to reach the door. 
(Keeper, “ghatir,” must be fetched.) 
The horizontal passage, at the end 
of which were three granite port¬ 
cullises, leads to a chamber, with 
the tomb-chamber to the right and 
a smaller chamber to the left. The 
two former have elaborately painted 
ceilings, and the walls are covered 
with incised hieroglyphs coloured 
a pale green-blue. The inscriptions 
are the oldest religious texts in 
Egypt; they relatfc to the future 


life. In the tomb-chamber is an 
enormous black basalt sarcophagus. 
Some fragments of the mummy 
were found. The wall surrounding 
the sarcophagus is lined with ala¬ 
baster painted in zigzag patterns. 

Recent investigations by M. Mas- 
pero have revealed the fact that 
this pyramid is built upon the site 
of a still older — probably pre- 

From the top of the pyramid 
there is a good View. To the south 
we see first two ruined pyramids, 
those of Pepi i and Pepi u. Be¬ 
yond is a kind of square mass 
called the Mastabat el-Farfin. Still 
farther south are the Pyramids of 

North-east of the Step Pyramid 
are two small pyramids, the eastern¬ 
most one being that of Teta. In 
construction and inscriptions it is 
similar to that of Unas. 

The usual route followed takes 
us between these two pyramids to 
(20 minutes) Mariette’s House, 
where lunch is usually taken. (Fee 
of P.T. 2 or 3 to guardian.) Near 
this is the 

Apis Mausoleum, (Gruide^todhis 
qjid^the- to rrr bs, P.T >4k4&-*-even-if 
accompani ed by n , rirnfrnmrn -t ilts 
guide iiiinrt'be-^aken.) 

Apis was the sacred bull of which 
Herodotus tells us that it is “ the calf 
of a cow incapable of conceiving 
another offspring; and the Egyptians 
say that lightning descends upon the 
cow from heaven, and that from thence 
it brings forth Apis. This calf, which 
is called Apis, has the following marks : 
it is black, and has a square spot of 
white on the forehead, and on the back 
the figure of an eagle; and in the tail 
double hairs, and on the tongue a 
beetle.” The famous Serapeum spoken 
of b 3 r Strabo was the series of chapels 
(all of which have disappeared) built 
over these subterranean tombs. Origin¬ 
ally a dromos or avenue of sphinxes led 
up to it, 141 of which were excavated by 
Mariette, who discovered the ancient 
site. At the end were eleven statues 
of Greek philosophers and writers. 
Remains of one or two other temples 
were also discovered, also traces of the 
pylons of the Serapeum. The mummy 
of Kha-em-uas, the favourite son of 

Ramses n, was found near the entrance 
to the north. The gold ornaments 
found on him were sent to the Louvre. 
It was in 1861 that M. Mariette dis¬ 
covered the entrance to the great 
vaults in which the bulls were buried. 
The earliest burial was in the reign of 
Amen-hetep in of the 18th dynasty. 

Scale of Yards 

9 ip 2p sp 40 gp 6p 

Apis Tombs. 

Entering, we find ourselves in a 
chamber with niches in the lime¬ 
stone. This is the commencement 
of the third part of the mausoleum 
and the latest, being of the 26th to 
Ptolemaic dynasties. The earlier 
parts are sanded up again, as they 



Section 7 

were leas interesting and insecure. 
We turn to the right, and then to 
the left along a long passage passing 
a huge granite sarcophagus, which 
nearly blocks the way. Again the 
corridor turns to the left, and then 
reaches a cross passage. We turn 
to the right, and soon find ourselves 
in a gallery 210 yds. long with re¬ 
cesses or pits on either hand, and 
must proceed with caution. There 
are twenty-four sarcophagi still in 
situ, most of them having their lids 
pushed to one side. All but two, in 
which Mariette found some trifles, 
had been rifled. Only three are 
inscribed, showirJfTJfS' names of 
Amasis, Cambysts, afld E&bbttsh. 
Their average measurements 'are 
13 x 7| x 11 ft., and their weight 
65 tons. They are hewn out of 
solid blocks of red or black granite, 
or limestone. In the last recess 
but one on the right there is a stair 
by which one can descend and in¬ 
spect the sarcophagus. 

Returning, we go nearly to the 
end of the corridor, where a turning 
to the left brings us back to the 
first chamber. In order to reach it 
a sarcophagus has to be crossed by 

The walls of these passages con¬ 
tained a large number of stelae, 
tablets inscribed with records of 
the death and burial of the bulls, 
and of festivals. These, which are 
now in the Louvre and Cairo 
museums, are of immense import¬ 
ance historically, and have been of 
great help to chronologers. 

Leaving the hot atmosphere of 
the Apis Mausoleum, we return 
east, and shortly come to the 

Tomb of Thi. —Until the tombs 
of Mera aud Kaben were discovered, 
this was the most interesting tomb 
at Sakkara, perhaps many will still 
think it ranks first. It was dis¬ 
covered by Mariette, and it is of 
the time of Kaka and User-en-Ra, 
kings of the 5th dynasty, under 
whom Thi held high office. Of 
humble origin, he raised himself by 
his abilities, aud had a princess for 
wife, with the rank of prince for his 

sons. Though now covered with 
sand, the mastaba or tomb was 
originally all above the ground- 
level. In the portico with two 
pillars, A, we see representations of 
Thi on either side of the entrance. 
He resembles throughout the tomb 
his statue in the Cairo Museum. In 
court B the reliefs are much 

damaged. At C is a shaft leading 
underneath the tomb-chambers to 
K, where is the uninscribed lime¬ 
stone sarcophagus of Thi. The 
reliefs in E represent servants 
bringing offerings, statues of Thi 
being drawn along in sledges, Thi 
in a boat. The hieroglyphs ex¬ 
plain everything. In F we see 


bakers and potters at work. In G-, and the manner of using them. On 
on the left, we see ships of various the east wall extremely interesting 
bmlds. Iu the last room, H, are harvesting and boat-building scenes, 
the best paintings. The ceiling is Chamber D on plan is a s&rdtib. or 
made to look like palm stems, hidden chamber. 

Turning to the right on entering, Returning to Mariette’s house, we 
we see Thi in his light skiff fowling turn eastwards, and, passing a num- 
m the marshes. There are hippo- ber of covered-up Roman tombs, we 
potami and crocodiles in the water, come to 

Then follow cattle scenes, a calf The Tomb of Mera. This and 
• being held while a man milks the the next tomb were discovered by 
"-"Cow. On the west wall the stelaa M. de Morgan in 1893. There are 
of Thi give his titles. On the thirty-two chambers in it, of which 
south wall, in centre, a scene in a twenty-one belong to Mera , six to 
court of justice. The birds below Her-uat-kh&rt , his wife, and five 
are very good. Farther on are to Teta , his son. The order of 
many trade scenes, showing tools chambers in plan should be fol- 



Section 7 

lowed. It belongs to tbe time of 
the 6th dynasty. On the facade 
we see Mera, his -wife, and little 
son. Ml. Mera and his wife in a 
boat fishing, in another scene fowl¬ 
ing. The details of birds, fish, etc., 
well rendered. M2. The mummy 
shaft. M3. W. wall , a desert hunt, 
a lion seizing an ox, hound bringing 
down an antelope. E. wall, crafts¬ 
men at work ; goldsmiths, car¬ 
penters, stone vase makers. M5. 
E. wall, note a servant leading two 
hounds and a monkey. W. wall, 
picture of a hall with lotus-bud 
columns, people coming to be taxed. 
M6. Notice the harper on W. waU, 
Merainachair. E. wall, lowest rows, 
dancers. M8. N. wall , treading 
grapes and storing fruit. M9 has a 
statue of Mera in a recess, with steps 
and table of offerings in alabaster. 
To the left of this, pictures of hyenas, 
acrobats, and mountebanks, Mera in 
a carrying-chair. W. wall, ships. 
S. wall, realistic funeral procession, 
with mourners. E. wall, harvest 
scenes. Mera playing draughts with 
his wife. Rooms 10-14 belong to 
the son Teta. T10. Animals ; fat¬ 
tening geese. M15 to M23 were 
store-rooms. M25 is not acces¬ 
sible ; a painted statue of Mera was 
found in it. H27. Her-uat-khert 
receives gifts from attendants. A 
carrying-chair adorned with lions’ 

Just to the N.-E. of this mastaba 
is the 

Tomb of Kaben, in which the 
exquisite work of the reliefs is per¬ 
haps finer than that in the Tombs 
of Thi and Mera. The scenes are 
much the same as those in the other 
tombs. On the fa 9 ade is a most 
spirited fishing scene. The water- 
plants and insects should be noticed. 
The first chamber, which can be 
seen without candles, has a charm¬ 
ing garden scene on left wall, and 
on the right wall men carrying 
fish in baskets, details very fine. 

The Tomb of Ptah-hetep, 
which for many years was closed 
to the public, has now been re¬ 
opened. The tomb is to the south 

of Mariette’s house. The entrance, 
on the north, leads into a corridor. 
Through the second doorway on the 
right we reach a chamber with four 
pillars. Opposite is a door into 
the chapel of Akhet-hetep, son (?) 
of Ptah-hetep, and to the left is a 
passage leading into the chapel of 
Ptah-hetep. Here the sculptures 
and paintings are most interesting, 
showing some variations of those in 
the tombs of Thi and Mera. The 
finest work is on the east wall, 
where Ptah-hetep is seen “looking 
at every good pastime that is done 
in the whole land.” 

If the trip is to be continued to 
Gizeh, we. now descend to the plain 
again, and instead of turning to the 
right to ride to BedrasMn, we turn 
to the left towards the (about f hr.) 

Pyramids of Abustr of the 5th 
dynasty. Having been badly built, 
they are in a ruinous condition, only 
five of the original fourteen being 
distinguishable. The central pyra¬ 
mid is that of Ra-en-user, the north¬ 
ernmost that of Sahu-Ra. Some 
of the blocks used in roofing the 
chambers measure 50 x 35 x 12 ft. 

Continuing north, we come to the 

Mastaba of Ptah-shepses, with 
some brilliant colouring. It dates 
from the 5th dynasty, having the 
cartouches of Sahu-Ra, An, and 
Assa. Notice in the second chamber 
pictures of primitive dahabiyas. 
The lotiform columns are the only 
instance known of this period. 

The ride to Gizeh from Abusir 
takes about two hours. In March 
there are some pretty wild flowers 
springing up along the edge of the 
cultivated land; particularly asmall 
purple iris which grows in little 

The Pyramids of Dahshfir are sel¬ 
dom visited. They cannot be included 
in the Sakk&ra expedition, an entire day 
must be given up to them. The route 
is the same as to Sakk&ra until Mit- 
Rahina is passed, where it turns off to 
the left. 

The north brick pyramid, very much 
ruined, was opened by M. de Morgan. 



Sections 7, 8 

To reach the entrance one is let down 
30 ft. by a rope. There are many 
passages and chambers; all unin¬ 
scribed. One red granite chamber 
painted white contains a sarcophagus ; 
and the red granite sarcophagus of 
Queen Nefert-hent, in another part, is 
inscribed with her name. Buried care¬ 
lessly in the earth, as if hidden by 
disturbed robbers, M. de Morgan found 
some beautiful 12th dynasty gold 
jewelry, now in the museum. 

The great stone pyramid, 326 ft. high, 
lies in the desert to the east about £ 
hour’s ride. It presents nothing of in¬ 
terest. In the - 

South brick pyramid (usually closed) 
were found two undisturbed 12th dy¬ 
nasty burials with fine jewelry. The 

South stone pyramid, built at two 
angles, is therefore called the “blunted 
pyramid.” A little north of M. de 
Morgan’s house are some mounds mark¬ 
ing the sites of brick pyramids ; the 
limestone chambers and passages were 
opened in 1896. They are uninscribed, 
as are the huge granite sarcophagi 
found in them. 

If on a camping expedition, the Pyra¬ 
mids of Pepi i (difficult of access) and 
Pepi n should be visited on the way to 




Cairo to Med!na . . .91 

Excursions from Medina . 92 
The Oases . . . .93 

{a) The ordinary traveller can 
have a glimpse of this province iii 
a day from Cairo, by taking the 
train to Wasta and thence through 
the province to Abfixa, the railway 
terminus, and return the same way. 

(6) The International Sleeping 
Car Co. and Cook have arranged a 
weekly excursion, leaving Cairo on 
Thursdays at 6.50 p.m. and return¬ 
ing to Cairo on Saturdays at 9.50 
p.m. Passengers sleep and have 
meals in the cars. Fare, including 
railway, sleeping and dining car 
accommodation, meals, sight-seeing, 
donkeys, etc., £7. 

(c) A very pleasant week may be 
spent camping in the Fayfim by 
those who are interested in the 
antiquities, or by those who wish to 

shoot. A dragoman will charge for 
tents, food, and travelling—by train, 
camel, or donkey—about 25s. to 30s. 
per day for each person. 

The best centres for sport are 
Tomia and the N.-E. corner of the 

(< d ) It is quite possible to spend 
three days at the primitive hotel at 
Medina, and make excursions from 
that place. 

Egypt has been likened in shape 
to a lotus with stalk and bud, the 
Delta being the flower, the Nile 
Valley the stalk, and the Fayfim 
the bud. . The Fayfim is practi¬ 
cally a large oasis, though sepa¬ 
rated from the Nile Valley only by 
a narrow strip of desert. It is ex¬ 
tremely fertile, a fact which it owes 
to the splendid system of canals, 
fed by the Bahr Yfisuf, and the lake 
called the Birket el-Kurfin. In its 
area are many interesting remains, 
it having been specially the scene of 
great irrigation works during the 
12th dynasty. Its gardens are the 
finest in Egypt, growing apricots, 
grapes, figs, olives, and other fruits. 

Cairo to MedIna. 

From the principal station, Cairo, 
to Medina el-Fayfim (changing at 
Wasta), at 8.30 a.m.; fare P.T. 27. 
About 58 miles in hrs. Arrive 
at Medina at 11.16 noon, and Abfixa 
at 12.50. Leave Abfixa 4.10, arrive 
Cairo about 8.45. The railway 
time table only gives “Fayoum” 
for Medina. 

From Wasta the line crosses a 
strip of cultivated land, then as¬ 
cends the desert over low hills to 
the oasis. The Pyramid of Medfim 
is seen to the north, and to the 
south the Pyramid of El-Lahun. 

20 miles, El-Edwa on the culti¬ 
vated land. 

25 miles, Medina: see “Hotel 
List.” Post and telegraph offices. 
This is one of the most picturesque 
towns in Egypt, owing partly to the 
unusual fact of its having a stream 
running through it. The stream is 
one of the two branches of the Bahr 
Yfisuf that water the province. The 


Section 8 


bazaar, which is more than a mile 
long, is very interesting and pretty, 
passing over several canals. But 
unfortunately the picturesque old 
bridges have been replaced by 
modern iron ones. The mosque of 
Kait Bey is built on a bridge over the 
river in the north part of the town. 

North of the town are the mounds 
of the ancient Arsinoe or Croco- 
dilopolis , the crocodile being the 
sacred animal of the nome. Num¬ 
bers of valuable papyri have been 
found here, mostly Greek. 

[Branch line to Senfiris.] 

40 miles, Abfixa. 

Excursions prom Medina. 

I. To Hawara and site of Laby¬ 
rinth ; about 6 miles; donkey, 
P.T. 20. The route lies first by the 
side of the Bahr Yfisuf; then cross¬ 
ing various canals we come to rising 
ground, and on the platform stands 
the Pyramid. It is built of crude 
bricks round a nucleus of natural 
rock, the limestone outer casing 
having long ago disappeared. When 
opened it was found to belong to 
the time of Amen-em-hat in, 12th 
dynasty. Objects found in it are 
now in the Museum at Cairo. It 
was south of this Pyramid that the 
Labyrinth, that wonderful build¬ 
ing described by Herodotus, stood. 
It covered an enormous area, which, 
unfortunately, has served as a 
quarry for centuries. There are, 
therefore, very few remains ; a few 
broken columns and capitals in 
limestone or granite are all that 
can be seen. In all probability the 
building was the work of Amen- 
em-hat ill. 

II. To El-Lahfin. This is merely 
an extension of Excursion I. for 
another 6 miles south-east. The 
Pyramid was opened by Mr. Petrie, 
and proved to be that of Usert-sen ii, 
12th dynasty. Near this are the 
great sluices through which the 
Bahr Yfisuf is admitted into the 
Fayum. About ^ mile east of 
El-Lahfin was a temple and town 
for the workmen who built the 

Pyramid. Remains can be seen 
and fragments of pottery picked up. 

About 1J miles south, at the end 
of the El-Lahfin dyke, is Gurdb, 
where Thothmes ill built a temple, 
of which only the foundations can 
now be traced. There are old Egyp¬ 
tian and Ptolemaic tombs in the 

III. To the Birket el-Kurfin. 
Donkeys must be taken in the train 
to Abshawi. It is a ride of about 
2£ hrs. to the lake. By informing 
the proprietor of the Medina hotel 
beforehand, the “ Hotel Moeris” on 
the lake may be used. Comfortable 
sleeping accommodation under can¬ 
vas. The “Birket ” or lake is 130 ft. 
below the Mediterranean level. It 
is about 34 mil§s long by 6^ miles 
broad, but is never very deep. 
It covers part of the site of 
the famous Lake Moeris, the 
great work of Amen-em-hat in. 
Sir R. Hanbury Brown, K.C.M.G., 
late inspector-general of irrigation, 
has very carefully surveyed the 
whole area of the Fayfim, and has 
published the results in his book, 
The Fayytim and Lake Moeris. The 
fish-market on the shore is particu¬ 
larly interesting. If a boat can be 
procured, the excursion should be 
continued to the other side of the 
lake, where are the ruins of Dima, 
which are most interesting. But 
for this continuation a night must 
be spent in tents. 

IV. To Biahmu and Senfiris. If 
Biahmu alone is to be visited it 
should be done on donkey-back 
(P.T. 5). If Senfiris is to be in¬ 
cluded, the train (7£ miles) should 
be taken. The ruins at Biahmu are 
of a unique kind. There are two 
ruined Pyramids surrounded by 
courts, called by the Arabs 
“Pharaoh’s Chairs.” Fragments 
of statues which must have been 
40 ft. high were found at the base 
by Mr. Petrie. These are prob¬ 
ably the remains of the two Pyra¬ 
mids, with colossal seated statues of 
Amen-em-hat on the top, of w'hich 

Section 8 


Herodotus speaks, and which he 
describes as standing in Lake Moeris. 
The country in this neighbourhood 
is particularly fertile and very 
pretty. Senftris occupies the site 
of an old town, but there are no 


The best time for a visit to any 
of the oases is between November 
and mid-March. Any really effici¬ 
ent dragoman could arrange a trip 
to the Little Oasis, and on to the 
Great Oasis. It would take be¬ 
tween a fortnight and three weeks. 
Desert roads are all much alike. 
They wind about, avoiding every 
incline, consisting simply of parallel 
tracks worn by the camels of many 
caravans. After mounting the 
desert plateau from the Nile Valley 
there is little variety in the journey 
until the edge of the great depres¬ 
sion in which the oasis lies has been 

There are four oases in the western 
desert-—the Bahriya and Farafra 
oases, which belong to the mudirtya 
of Minia, and the Kharga and 
Dakhla oases, under the Asyfit 
mudiriya. These are all connected 
with one another by desert routes. 

The Bahriya Oasis is the “ Little 
Oasis ” of the Romans. It is about 
three days’journey from Girga on 
the Nile. The Arabic for oasis is 
wah, hence it is known as the Wah 
el-Bahriya. The inhabitants are 
quite friendly. Many of them have 
never been out of the oasis. They 
are less industrious than the fella- 
hin, not having to work so hard to 
irrigate their fields, water flowing 
freely. Unfortunately this water 
collects into pools, and becoming 
stagnant poisons the air with mi¬ 
asma. The water in the springs 
has a temperature from 30° to 40° 
higher than that of the air. The 
5000 or so inhabitants live in four 
villages. They grow various kinds 
of fruit and dates. Of the latter 
they export four kinds. There are 
a few remains of buildings of Roman 
and Coptic origin. 

The Farafra Oasis.— 1 “ Land of 
Cattle ” is said to be the meaning of 
Farafra. The route is from Asyftt, 
188 miles in about 8 days. It is 
only an extensive depression in the 
desert, with a few springs, and 
about 3 sq. kilometres of cultivated 
land and palm groves, producing 
scarcely sufficient to support its 
500 inhabitants. It is the healthi¬ 
est of the oases, being open to the 
north wind. The Farfaroni, as the 
people are called, live in one village, 
Kasr Farafra, which consists of 
about 100 mud-brick houses. There 
is a fort here of some age, and a stele 
of the 18th dynasty was found in 
the oasis. A white variety of the 
fennec fox is found. The olive trees, 
whose fruit used to be exported, 
appear to have stopped bearing. 

Wall el-Kharga (railway from 
FarshCtt, in course of construction) 
is part of the ‘‘Great Oasis” of the 
Romans. There are six different 
routes to it from the Nile. It is 
about 126 miles from Esna. But 
the favourite native route is to Asy fit, 
or more properly to Beni Adi, 17 
miles W.N.W. of Asyfit. This is the 
road by which, in old days, slaves 
were brought from the south. The 
descent into the oasis is steep, the 
cliffs which border this natural ex¬ 
cavation in the Libyan desert being 
between 700 and 800 feet high. 
These unfortunately form a screen 
in the north against the cooling 
wind, hence the unhealthy heat in 
the summer. The lowest point in 
the oasis is 60 feet below sea-level. 
The flora is the same as that of the 
Nile Valley. There are, besides 
domestic animals, only grey foxes, 
small snakes, and insects. The 
total area of the oasis is 3000 square 
kilometres, of which only 19 square 
kilometres are cultivated. 

The oasis was known in the time 
of Thothmes in, who used it as a 
place of banishment. Indeed, this 
and other oases seem to have been 
frequently so used, Bishop Nes- 
torius being sent here in 435 a.d. 
The ruins of the ancient city of 
HibiSf north of the village of 



Section 8 

Kharga, are still well preserved. 
They contain the cartouches of 
Darius 11 and Nectanebus I. There 
are also remains of Roman fort¬ 
resses and look-out stations, Chris¬ 
tian chapels and tombs, cellular 
structures like columbaria, and, 
most important of all, the wells. 
These—in Arabic, Ain or Bir —are, 
many of them, still in good working 
order. Of the 7850 inhabitants of 
the oasis, 4800 live in the village of 
Kharga. The seat of government 
and the government doctor are 
there, and there is a telegraph 
office. It is a curious, collection of 
mud-brick houses with the streets 
covered in like tunnels, and without 
shops or bazaars. Two minarets 
guide one to the mosque. 

Wah el-Dakhla, or the “ Inner 
Oasis,” was included with El- 
Kharga under the name of the 
“Great Oasis” by the Romans. It 
is the most important of these four 
oases, by reason of its large number 
of inhabitants (17,090), its larger 
cultivated area, and the copiousness 
of its water supply. There are two 
roads to it from El-Kharga (75 
miles), the southern being level and 
easy going. The direct road from 
Beni Adi, used by the date caravans, 
is 156 miles, or 62J hours by bag¬ 
gage camel—that is, about 6 days. 
It is due west of Erment on the 
Nile. It lies between the great 
limestone plateau in the north and 
the low - lying sandstone region 
stretching to the south. Only little 
more than half the cultivable land 
is cultivated, and this is divided 
into two distinct areas. Of animals 
there are the common gazelle, the 
jackal (which is here partly a veget¬ 
able eater), the Egyptian fox and 
fennec fox, shrews, cats, weasels, 
mice, and hares; quail, snipe, duck, 
coots, sand-grouse; and the large 
monitor is abundant. Besides 
the palms and sont trees, many 
fruit trees flourish — the orange, 
lime, sweet lemon, pomegranate, 
mulberry, apricot, banana, and fig 
forming sometimes quite a thick 
jungle under the palms. This may 

be especially noticed at Rashida 
village. There are fourteen villages 
altogether and 420 wells. Many of 
these were bored by the Romans, 
and aje as deep and effective as the 
modern ones. 

Kasr Dakhl, the largest and most 
important village, prettily situated 
in a wooded district, was the old 
capital. But now the mam&r lives 
at Mut, which has become the 
government centre. Near this place 
two stelae with the name of Shis- 
hak n were found. At another 
village, called Smint, there are 
buildings dating from Roman times. 

The revenue from this oasis is 

The Oasis of Slwa. —This is the 
most interesting and the most inac¬ 
cessible of the oases. In ancient 
times it was celebrated for its oracle 
of Jupiter Ammon, after which it 
was named; and at present it is 
notorious as a stronghold of that 
form of Mohammedan fanaticism 
instigated by the Senussi Mahdi, 
whose adherents are found in North 
Africa, Somaliland, and Arabia. 
Their important city is Jarabub, 
which is 110 miles west of the 
oasis, and out of which po European 
traveller has returned alive for many 
years. The Dervish Mahdi in the 
Sfldan tried to induce Senussi to join 
him, but fortunately for the peace 
of Egypt and the Sudan he refused. 

There is a route from Alexandria 
and three from Cairo, one of which 
passes through the Bahriya Oasis. 
The journey occupies altogether be¬ 
tween four and five weeks there and 

The population numbers about 
3500. A peculiar language is 
spoken, and some strange customs 
obtain among the people. They 
export quantities of very good dates 
of five varieties. 

At Jebel Muta there is an Egyptian 
tomb, painted with scenes and hiero¬ 
glyphs, and many other tombs, all 
of which have been rifled. At Umm 
BMa there are ruins of a temple of 
Amen, and there are few other re¬ 
mains at various spots in the oasis. 





Se dr ash fen 

Wasta . 

Beni Suef 

Feshn . 
















Maghagha . 

109 j 






Aba Girga . 


Minia . 

Beni Hasan 

Roda . 


Haggi Kandil 

Gebel Aba Ffeda. 

MonfalOt . 

Asyftt . 


Kau . 

Tahta . 



Menshiya . 

Girga . 



Kasr es-Sayy&d . 




Luxor . 

Ernie nt 


El Kab 

Edfa . 

Hagar Silsila 

K6m Ombo. 


119 | 










































































Haggi Kandil 



















20 j Gebel Aba Ffeda 
















































































































AswS.ii to Korosko 105 miles, 
Korosko to Wady-Halfa 105 miles. 






















































































































a Ombo 




























Kasr es-SayyM 
















































































































































































































El 1 














| 310 






















Hagar Si 















354 | 335 













































3711 352 
397 | 378 







































17 1 Kon 

43: 26 

Guide to Palestine and Egypt. 
To face page 202. 






Cairo to Asw8.ii, Table of Mileage .... To face 98 
The Nile Journey, Voyage by Dahabiya, Voyage by 
Steamer, Journey by Train.96 

9. Cairo to Ltjxor by the Nile — 


Beni Hasan.101 

Tel el-Amarna.103 





10. Thebes — 


Ancient Thebes . ..116 



Tombs of the Kings.124 

Der el-Bahri ..128 


The Colossi.133 


11. Luxor to Aswan — 

Esna 138 

El-Kab ,.139 

Edfft. 140 

Oebel Silsila.143 

Kom Ombo.143 

12. AswIn— 

The Granite Quarries 
Phil® and the First Cataract 
The Dam and Reservoir . 

13. Aswan to Wady Halfa— 

(hirst to Second Cataract) 
Korti, Korosko, AbO Simbel 







Page voyage in a dahabiya towed by a 
Voyage by Dahabiya . . 96 steam-tug. 

Voyage by Steamer . . 96 There are several first-class 

Journey by Train . . , 97 dragomans in Cairo, whose names 

can be had at hotels, and such a 
rTlBAVELLERS ascending the Nile trip can be arranged through them, 
J. andintendingtovisitthemonu- or through any of the tourist 
ments must provide themselves with agents. The charge varies very 
“Antiquities Tickets.” TheP.T. much according to the size, age, 
120, i.e. about £1, 5s., paid for and build of the boat; the number 
this is a Government tax levied on of the party; the experience of the 
all who travel up the river for this dragoman employed ; and the style 
purpose. Tickets can be had at the of living. Travellers are recom- 
Museum, or from the tourist agents mended to wait until they are in 
in Cairo. Cairo before- making arrangements 

for such a trip. 

There are three modes of journey- A fairly moderate charge would 
ing in Upper Egypt: by dahabiya, be about £5 to £6 per day for two 
by steamer, and by rail. The last persons, or £6 to £7 per day for 
is the cheapest, and the first the three or four persons, which would 
slowest and most expensive. make the journey to Aswan and 

back cost about £300 to £350 for 
The Voyage by Dahabiya to two persons, or £350 to £400 for 
Aswiin and back cannot be accom- three or four persons, 
plished under seven weeks,—if the Before engaging a dragonjan the 
winds are contrary it will take intending traveller should make 
longer. The dahabiya is a sailing thorough inquiries into his char- 
boat, with a hull somewhat like a acter, and make some day excur- 
house-boat. It draws, if a modern sions with him. For the above 
iron boat, very little water (about prices he provffles the boat and 
2 ft.), and carries an enormous crew, servants, donkeys for the 
sail and one small one. The ad- expeditions, a JMka, or small boat 
vantage of making the journey in with sail (as well as the boat with 
this way is that—if a proper agree- the chicken coops), full equipment 
ment has been come to with the and food. A formal contract must 
dragoman and reis (captain)—the be made with the dragoman before 
traveller can stop where he likes, starting. At the end of the voyage 
and see many interesting places bakshish is expected by everyone, 
at which the steamer does not 

stop. Some people make the The Voyage by Steamer. 




There are two lines of steamers 
running from Cairo to Aswan. 

A. —Thos. Cook & Son (Egypt) 
Limited have two sets of steamers 
(paddle steamers). 

1st. The large Tourist Steamers, 
carrying from 40 to 77 passengers, 
and leaving Cairo weekly. Time, 
20 days. Fare, including every¬ 
thing but drinks, £50. For speci¬ 
ally-fitted cabins, £60. 

2nd. The “ Express ” Steamers , 
leaving Cairo on Fridays and Mon¬ 
days. Time, 19 days. Fare, in¬ 
cluding seven days at hotels in 
Luxor and Aswan, £22, not includ¬ 
ing excursions on shore. 

B. —The Hamburg and Anglo- 
American Nile Steamer and 
Hotel Company have also two sets 
of steamers (stern-wheelers). 

1st. Large Stern - Wheelers, 
carrying about 70 passengers. 
From Cairo every Friday. Time, 
20 days. Fare, from £40, includ¬ 
ing everything but drinks. 

2nd. Express Steamers between 
Luxor and Aswdn in connection 
with rail from Cairo. Weekly. 
Time to Asw&n direct, 1£ days. 
Fare, £4 ; return, £8. Complete 
trip, Cairo to Luxor by sleeping 
car, steamer Luxor to Asw&n, seven 
days in hotels at Luxor and Aswan, 
return Cairo same way, £18. Time, 
10 days. 

From Asw&n to W&dy Haifa 

there are three sets of steamers. 

A. —Thos. Cook & Son’s Tourist 
Steamers . Time, 7 days. Fare, 
£ 20 . 

B. —Anglo-American Co.’s Tour¬ 
ist Steamers. Time, 7 days. Fare, 
£ 20 . 

C. —SOdan Government Steam¬ 
ers. By these steamers the travel¬ 
ler can see Abu Simbel on the way 
up, but the steamer makes no other 
stop. Leave Aswan, Mondays and 
Thursdays, at 9 p.m. Arrive Haifa, 
Wednesdays and Saturdays, 2 p.m., 
allowing the early morning of Wed¬ 
nesday and Saturday on the out¬ 
ward journey for seeing AbftSiinbel. 
Arrive back in Aswan, Fridays and 
Mondays, 7 a.m. Return fare, 


including food, about £11, 10s. 
European servants, about £4, 6s. 

Combined rail and steamer 

trips are arranged by the different 
steamer companies. In this way 
an eight days’ trip from Cairo to 
Aswan can be accomplished for 
£13, 10s. Inquiry should be made 
of the Tourist Agents. 

The Journey by Train. There 
is a railway from Cairo to Aswan, 
with a break of gauge at Luxor. 
Trains run as follows :— 


Cairo . . dep. 8.30 

p.m. p.m. 
0.30* 8.Of 


p.m. a.m. a.m. 
arr. 11.40 8.45 9.30 

a.m. a.m. 

„ . . dep. 5.15 ... 10.0 

p.m. p.m. 

Asw4n . arr. 1.38 ... 4.30 

* Train de luxe: Sleeping and 
restaurant cars only. Runs only 
during tourist season, on Mondays, 
Wednesdays, and Saturdays. 

t Until the Train de luxe service 
commences, a sleeping and restaurant 
car will be attached to this train on 
Mondays, Wednesdays, and Saturdays. 

Return trains— 

a.m. a.m. 


. dep. 5.0 






. arr. 1.55 






„ . 

. dep. 5.30 






Cairo . . 

arr. 8.40 



* Train de luxe : Sleeping and 
restaurant cars only. Runs only 
during tourist season, on Tuesdays, 
Thursdays, and Sundays. 

t Until the Train de luxe service 
commences, a sleeping and restaurant 
car will be attached to this train on 
Tuesdays, Thursdays, and Sundays. 

i 1st class, P.T. 206, i.e. 

Fares—Cairo J £2, 2s. 6d. 

to Luxor, j 2nd class, P.T. 103, i.e. 
\ £1, Is. 3d. 

list class, P.T. 87£, i.e. 

Luxor to J 18 s. 

Asw5,n. | 2nd class, P.T. 44, i.e. 
I 9s. Id. 

98 mtPT Sections 8,9 

The journey is very dusty and 
tedious. There is an hotel at 
Asyfit, where it is possible to break 
the journey and spend the night. 
Pood should be taken for the 
journey by ordinary train. 






Beni Hasan . . . .101 

Tel el-Amarna . . .103 



Abydos .107 

Dendera . . . .111 

Abbreviations. — S. db R. stat. : 

Steamer and railway stations. 
P. db T. off. : Post and tele¬ 
graph offices. 

Steamers and dahabiyas start 
from the south side of the Kasr en- 
Nil Bridge. Leaving the quay, the 
steamer passes the British Agency, 
the Palaces of Ibrahim Pasha and of 
the Khedive Ismail’s mother, and 
the island of Roda on the left, 
and Gezira on the right. About the 
end of Gezira, and just beyond it, is 
the favourite anchorageof dahabiyas, 
many of which may be seen. Pass¬ 
ing Gizeh, then on the left the 
quarries of Tura and Masara, Hel- 
wan may be seen 3 miles inland 
(see p. 75). At Hawamdiya is 
the only sugar refinery in Egypt. 
It belongs to the Soctite Generate 
des Suoreries et de la Raffinerie 
d'Egypte, a company which owns 
all hut two of the sugar factories in 
Egypt. Here about 30,000 tons are 
refined in the year. The company 
owns nearly 600 miles of railway, 
150 locomotives, and about 40 
steamers and steam tugs. 

The cane i3, generally speaking, 
grown by the Fellahin and collected 
by the company, but the company 
itself cultivates 16,000 acres. The 
sugar is mostly consumed in the 
country. All the exported sugar 
goes east (see p. 110), Opposite is 

14§ miles , Bedrash&tt, the start¬ 
ing-point for the expedition to 
Sakkara (see p. 85). Nearly all the 
way from Cairo to Wasta there are 
pyramids in sight. Almost before 
the Dahshfir group has disappeared 
we reach, 

31 miles, Kafr el-Ayy&t (S. & R. 
stations) and see the unimportant 
Pyramids of Lisht. Mena's dyke 
was supposed to have started at 
this place, where there are some 
ancient remains. From 

Rikka, the Pyramid of Medtim 
is plainly seen, and this is the 
starting-place for a visit to this 
most picturesque of all the pyra¬ 
mids. It is a very pretty ride of 
1 j hr. through green crops and past 
little villages on mounds to the 
desert where, besides the pyramid 
of Sene/eru, 1st king of the 4th 
dynasty, there are mastabas of the 
same period, of the greatest interest. 
The pyramid is different in shape 
and colouring from any others, 
being of a red and yellow tint. The 
interior is easily reached, but there 
is nothing in the chamber. The fine 
specimen of a pyramid temple dis¬ 
covered by Mr. Petrie on the east 
side is entirely covered up again for 
fear of its being mutilated by the 
Arabs, for which reason most of the 
tombs are closed. In one of the 
mounds north of the pyramid is the 
tomb of Nefer-maM, which shows 
some very beautifully carved hiero¬ 
glyphs. In the tomb of Atet was 
found the celebrated picture of 
geese now in the Cairo Museum. 
Here also is the tomb of Ra-hetep 
and Nefort, whose statues are in the 
Museum. Their tomb, unfortun¬ 
ately much mutilated, has the most 
charmingly coloured pictures and 
hieroglyphs cut in low relief on the 

The mounds on the other side of 
the river are those of the ancient 

50 miles, Wasta (S. & R. stat.; 
P. & T. off.). The railway to the 
Fayum (seep. 91) starts from this 

Passing several small villages, 


o tarn ford's Gecg}Es~ta ?> t Z,o'rudo n 

London : Macmillan &- Co.I/td. 

Section 9 



among which is the larger BUsh, 
with a large convent of Coptic 
monks, who keep up constant 
communication with the convents 
of St. Antony and St. Paul in the 
eastern desert, we reach, 

72 miles, Beni Su6f, the residence 
of a Mudtr. It has a population of 
10,000 (S. & R. stat. ; P. & T. off., 
the latter hr. from the river). 
The town looks picturesque. 
Woollen carpets and coarse linen 
stuffs for the Fellahin are manu¬ 
factured here. 

Opposite is Dir Bydd , a Coptic 
convent, the starting-point for the 
desert monasteries three days dis¬ 
tant. In this part of the desert 
also are alabaster quarries, whence 
that which decorates the Mohammed 
Ali mosque in Cairo was brought. 

Nine miles inland from lament. 
south of Beni Suef, at Almas el- 
Medina, are some remains of a 
limestone and granite temple of 
Ramses II, which marks the site of 
the once important Heradeopolis , 
the capital of the 9th and 10th 
dynasty kings. 

The cultivated land now lies all 
on the west bank, the limestone 
hills coming gradually nearer on the 
east, until at 

Bibtoa (S. & R. stat. ; P. & 
T. off. ; Government Dispensary) 
they become precipitous cliffs over¬ 
hanging the water. In places a 
fringe of maidenhair fern runs along 
just above the water-line. This is a 
picturesque reach of the river, with 
the village of Bibba on the west 
bank, and the cliffs opposite, crowned 
with a little shekh’s tomb. 

The huge chimneys we frequently 
pass belong to sugar factories. 
Sugar is one of the chief crops in 
Egypt. Planted in March and April, 
it is not cut until January and 
February, when many merkabs 
(native sailing boats) may be seen 
picturesquely laden with the purple 
and green stems (see pp. 98, 
110 ). 

The importance of irrigation will 
be much noticed, and the method in 
which it is carried out. There are 

three ways in which the water is 
raised to the little channels by 
which it is carried off to water the 
fields. The Shaddf has been used 
from the earliest times; pictures 
of it may be seen in the tombs. Its 
kind of see-saw palm beam, with a 
lump of Nile mud at one end and a 
rod with bucket attached at the 
other, is worked by one man, who 
can lift water to 8 ft. by means of 
it. Often there are two side by side ; 
and as the river gets lower it is 
necessary to make others above, in 
order to lift the water on to the 
land. Wheu the river is very low, 
three, four, and even five lift shadfif's 
may be seen. 

The Sdkiya is more seen in the 
higher reaches of the Nile. Its 
huge horizontal wheel, dragged 
round and round by a yoke of oxen, 
or a donkey and a buffalo, or even 
by a camel, turns a vertical wheel, 
on which is a rope connecting a 
number of j)Ots, which dip up the 
water as the wheel turns, and empty 
it into a trough at the top. The 
creaking noise of these sakiyas is 
not unmusical. 

Steam pumps are increasing in 
number. Though they do the work 
much more quickly, it is deplorable, 
from a picturesque point of view, 
that they are superseding the ancient 

96 miles, Feshn (R. stat. ; P. & 
T. off. ; 15 mins, from river). Be¬ 
yond this place, on the east bank, 
divided from the main channel of 
the Nile by an island, is El HSbi. 
Here are remains of a considerable 
town and fort of the 18th dynasty. 

Passing Malatiya, on the west 
bank, we come to the cliffs of the 
Oebel Shikh Embdrak on the east, at 
the beginning of which are remains 
of a Roman town. Where at any 
point on the Nile the limestone 
cliffs have been recently quarried, 
they are of a dazzling whiteness, 
and make wonderful reflections in 
the water. 

There is a large island here 

109 miles, MagMgha (S. & R. 



Section 6 

stat. with P. & T. off.), which is 
one of the most important sugar 
manufacturing towns. A little 
farther on, on the east bank, near 
Sharona, straight inland from the 
steam pump, is an ancient cemetery, 
which has been used in 6th and 
26th dynasty times; one 6th dyn¬ 
asty tomb is interesting. Inland 

119 miles, Abtl Girga (R. stat.; 
P. & T. off. ; 2 miles from river) 
about 7 miles is BShnesa, the site of 
the once important Oxyrrhinkhus, 
of which only the mounds are seen. 
It was called after the fish of that 
name, which was here the emblem of 
the nome or district. Farther south 
was Eynopolis, or the Dog nome, 
with a cemetery of dog mummies. 

125 miles, Shckll Fadl, east, with 
a large sugar factory. 

136 miles, Kolosana (R. stat. ; 
P. & T. off. ; 10 miles from river). 
Opposite is Surariya, with ancient 
remains. In the hill quarries £ mile 
inland is a 19th dynasty painted 
rock chapel. The high minaret on 
the west bank is at Samallfit. 

Again the hills approach the river 
on 'the east, and form Gebd et-T&r, 
or “bird mountain.” On the top is 
the Coptic Convent, called variously 
Dir el-Adra and Dir el-Bahara. 
The monks used to descend and 
swim out to passing boats to beg. 
The choir and sanctuary of the 
church are cut out of the solid rock. 
A little farther south are some re¬ 
mains of a great wall that extended 
originally for some miles parallel 
with the river. 

On the same bank a few miles 
farther south is Tehna, with inter¬ 
esting remains. About j hr. from 
the river a wsidy comes through 
the hills, on the north side of which 
is a rock-cut temple or Speos. 
Passing the village and the mounds 
that mark the site of the ancient 
town, probably Akim, there is a 
hill rising to the south in which are 
many rock-cut tombs of a late 
period, and some curious reliefs. 
One of the latter represents two 
figuresholding horses, with an erased 

figure between them. Descending 
this hill by a flight of steps and a 
steep path, and continuing to the 
south, there may be seen some yery 
interesting Ancient Empire tombs 
cut in the rock. They are unlike 
any others, in being cut parallel to 
the rock face. In the tomb of 
Nekht-ankh are some elaborate 
carvings and the cartouches of Men- 
kau-Ra, and Userkaf. In another 
tomb are some well-executed figures. 

In this reach the river during 
the last few years has been for¬ 
saking its channel near the east 
bank, and has been eating away 
land and villages on the west bank. 
It is to try and send it back again, 
and save the left bank, that great 
spurs, which the traveller may notice 
jutting out into the river, have been 

153 miles, Minia (S. & R. stat.; 
P. & T. off.), west bank. With a 
population of 16,000, and the seat of 
a Mfidir, Minia is one of the most 
important places in Egypt, having 
the longest established sugar factory. 
There are two Locandas,—they can 
scarcely be called hotels,—and the 
doctor at the hospital has qualified 
in Europe. 

About 4J miles south of Minia 
is Z&wiyet el-MStin, the huge 
modem cemetery of Minia. The 
appearance it presents from the 
river is most peculiar. Only the 
beehive-like tops of the tombs are 
visible. They are made of crude 
bricks for the most part, the few 
more important ones being white¬ 
washed. There are hundreds of 
little brown domes. Three times a 
year the relatives of the deceased 
cross the river and visit the tombs 
to make offerings of dates, etc. The 
place at these times looks almost as 
if a fair were going on. The custom 
of ferrying the dead over the river 
to bury them, and of paying visits 
to the tombs, seems like a survival 
from ancient Egyptian times, for 
such was the old custom. 

At the end of the cemetery is a 

Kdm el Ahmar, or “red mound,” 
a name frequently given to the 

Section 9 



mounds marking the site of an 
ancient town, because of the red 
pottery strewn over them. In the 
hill behind were some very inter¬ 
esting tombs, some of which have 
been quarried away. Some of the 
reliefs in the tomb of Nefer-Sekkeru 
are well and elaborately executed. 
(Ghafir with key.) 

The limestone hills continue to 
keep near to the river in the east, 
and there are many rock-cut tombs. 
The very interesting group at, 

169 miles, Beni Hasan should be 
seen by everyone. The Arabs here 
are notorious thieves. They are 
also wild and rough, and therefore 
a policeman accompanies the party 
to the tombs. The railway station 
for Beni Hasan is Ab& Kirkas, west 
bank. By taking beds and pro¬ 
visions, these tombs could be visited 
from Luxor or Cairo. The steamer 
or dahabiya is left at one point 
and joined farther north, as these 
tombs and the Speos Artemidos 
are usually visited on the way down 

The Speos Artemidos (Arab 
“Stabl Antar”) is about a mile 
south-east of the village of Beni 
Hasan, and nearly three miles south 
of the best group of tombs. So 
that if the traveller is pressed for 
time, or afraid of fatigue, this rock- 
temple should be left out of the 
excursion. We cross the cultivated 
land, then a little strip of desert, to 
the entrance of a small wMy. The 
openings of many tombs may be 
seen on the right, but few have any 
inscriptions or decorations of much 
interest, and some are blackened 
with smoke. The Speos is the 
fourth large grotto. It is really a 
temple to the goddess Pasht or 
Bast. It was excavated by Queen 
Hat-shepsu—who built the temple 
of Der el-Bahri—during her joint 
reign with Thothmes III. After her 
death Thothmes erased her name 
and representations. The portico 
had originally eight pillars, of which 
only three remain. The sculpture 
on these show the names of Seti I 
and Kamses ii and the figure of Bast, 

with the head of a lion. The best 
sculptures are on the inner wall of 
this portico. The scenes represent 
Thothmes III offering to Bast and 
Thoth, and Seti kneeling before 
Amen and Bast, with an inscription 
behind the king telling of his 
additions to the temple of “his 
mother Bast, the beautiful lady of 
the Speos.” Over the entrance the 
inscription speaks with praise of the 
reign of Hatshepsu. There is a 
recess, or naos,va the inner chamber 
intended for a statue or symbol of 
the goddess. 

Leaving this group of rock-cut 
chambers, we ride north over what 
was a cemetery of mummied cats, 
past the deserted villages from 
which Ibrahim Pasha turned out 
the incorrigible Beni Hasanites, 
and turn up the hill, a steep path 
up which the donkeys should not be 
ridden. The entrances to the 39 
tombs are on the same level along 
the face of the hill. The end of the 
path finds us opposite Tomb 32. 
To the right are those numbered 
33-39, which need not be visited. 

They all belong to great families of 
the 12th dynasty (circa 2800-2500 b.c.), 
who were many of them functionaries 
in the court of the Amen-em-hats and 
Usertsens. As in other early tombs, 
the scenes represented the deceased as 
he was in this life, and all his servants, 
his works and pastimes ; and there are 
no representations of gods, of which 
the later Theban tombs are full. The 
tombs consist of one or two chambers, 
one or more tomb-shafts, and sometimes 
a portico. There are Coptic inscrip¬ 
tions in some of them. 

Tombs 32, 29, 27, and tomb 23 
with an elaborate ceiling, should be 

Tomb 17, that of Kheti , “Great 
chief of the Oryx nome, Captain of 
the Soldiers,” etc. etc., is the second 
largest of the group. ^ Its lotus-bud 
columns are charming, but the 
paintings are indifferently executed. 
Kheti is seen harpooning fish (near 
entrance). On the north wall men 
and women engaged in trades. The 
east wall is the most interesting, 
showing 122 groups pf wrestlers, 



Section 9 

and, below, a battle scene. On the 
south wall is a pilaster with pictures 
of people playing games. The 
autograph of the great Champollion 
(see p. 25) may be noticed beside a 
late-cut recess. 

Tomb 15, belonging to Baqt , 
father of Kheti, has just outside, the 
deepest tomb-shaft that has been 
cleared in Egypt: it is 105 ft. deep. 
The main chamber of the tomb is 
the largest at Beni Hasau. The 
owner bears the usual titles, being 
“ G-reat chief of the Oryx nome, 
Ha prince, Sahu (chancellor ?) of the 
king, confidential friend of the 
king,” etc. Here are wrestlers, as 
in No. 17, but better drawn. The 
figure-drawing in this tomb is good, 
but the animals are less so. On the 
north wall scenes represent Baqt 
and his wife, women dancers, girls 
playing at ball. Above, various 
craftsmen and hunting scenes. 
Baqt is seen again on the south 
wall ; in front of him are men 
drawing a shrine with a statue of 
himself. To the left of Baqt, 
people playing draughts and other 

Tombs 14 and 13 belonged to men 
called Khnerm-hetep. The owner of 
the latter is described as “the lover 
of his city, whom his city loved, 
untainted by robbery, knowing what 
is. said, free of contradiction, long- 
suffering in the midst of nobles, 
knowing the result of his speech, 
firm of foot.” 

Tomb 3. The sixteen - sided 
columns of the portico, with their 
fluted, tapering shafts and small 
abaci, are looked on as the pre¬ 
cursor of the Doric style. The 
drawing in this tomb is better than 
in any of the others. Khnem-hetep 
was the owner, a relative of the 
owner of tomb 14. The inscriptions 
in the portico contain a prayer to 
the visitor to make offerings. The 
columns of the chamber have been 
cut clean away. The dado and 
doorway were painted to resemble 
rose granite. The ceiling is painted. 
To the left of the broken statue of 
KhMTn-hetep is a portrait of his 

wife, on the other side his mother. 
The scenes over the entrance repre¬ 
sent Khnem-hetep and servants; 
above, the deceased proceeding to 
the tomb. To south of entrauce, 
craftsmen at their trades: car¬ 
penters, boat-builders, potters, 
weavers, bakers, sculptors. North 
of entrance, storing grain, agri¬ 
culture, voyage of the mummy to 
Abydos, garden scenes. The most 
interesting scenes are on the north 
wall. Here the dragoman will 
probably point out Joseph and 
his brethren coming into Egypt! 
The picture represents Khnem- 
hetep and his son (note three 
dogs) receiving produce presented 
by a group of Asiatics, introduced 
by a royal scribe with a document 
in his hand, which reads somewhat 
like a letter of introduction. They 
are called Aamu , and represent the 
first known emigrants from Asia. 
The type of face is unmistakable. 
The chief who stoops over a gazelle 
is called Absha. 

Tomb 2 belonged to Ameni, or 
Ainen-em-hat, whose statue, with 
those of his wife and mother, is 
carved out of the rock in the tomb- 
chamber. The inscription round 
the entrance gives him a good 
character, mentioning his punctu¬ 
ality, hospitality, and truthfulness. 
The decorations are very similar to 
those of Tomb 3. 

In 1902-04 Mr. Garstang ex¬ 
cavated an extensive necropolis 
below this row of tombs, and opened 
between 900 and 1000 tombs (in¬ 
cluding those near the Speos Ar- 
temidos) of the 4th, 11th, 12th, 
and later dynasties, representing 
chiefly middle-class burials, and 
those of minor officials. Of the few 
tombs of the 6th dynasty discovered, 
only one, numbered 481,is inscribed, 
and will be opened to the public. 

178 miles, Roda (S. & R. stat.; 
P. & T. off.). There is a large sugar 
factory here. Opposite are the re¬ 
mains of Antino'e, 

The river after passing Roda takes 
a little bend due west. 

We pass, off the east bank, some 

Section 9 



Ders. The hills behind are honey¬ 
combed with quarry caverns, some 
of which have been used by Chris¬ 
tians, who have adorned the walls 
with paintings. There are also some 
interesting tombs similar to those 
at Beni Hasan. One contains the 
now partly destroyed scene repre¬ 
senting the transportation of a 
colossus on a sledge, a unique 
example. This tomb is near El 
Bersheh. Beyond, 

184 miles, Mell&wl (R. stat.; P. 
& T. off.), at Shikh Sam, east bank, 
are some 5th and 6th dynasty 
tombs. A little farther south and 
east are the celebrated alabaster 
quarries of Hat Nub, with inscrip¬ 
tions of the 4th, 6th, and 12th 

192 miles, Haggi Kandil, east 
bank (S. stat.; R. stat.; P. & T. 
off., at Der Moes oil west bank, not 
far from river). This is the stop¬ 
ping place for 

Tel el-Amarna, where are the 
interesting town remains and tombs 
of the time of Khu-en-Aten,ov Amen- 
hetep iv, of the 18th dynasty, the 
king who tried to reform, or alter, 
the religion, and during whose reign 
the arts developed to their highest 

The donkeys here are not very 

Very little remains of the ancient 
town and temple. But Mr. Petrie 
found in 1892 a beautiful 

Painted Pavement, which is now 
covered by a little house. This is 
not far from the river. The realistic 
treatment of the animals and birds 
is unlike that of any other period, 
and the colouring is charming. The 
pavement was in the harim of the 

It was to the east of this that the 
celebrated “Tel el-Amarna Tab¬ 
lets” were discovered, a quantity 
of letters on clay tablets in cunei¬ 
form, being practically the Foreign 
Office correspondence of this king’s 

The tombs are in three groups, 
the nearest being 3£ miles from the 

river. The north group and south 
group are on either side of a ravine, 
in which, 9 miles from the river, is 
the tomb of Khu-en-Alen himself. 
This last cannot be seen on the same 
day, the road being too long and 
Tough. We ride across the desert 
to the 

South group of tombs. The 
keeper (ghaftr), who has the keys, 
must be taken. The keys of the 
S. and king’s tomb are with a 
different ghafir. Tomb 25, farthest 
south, is that of Ai, fan-bearer and 
favourite of the king. Entering, on 
the left, we see the King and Queen 
and Princesses worshipping the sun 
disk the Aten, with rays terminat¬ 
ing in hands. This is peculiar to 
this period. To the right, Ai and 
his wife praying—-prayer inscribed. 
Turning to the left, on entering, 
there is a picture of the King 
and Queen throwing decorations 
to Ai. 

Tombs 23, with peculiarly inlaid 
inscriptions ; 16, a line unfinished 
one ; 14, with the royal cartouches 
not erased, as they are in all the 
others ; 11, that of Ra-mes, a cham¬ 
berlain ; 10, with fine reliefs and a 
hymn to the sun god—should be 

Tomb 9 is that of the soldier 
Maku. It has many well preserved 
pictures of the king at various func¬ 

Tomb 8, of Tutu, has a very beauti¬ 
ful papyrus column, and scenes 
similar to those in the other 

The ride to the north group of 
tombs is a somewhat tiring one 
across the desert of about H hour. 
As in the south group, many of the 
tombs are unfinished, owing to the 
death of the king and the abrupt 
downfall of his new regime. 

Tomb 1 belonged to Iluia, the 
treasurer. The scenes show the 
king, queen, and princesses. The 
mummy shaft has a rock wall left 
round the top. 

Tombs 2, unfinished, and 3, with 
interesting scenes, should be visited. 

Tomb 4, of Ra-meri , a priest, is 



Section 9 

one of tlie finest. In the second 
chamber on the left wall the king 
is seen driving to the temple of the 
Aten, or sun-disk, grooms run in 
front, the way is cleared for him, 
and priests await him. 

Tomb 5, of Pentu, and tomb 6, of 
Pa-Nehesi , with similar scenes. 

The king’s tomb, No. 26, in the 
ravine has been much mutilated. 
The donkeys have to be walked the 
whole way, as the going is partly 
heavy and partly rocky. It is a 
ride of 2£ hours. But the interest 
of the real desert w&dy up which 
the path winds will fully repay for 
the somewhat tiring excursion. 
The rocks are full of colour, and 
here and there are plants and shrubs 
peculiar to the desert. 

The city of Khu-en-Aten, called 
Khut Aten, was on the little plain 
formed by this semi - circle of 

The hills again approach the river 
on the east, and for several miles 
the channel runs underneath the 
cliffs of the Gebel Abfi Ffida, where 
careful sailing is necessary owing to 
the sudden gusts that come down. 
There are many birds in the rocks. 
Near the middle of this range is a 
very picturesque wady with a con¬ 

222 miles , Monfalfit (R. stat.; 
P. & T. off.; £ hour from river), 
west bank. The river turns seven 
times before reaching Asyfit, and 
sailing boats are often delayed here 
for some time. At the southern 
end of the Gebel Abfi Feda are the 
crocodile mummy pits of Maabda. 
There are only charred remains, for 
some visitors accidentally set fire to 
the most inflammable mummies and 
were themselves suffocated. 

Abnfib (S. stat.). Three hours 
inland are some interesting 6th 
dynasty tombs. 

Long before arriving, the minarets 
of Asyfit are in sight. 

The Asyfit Barrage is situated 
just below the port of Asyfit. 

This work, which was completed 
in 1902 at a cost of about £1,000,000, 

consists of an open weir (833 metres 
long) of 111 bays of 5 metres width, 
with a lock at the western end 
(80 metres x 16 metres). 

These bays are arched over, and 
carry a roadway 4‘5 metres wide at 
the level of the Nile banks, protect¬ 
ing the country from inundation in 
flood. They (the bays or openings) 
can be closed at all times of the 
year by iron lifting gates, each 
8 ft. 4 in. x 17 ft. 4 in., with two 
gates to a bay. 

They work in iron grooves, and 
are lowered and hoisted by means 
of travelling winches running over¬ 
head. The floor of the work, which 
stands on sand and Nile clay deposit, 
is 26^ metres wide, 3 metres thick, 
and it is protected by a line of 
sheet-iron piles driven into the bed 
of the river on the up and down 
stream sides of the work to 4 metres 
below the floor level. On the west of 
the barrage is the head sluice to the 
Ibrahimiya Canal, which supplies 
water for irrigation of all lands up 
to within a few miles south of Cairo. 
It was to control the supply of this 
canal that the Asyfit Barrage was 
built, and the water, impounded to 
a high level by the closing of the 
gates, can now at all times of the 
year be forced down this canal, 
instead of its having to be annually 
cleared to an enormous depth to 
enable it to draw the requisite 

248 miles, Asyfit, 8 hours from 
Cairo (S. & R. stat.; P. & T. off.). 

Hotels.—Bee “HotelList.” 

Physician. —Dr. Henry. 

With a population of 31,600, as 
the residence of a Mudir, being a 
characteristic Coptic centre, and 
having a branch of the New Native 
Tribunals, Asyfit is one of the most 
important places in Egypt. The 
town is some little distance from 
the river, where a little port town, 
El-Hamra, has sprung up, con¬ 
nected by an avenue with the town. 
The American Mission has excellent 
schools here and a fully equipped 
hospital. American, German, 
French, and Austrian consular 

Section 9 



agents. Arablyas and good don¬ 
keys can be had. 

^ Asyut is a corruption of the ancient 
Egyptian name for the town of which 
the Coptic Sid tit is a survival. In Greek 
times it was called Lykopolis, “city of 
wolves,” probably from the jackal¬ 
headed figure of Anubis, under which 
form the Deity was here worshipped. 
Almost nothing remains of the old 
town. Plotinus the philosopher was 
born here, and in early times it was a 
great centre of Christianity. 

Some of the modern bazaars are 
picturesque; some years ago they 
were supplied by caravans from 
Darfilr and the interior. The speci¬ 
alities here are the red and black 
pottery, ebony sticks inlaid with 
bone or ivory, and black and white 
net shawls and women’s garments 
decorated in patterns with pieces of 
silver or yellow metal. There is a 
picturesque public bath. 

The Rock Tombs in the hills 
behind the town date from the 10th 
and 12th dynasties. Many of them 
have been used by Christians as 
dwelling - places. It is rather a 
steep path that leads up to 

Tomb 1, called by the Arabs 
“ Stabl An tar,” i.e. stable of Antar, 
a name they also give to other rock- 
cut chambers in Egypt. Antar was 
a legendary Arab chief. In the 
long inscription to the right of the 
entrance is the name of the owner 
of the tomb, Hap-zefa , a priest 
and great personage in the time of 
Usertsen i. The vaulted and finely 
painted ceiling should be noticed. 
There are enormous bats in this 
tomb, nearly as large as pigeons. 
If a stone is thrown up at a crevice 
near the ceiling they will fly about, 
making a peculiar noise. 

Ascending this hill we pass several 
uninscribed tombs, and come to 

Tomb 3, belonging to Tef-ab , 
called the “Soldier’s Tomb” be¬ 
cause of the representation of 
soldiers carrying enormous shields. 
Tef-ab lived during the 10thdynasty; 
and in 

Tomb 4, belonging to his son 
Kheti //, the inscriptions tell us 

that the owner fought for king 
Meri-ka-Ra , and turned the in¬ 
surgents out of his capital at Hera- 

Tomb 5 is that of Kheti i, prob¬ 
ably father of Tef-ab. 

The view from these hills is very 
exteusive and beautiful. Below is 
an Arab cemetery, and the great 
canal that takes water to the 
Fayum. Asyfit, with its minarets 
and palm gardens, is surrounded by 
the intense green of the crops, and 
the Nile is seen winding away 
through the strip of cultivated land. 

Der er-Rlfa, a place 8 miles south of 
Asyht, has some very interesting 12th 
and 19th dynasty tombs. But they are 
partly inhabited, and it is difficult to 
see the inscriptions. 

The Oasis of Dakhla and the 
Great Oasis belong to the Asyfit 
Mudiriya. The route to the former 
starts from Beni Adi, near Monfalfit, 
and a route to the latter starts from 
Asyfit (see p. 93). 

Leaving AsyCit, we pass the sites 
of Hypsett at Shodb, W. bank, of 
Muthis at Matmar, E. bank, and 
come to, 

262£ miles, Abti Tig- {S. & R. stat.; 
T. & P. off.), which is the Abutis 
of Latin writers. Being chiefly in¬ 
habited by Copts, it is cleaner than 
the ordinary Egyptian town. 

The high, square, often white¬ 
washed, towers, with innumerable 
sticks projecting from holes, that 
are so frequently seen in the villages 
are pigeon-houses. 

The traveller should watch the 
shores and sand-banks to see the 
numbers of birds that frequent 
them : vultures, pelicans, cranes, 
paddy-birds, and smaller kinds. 

At Rayiana, south of Abfl Tig, 
where there are several islands in the 
river, there are many pigeon-towers, 
which look picturesque among the 
palm trees. In the hills behind are 
some very old rock-cut tombs, 
similar to those near the Pyramids. 
The largest is 40 ft. long, and has 
statues cut in high relief. The 
owner was A fa. 



Section 9 

The hill which approaches the 
river here is called ShAkh Gaber. 
There is a quarry and embankment 
at the north side of it, with bricks 
stamped with the name of Amen- 
hetep III. On the south side are 
some 12th dynasty tombs, and some 
painted Roman ones. 

277 miles, Kau el-Kebir, E. bank, 
the ancient Antceopolis , around 
which many legends centre. 

The cliffs now again approach the 
river on the east, in the 

Gebel Sh6kh Heridi.—Under the 
name of this Shekh is venerated a 
serpent with miraculous healing 
powers, which superstition says has 
inhabited this mountain for ages. 
The serpent can reunite itself if 
cut in half. There is an annual 
festival in its honour. There are 
various quarries and cartouches in 
the hill. 

Opposite the Gebel is, 

286 miles, Tahta, with 18,800 in¬ 
habitants. It is some distance from 
the river. Extensive mounds near 
it probably mark the site of Hesopis. 
The railway station is at Sahil, on 
the river, with fair provision stores. 

At Mar&gha, W. bank, are Ptole¬ 
maic remains ; and at 

F&u, E. bank, again are mounds 
marking an ancient site. In the 
mountains behind are rock-tombs. 
In one to the south are excellent 
frescoes of the Roman period. 

310£ miles, StlMg, W. bank 
(S. & R. stat. ; P. & T. off.; near the 
river). Two inns. Population, 8700; 
several Greek shops. From this 
place starts the canal that irrigates 
the plain of Asyftt. An excursion 
may be made from here to the Red 
and White Monasteries. 

D£r el-Abiad, or the White Mon¬ 
astery, is miles from the river. 
The road is along an embankment 
which leads to the edge of the desert. 
The inhabitants are a mixed popula¬ 
tion, who cultivate the land round 
about the monastery. This is en¬ 
closed by a high wall of limestone 
blocks, with a cornice. The only 
entrance is on the south side. The 

church dates from the 5th century. 
It is in the form of a basilica with 
nave and aisles, with three vaulted 
apses at the end of the chancel. 
The decorations are poor. Once 
the monks possessed a library, but 
it has all been sold. 

DfiR el-Ahmar, or the Red 
Convent,—called more often Anba 
Bishoi,—is miles from the White 
Convent. It is built like the last- 
named one, but of bricks with a 
stone cornice, and, like the other, 
it is merely a small Christian com¬ 
munity of men and women and 
children. The church is built of 
brick, and is picturesque. 

The river takes a sharp turn N. -E., 
then turns again to the S.E. at, 

315 miles, Ekhmim, E. bank (S. 
stat.; P. off.; near river, and Gov. 
dispensary). Population, 18,800. 
The striped cotton shawls of gaudy 
colours used by the natives are made 
here. The manufacture has been 
carried on since the time of Strabo. 
They are very cheap. 

This is the ancient site of Khemmis , 
or Panopolis. A few remains beyond 
the town, inland, indicate the position 
of the temple of Pan, the Egyptian or Min. There are ruins still 
farther on, with the names of Thothmes 
m and Ramses n, Ptolemy XIV and 
Domitian. The high Nile reaches these 
old sites, and is gradually obliterating 

Ekhmim was at one time a great 
centre of Christianity, and many con¬ 
vents sprang up in the neighbourhood. 

N.-E. of the town, a long ride, 
past the village of Hawaiwish, is an 
extensive necropolis of Roman and 
early Christian times. There are 
also two deserted Coptic monasteries. 
The cemetery presents an interesting 
but deplorable spectacle; for the 
Arabs are constantly plundering 
here, digging out mummies and 
leaving them half uncovered in the 
holes they have dug. Many mum¬ 
mied hawks lie about, and mutilated 
human mummies. Much beautiful 
Coptic embroidered work has been 
found, and some valuable papyri, 
among the latter the “ Gospel of 
Peter, ” 

Section 9 



In the hills behind are some 6th 
dynasty tombs, and some distance 
south is. a rock-chapel of King Ai of 
the 18th dynasty. 

Passing (3 miles) the pretty white 
convent, Der Mari Girgis, we come 

325 miles, Menshlya, W. bank 
(S. & R. stat.; T. & P. off.; near 
river). It is the site of Ptolemais, 
the Greek capital of Upper Egypt, 
founded by Ptolemy i. 

The eastern hills again approach 
the river in the Gebel et-Tdkh, in 
which are many tombs and quarries, 
with Greek, Latin, and Demotic in¬ 
scriptions. In the south end of the 
Gebel are some interesting inscribed 
tombs of the Old Empire. 

336 miles , Girga, W. bank (S. & 
R. stat.; P. & T. off.). Population, 
14,900. Two Greek inns. The town 
is better built than most Egyptian 
towns, and a stroll through it, with 
a peep at one or two of the khans , is 
not uninteresting. The Latin Con¬ 
vent, with a European Abbot, is con¬ 
sidered to be the oldest Roman 
Catholic institution in Egypt. The 
river here has gradually changed its 
course, and is encroaching on the 

There is a route from Girga to Abydos, 
about 12 miles: a long, tiresome ride. 
But passengers by the express steamers 
are sometimes able to see Abydos by 
leaving the steamer here, riding to 
Abydos, and joining the steamer again 
at Baliana, a ride altogether of over 20 
miles. On the way Bardis is passed, 
which is probably the site of the ancient 
This , or Thinis , whence came the earliest 
Egyptian kings. 

At Meshekh, on the E. bank, a 
little farther south, the site of 
the Lepidoton of Ptolemy, so called 
from the fish lepidotos having been 
venerated here, are remains of a 
temple of S-khet, with records of 
Amen-hetep n and in, Ramses II, 
and Pa-nezem. In the hills behind 
are tombs—one most interesting on 
account of a long inscription, with a 
litany of the god Anhur , belonging 
to a priest Anhur-mes of the time 
of Mer-en-Ptah ii. 

347 miles , Bali&na, W. bank (S. 

& R. stat.; P. & T. off.). Gov. dis¬ 
pensary. _ Sugar factory. This is 
the starting-place for the excursion 
to Abydos, 8 miles inland, a ride of 
about brs. 

The route is over the richly culti¬ 
vated plain, affording a good oppor¬ 
tunity for observing the life of the 
Fell aliin. 

The modern village is called 
Ardbat el-MadfO/na . It is on the 
edge of the desert, not far from the 
ancient site of 


This town, in the hieroglyphs Abdu, 
was one of the largest and most im¬ 
portant towns of Ancient Egypt. Ex¬ 
cavations in the temple area show 
that successions of temples have been 
built on this site from as early as 
6000 b.c. In early times, to the 14th 
dj'nasty, the chief god worshipped was 
the jackal - headed Apuat. Later it 
became the chief seat of the worship of 
Osiris, because his head — the body- 
having been cut up by his enemy Set 
according to the legend—was supposed 
to be buried there. It ranked in im¬ 
portance as a religious centre between 
Thebes and Heliopolis. The necropolis 
has tombs of the 6th, 11th, 12th, 18th, 
19th, and 20th dynasties. M. Am61ineau 
found tombs which he dates back to 
the 1st and 2nd dynasties. In the 
desert some distance west of the 
temples, Mr. Petrie, in 1900, found 
tombs which probably belong to kings 
of the 1st dynasty. 

The Temple of Seti I, the 

“ Memnonium” of Strabo, is one 
of the most beautiful temples in 
Egypt. ^ is built of fine white 
limestone upon a partly artificial 
foundation, the sloping ground 
having been levelled up. The 
greater part of it is the work of 
Seti, but it was finished by his son 
Ramses n. Its plan is* different 
from that of other Egyptian temples. 
At one time it was buried in the 
sand, the discovery and excavation 
being due to Mariette. 

We enter the first court of the 
tempie on the N.-E. The pylon and 
walls have almost disappeared. The 
second court is in better preserve- 

Section 3 

ABTtiOS m 

Osiris, his wife Isis, and their son 

Of the Seven Sanctuaries, that 

tion. At the south end of the 
court is a terrace with square lime¬ 
stone pillars. All this is the work 
of Ramses XT, who is represented on 
the pillars, with the god Osiris. 
The back wall of the terrace had 
originally seven doors leading to 
the seven sanctuaries beyond, but 
these, all but the centre one, were 
walled up by Ramses. On the wall 
to the left of the door is a picture of 
Ramses holding out a figure of Maat , 
the goddess of truth and justice, to 
Osiris, Isis, and Seti I. There is 
also a long inscription, in which 
Ramses rather boasts of his filial 
piety in completing this work of 
his father’s, and in putting up 
statues to him in Thebes and 

Passing through the entrance we 
come to the 1st Hypostyle Hall, 
with 24 sandstone columns. It is 
the work of Seti, but has been re¬ 
inscribed by Ramses. The columns 
here and those in the next hall 
form sort of aisles leading to the 
seven sanctuaries beyond, and the 
representations on the columns are 
of Ramses and the god to whose 
sanctuary the aisle led. The work 
here is inferior to that of Seti’s time, 
yet Seti’s work was defaced to make 
way for this, a form of 4 ‘ filial devo¬ 
tion ” not unfrequently met with in 
Egypt. On the walls are repre¬ 
sentatives of the nomes of Egypt 
with offerings. 

Seven doors lead to the 2nd 
Hypostyle Hall, which has three 
rows of twelve columns, 24 with 
lotus - bud capitals, and 12 on a 
raised floor with merely an abacus 
between the shaft and the architrave. 
The sculptures here, in low relief, 
are very beautiful. 

The finest, perhaps, are those on 
the end wall to the right, where we 
see pictures of (beginning from 
the right) Seti, Osiris, Horus ; then 
Seti before Osiris in a shrine, 
with Renpit and Maat in front 
and Isis, Amentet and Neph- 
thys behind; and, lastly, a very 
beautiful likeness of Seti, who pre¬ 
sents a figure of Maat to the triad 

to the right, near this relief, is 
dedicated to Horus, those following 
in order are to Isis, Osiris, Amen, 
Harmakhis, Ptah, and Seti i him¬ 
self. The vaulted roofs of these 
finely decorated chambers are 
interesting, the vault being cut out 
of the solid blocks. The scenes 
represent the ceremonies performed 
in them. 

Through the Osiris sanctuary we 
reach a much destroyed columned 
hall, with seven other chambers, all 
devoted to the service of Osiris. 
The three chambers to the right 
have very fine reliefs, with much 

Returning to the 2nd Hypostyle 
hall, we see in the south comer two 
openings. One leads into a passage 
in which is the celebrated 

Tablet of Abydos.—This is a list 
of 76 kings on the right wall, form¬ 
ing a very important record for 
chronologers. Here, on both walls, 
we see Seti, with his youthful son 
Ramses, offering homage to their 

In the chamber leading off to the 
right, with steps at the end, is a 
picture of Seti teaching Ramses to 
lasso a bull, and other interesting 

The other opening from the hypo¬ 
style hall leads us into a chamber 
dedicated to Ptah-Seker-Osiris , the 
god of the dead of Memphis. 

Behind the temple there has been 
discovered, 40 feet below the sur¬ 
face of the desert, a building, which 
it has been impossible to excavate 
entirely, but which appears to be 
of considerable extent. The walls 
of the chambers so far uncovered 
are inscribed with portions of the 
Book, of the Dead and the Book of 
Gates , including the rare 168th 
chapter of the former, known only 
on two papyri. Many facts point 
to the conclusion that this building 
was specially dedicated to the 
worship of Osiris. It is probably 



Section 9 

the great hypogeum mentioned by 

The Temple of Ramses XI.—A 

short distance N.-W. of the temple 
of Seti is a sadly ruinous one built 
by Ramses II. It is smaller and 
has many chambers, but there is 
little more than eight or nine feet of 
the walls and columns standing. 
It was also dedicated to Osiris. The 
columns of the first court have 
figures of Osiris against their inner 
faces. Many kinds of stone were 
used in the building—fine limestone, 
red and black granite, sandstone, 
and alabaster. Some of the reliefs 
in the farther chambers are very 

Continuing north some little 
distance, we find ruins of a small 
temple of Osiris, and remains of an 
ancient town. 

West from this are tombs of the 
Middle Empire, and beyond them 
remains of a crude brick fortress. 
North from this, in a somewhat 
similar building, is a Coptic Dfr, 
with an old and interesting church 
dedicated to Anba M-Hsa. It has 
twenty-three domes. 

After leaving Bali&na, the travel¬ 
ler should look for the d6m palm, 
with its handsome fruit. The stem 
of this palm divides, and redivides 
into two branches. The fruit con¬ 
tains the hard nut known as 
“vegetable ivory.” 

A short distance south of Baliana 
the Nile takes a bend almost due 
north. Turning south again under 
the Gebel et-Tfirif, we pass, 

374£ miles, Farshfit, four miles 
inland (R. stat.), with a little port 
called Bagfira. 

We now come to the railway 
bridge over the Nile at 

Nagh Hamadi (S. & R. stat. ; 
P. & T. off.), where, in consequence 
of the building of this bridge and 
the sugar factory, a modern town 
has sprung up. There is an hotel, 
kept by a Greek. The bridge is 
opened twice a day, when dahabiyas 
and steamers can pass through. 

Here is also the largest sugar 
factory in the world and of the 13 
belonging to the Societe Generate 
des Sucrerie3 et de la Raffinerie 
d’Egypte. About 2000 tons of cane 
can be treated here in 24 hours, 
and between 900,000 and 1,000,000 
tons in the season. No permission 
is ever given to tourists to see 
over the factories (see p. 98). 

Again the river turns north at 

HO, the ancient Diospolis Farm. 
A few years ago there died here a 
much venerated shekh called Selim, 
who sat naked on the river-bank 
for fifty-three years. His grave is 
covered with Arabic inscriptions, 
and small boats, which are votive 

Before the river turns east again, 
we come to, 

381 miles, Easr es - Sayy&d, 
E. bank, with mounds marking 
the site, probably, of KMnoboskion. 
In the hills behind are two 6th 
dynasty tombs of the time of 
Pepi I and Pepi II. The paintings 
in one show a giraffe. 

The hills now begin to draw near 
to the west bank of the river, and 
we find the wider cultivated strip 
of land on the east. Passing Fau, 
with a railway station, we reach, 

394 miles. Dishna, E. bauk 
(S. & R. stat. ; P. & T. off.), 
a large village, with a Sunday 
market. In the hills on the 
opposite bank are extensive ceme¬ 
teries, with burials dating from the 
11th dynasty to Roman times ; and 
not much farther on are 6th dynasty 

The site of the Isle of Tabenna, 
or Tabennesi, is in this part of the 
river, the place famous for the 
founding of the first convent by 
St. PachGrn (Pachomius), about 
350 a.d. 

The river trends N.-E. for a few 
miles. At the bend are two islands, 
which lie between Keneh on the 
east and Taramsa, the landing- 
place for Dendera, on the west. 

414 miles, Keneh (S. & R. stat.; 
P. & T. off.), often written Qina. 
The town, of 27,765 inhabitants, is 

Section 9 



about a mile from tbe river. It is 
a bright clean town, with French 
and German consuls, and good 
bazaars. Here are manufactured 
quantities of the porous water- 
bottles called zir, large ones, and 
kulla, small ones. 

A caravan route starts hence for 
Kusayyar or Koss§r, on the Red Sea 
littoral, by which route trade in corn 
is carried on with the Arabian coast. 
This is a very ancient road, but in old 
times it terminated on the Nile at 
Kopto 8 , the modern Koft. Mr. Petrie 
thinks that the first immigrants came 
this way. The route led through the 
valley of Ham&mat, the breccia quarries, 
with numerous hieroglyphic inscrip¬ 
tions, and past gold mines. Another 
route led to Bereniki , on the Red Sea, 
past the emerald mines of Gebel Sebara, 

Dendera.— The temple of the 
ancient Tentyris or Tentyra lies 
some little distance south of the 
modern village of Dendera (west 
bank). It is a ride of half an hour 
from Tararasa, the landing-stage. 

The temple was dedicated to the 
goddess Hathor —the type of all that 
was beautiful; identified by Strabo 
with Venus, the Greek Aphrodite. The 
site of the temple seems to have been 
used in 4th, 12th, 18th, and 19th 
dynasty times, but the present temple 
is quite late, belonging to the time of 
the later Ptolemies and the beginning 
of the Christian era. Though an 
imposing building, the details of its 
work can ill bear comparison with real 
Egyptian sculptures and reliefs, such, 
for instance, as those at Abydos. The 
pictures and hieroglyphs are much 
more merely mechanical productions, 
and the overcrowding of ornament is 
wearisome. But there is a certain 
effect of good proportion about the 
general architectural lines that is 

Unfortunately the approach is 
rather spoilt by rubbish mounds. 

The Hypostyle Hall, or pronaos, 
with its twenty-four columns, was 
divided from the court by high stone 
screens stretching between the 
columns of the front row, except at 
the entrance. On the cornice over 
the doorway is a Greek inscription, 
reading as follows : — “ For the 
Emperor Tiberius C;esar, the young 

Augustus, the son of the deified 
Augustus, under the prefect Aulus 
Avillius Flaccus, the governor 
Aulus Fulvius Crispus, Serapion 
Trykhambos being the district- 
governor, the inhabitants of the 
capital and of the nome dedicated 
the pronaos to the great goddess 
Aphrodite and her fellow-gods, the 
twentieth year of Tiberius Caesar.” 

The four rows of reliefs on the 
walls of this hall represent five 
Roman emperors — Augustus, Ti¬ 
berius, Caligula, Claudius, and 
Nero—receiving offerings and per¬ 
forming functions necessary before 
entering the farther parts of the 

The columns with heads of Hathor 
on the capitals have a heavy 

The ceiling is interesting, the 
subjects represented being astro¬ 
nomical. To the left is seen NUt , 
goddess of the sky, her body 
studded with stars. Beneath her is 
a planisphere and emblems of stars 
represented in boats, the Egyptian 
idea of the sky being that it was 
an expanse of water. In the zodiac, 
Cancer is represented by a seara- 

A doorway in the south wall 
leads into a Small Hypostyle Hall, 
with six columns having elaborate 
capitals. Light is admitted by 
apertures in the roof. The reliefs 
represent the king making offerings; 
but which king is not stated, the 
cartouches being left empty. The 
six chambers off this hall were for 
storing offerings, etc. The first on 
the left (PI. A) was where the oils 
and perfumes used by the priests 
were manufactured. The next 
(PI. B) was for offerings of fruit and 
vegetables. The first chamber on 
the right (PI. C) was the treasure 
chamber, or “house of silver.” 

Entering the next hall, we find 
in the chamber off it immediately 
to the loft a staircase up to 
the roof, and again in that to 
the right a winding stair to the 

Still passing on into another 

Section 9 



chamber, we find a room off to the 
left (PI. D), which was the “ ward¬ 
robe,” where all the sacred vest¬ 
ments were kept. 

. The next chamber, in a straight 
line from the entrance, is called the 
Sanctuary. A passage leads round 
it, having various chambers leading 
out of it, the one immediately 
behind the sanctuary (PI. E) being 
that in which the emblem of the 
god was preserved. Returning, we 
fiud the chamber opposite the 
* ‘wardrobe 5 ’ leads into a little 
temple complete in itself. This and 
the small temple on the roof were 
used for the celebration of the 
New Year Festival, on the appear¬ 
ance of the star Sirius. 

The Staircases to the roof (PI. 
F, G) have sculptures on their walls 
showing the processions that took 
place at this New Year Festival, 
when images of the gods were 
carried by the priests. On the left 
walls of both staircases we see the 
procession ascending, while on the 
right wall it is shown descending. 
In the windows of the west stair¬ 
case are representations of the sun’s 
rays streaming in. 

The Temple on the roof was 
dedicated to Osiris of An, the local 
deity. In one of the chambers was 
found the only circular zodiac 
found iu Egypt. It is now in the 
Bibliotheque Nationale in Paris. 

There are twelve Crypts in the 
thickness of the foundation walls, 
with reliefs covering their walls. 
Some are very difficult of access. 
The one usually visited is in the 
back wall of the temple. The 
reliefs are of the time of Ptolemy 
xiii, and are therefore the earliest 
and best work in the temple. 

The outside walls of the temple 
are covered with figures and hiero¬ 
glyphs, those on the west wall 
being much filled up by mason 
bees. On the back wall is a repre¬ 
sentation of Cleopatra, and her son 
Caesarion, son of Julius Caesar. 
They are purely conventional pic¬ 
tures, not portraits such as we find in 
Egyptian temples of their founders. 


The Temple of Isis, immediately 
behind the great temple, was built 
by the Emperor Augustus. 

The small temple to the N.-E. of 
the great temple, called the “Birth 
House,” is also the work of Augus¬ 
tus. On the abaci of the lotus 
columns are figures of the god Bes. 
Such temples, frequently found near 
Ptolemaic temples, were dedicated 
to Bes , here called Akti, who pre¬ 
sided at births. By the Greeks Bes 
was identified with Typhon, and 
such temples were called Ty- 

In 1898 Mr. Petrie discovered in 
the ancient cemetery, in the desert 
behind Dendera, tombs dating from 
the 4th dynasty, with a number 
belonging to the period between 
the 6th and 11th dynasties; also 
a series of brickwork catacombs for 
sacred animals. 

The inhabitants of the ancient 
Tentyris were crocodile - haters, and 
were therefore deadly enemies of the 
people of Ombos (see below), who 
counted the reptile sacred on account 
of its being a symbol of their god Set. 
Juvenal tells of the feud between the 
two towns, while Strabo, Pliny, and 
others speak of the wonderful power 
over the crocodiles possessed by these 

The river turns south again, and 
has several islands. 

Ball&s, W. bank, is noted for its 
water jars —ballcdis, or “ Ballasi 
jars,” and the smaller faded. 

422 miles , Koft (S. & R. stat.; 
P. & T. off.), the old Egyptian 
Koptos, more than a mile inland 
from the east bank, has Barfid for a 

The ancient importance of this town 
lay in its trade with Arabia vid Kusay- 
yar or Kossfir, on the Red Sea. Its 
name in hieroglyphs reads Qebt. What 
remains there are of ancient buildings 
are very scattered, and fragments have 
been used in later buildings. The 
names of Khufu of the 4th dynasty, 
of Antef i of the 11th dynasty, of 
Usertsen i and Amen-em-hat of the 
12th dynasty, Thothmes in of the 
18th dynasty, Ptolemy xiii, and 
several Roman emperors have been 
found. But though, owing to its being 



Sections 9,10 

the port for the transportation of the 
precious breccias found in the valley of 
Hammamat, as well as to its trade 
with Arabia, Koptos was in such early 
times a place of great importance, it 
seems to have been almost more so in 
Christian times. From it the early 
Egj^ptian Christians got their name 
of Copts. The god reverenced here 
was the ithyphallic Min. 

A little north of Koft, at a 
village called el-Kala, is a small 
temple of Tiberius Claudius, well 

Zawayda, W. bank, is about 
2| miles north of the site of Onibos 
of Dendera, so called to distinguish 
it from Korn Onibos farther up 
the Nile. Mr. Petrie found here 
remains of a temple built by 
Thothmes in to Set. 

429 miles , Kfts (R. & S. stat.; 
P. & T. olf.). In the fourteenth 
century this town was second only 
to Fostftt (see p. 48), hut now it is 
quite a small place. 

433 miles, Nekada, W. .bank. 
The river is very picturesque here. 
Inland from Nekada are four old 
Coptic Ders. It was in the desert, 
about three miles from the river, 
that M. de Morgan found a tomb 
of the same kind as those M. Ame- 
lineau opened at Abydos. M. de 
Morgan thinks that this is the tomb 
of Mena, first king of the 1st 
dynasty. There is little to be seen 
but remains of the brick walls. 

At Shenhftr, south of Khs, 
remains of the old Egyptian Sen- 
hor may be seen in the mounds 
and remains of a small and simple 
temple. It was built by Tiberius, 
who is depicted on its walls 
offering to Amen Ra, Horus, and 

In the eastern desert are tombs 
of the 11th dynasty. 

Passing (west) Ed-Denfik the 
river makes a great bend and runs 
almost due west past Kamilla. 
Opposite, at Khozam, is an 11th 
dynasty necropolis. 

We now come in sight of some of 
the ruins of Thebes. On the left 
are the pylons of Karnak. On the 
right are the precipitous cliffs pf the 

Theban hills which are so lovely at 
sunrise and sunset, when the rosy 
or purple lights throw wonderful 
coloured shadows among their 
weather-worn limestone faces. On 
the strip of bright green cultivated 
land between them and the river 
stand the Colossi. On the edge of 
the desert beyond is the Ramesseum, 
and in the cliffs themselves the 
temple of Der el-Bahri, built by 
Hatshepsu, Egypt's great queen. 

Then the village of Luxor, on the 
east hank, comes into view, with 
the beautiful colonnades of its great 
temple reflected in the water. Be¬ 
yond is the most unfortunate, in¬ 
congruous, striped red and yellow 

villa of a Dutchman. 




Luxor .... 

. 114 

Ancient Thebes . 

. 116 

Karnak .... 

. 116 

The Temple op Luxor . 

. 120 

KOrna .... 

. 123 

Tombs op the Kings . 

. 124 

The Temple op D£r el-Bahri 128 

Tombs op ShEkh Abd 



. 131 

The Ramesseum . 

. 132 

The Colossi . 

. 133 

MedInet HabC 

. 133 

The Tombs of the Queens . 136 
The Temple of D£r el- 
MedIna . . . .137 

The Tombs of Kurnet 
Murrai . . . .137 


Hotels. —See “Hotel List.” 
Churches. — English Church, in 
the garden of the Luxor Hotel; 
Sunday, 8 a.m., 10.30 a.m., 6.30 
p.m. ; chaplain, the Rev. W. B. 
Urquhart. Roman Catholic Church, 
behind the Thewfikieh Hotel, next 
to the Austrian consul’s. 

Consular Agents for England, 
America, Germany. 

PQCtors, — An English doctor 

Section 10 



lives at the Luxor Hotel, and is in 
his consulting-room usually about 

Post Office, behind the American 
Mission; Telegraph Office, near 
the Luxor Hotel. 

Carriages. —The only driving 
excursion is to Karnak; tariff, 
P.T. 80 per day, or P.T. 40 half a 

Jinrickshaws, for the morning, 
P.T. 15 ; whole day, P.T. 25. 

Donkeys, P.T. 8 per day, or 
P.T. 4 per half-day. The donkey- 
boys always expect bakshish be¬ 

Barber (European) at the Luxor 

Shops.— There are no shops worth 
speaking of in Luxor except those 
selling Indian goods. 'Some books 
and artists’ materials can be got 
at the American Mission. Beato> 
good photographs. Haddad , good 

Antiquities Ticket. — A permit 
to visit the monuments of Upper 
Egypt is issued by the Antiquities 
Department for P.T. 120. See p. 

Guides. —It is not possible to 

ive the names of any guides as 

eing especially good, as they vary 
from year to year. The charge is 
P.T. 20 per day, and P.T. 10 per 
half a day. 

Hospital. — The good hospital 
for natives is dependent on the con¬ 
tributions of travellers. 

The modern village of Luxor is 
of no importance apart from its 
being the centre for travellers visit¬ 
ing the temples and tombs of 
Thebes. It is 454 miles from Cairo, 
and Aswan is 186 miles farther 
south. Its name is a corruption of 
the Arabic El-Kwdr, meaning “the 
palaces,” in reference to the temple 
over which part of the village was 

The ancient monuments are:— 

East Bank— 

Temple of Luxor, 18th and 19th 

Karnak, with temples of 18th, 
19th, and Ptolemaic dynas¬ 

Medamot, 18th and Ptolemaic 

West Bank — 

The Colossi, 18th dynasty. 

The Ramesseum, 19th dynasty. 

Temple at Medinet Habu, 18th 
and 20th dynasties. 

Temple of Der el-Medina, Pto¬ 

Temple at Kffrna, 19th dyn- 

Temple of Der el-Bahri, Queen 
Hat-shepsu, 18th dynasty. 

Tombs of the Kings. 

Tombs of the Queens. 

Tombs at Dra Abff’l-Negga, 
11th, 17th, and 18th dynas¬ 

Tombs at Shekh Abd el-Kffrna, 
6th and 18th dynasties. 

Tombs at el-Assasif, 25th and 
26th dynasties. 

Tombs at Kffrnet Murrai, 18th 

Plan for Seeing Thebes in 
Three Days. 

1st Day .— Ride very early to 
Karnak, lunch there, and return in 
time to see a little of the temple of 
Luxor before sunset. 

2nd Day .—Cross the river early, 
—eight o’clock if possible,—ride to 
Kffrna and see the temple. Ride to 
the Tombs of the Kings ; walk over 
the hills, to have a fine view of the 
country and see the temple of Der 
el-Bahri below. Descend and visit 
the temple. If time, visit some of 
the tombs of Sliekh Abd el-Kfirna 
and the Ramesseum on the way 

3 rd Day .—Cross the river. Visit 
the Colossi. Ride on to Medinet 
Habff. Tombs of the Queens, 
temple of Der el-Medina, and tomb 
of Hui in the Kffrnet Murrai group. 
After returning, visit again the 
temple of Luxor. 

The monuments will be described 
in the order given for these days. 

116 EGYPT Section 10 


The districts on both sides of the Nile 
were included in Thebes. In hiero¬ 
glyphs it was called Vast. The word 
Thebes is probably derived from the 
hieroglyphic name for the eastern dis¬ 
trict, Ta Apt. The scriptural names 
No (Ezek. xxx. 14) and No-Amon, or 
Nut-Amen (Nahum iii. 8), and the As¬ 
syrian Ni are derived from its common 
hieroglyphic name Nu, meaning simply 
“ the capital.” The Greeks called it 
Diospolis Magna, and from Thebes 
they called the whole of Upper Egypt, 
as far north as the modern Darfit esh- 
Sherif, the Thebaid. 

Thebes must have been of later 
foundation than Memphis, its only rival 
as a great Egyptian city. Its period of 
greatest splendour was during the reigns 
of the 18th and 19th dynasty kings. 
Its rise in importance began when the 
Theban nobles rose against the invaders 
called the Hyksos, and drove them out 
of Egypt. Thebes then became the 
centre of government, a centre from 
which it was easier to control both the 
Upper and Lower country than it could 
have been from Memphis. 

The situation is one of the best on 
the Nile. The hills are far enough away 
from the river to allow of a broad belt 
of cultivation, and the limestone hills 
afforded quarries for building material, 
and a good place for the rock-cut tombs, 
which was a consideration of immense 
importance to the ancient Egyptian. 
Greek writers speak of the wonders of 
Thebes. Though Herodotus does not 
seem to have visited it, Diodorus and 
Strabo have a good deal to say of its 
u 20,000 chariots of war, its hundred 
stables,” its “stately public buildings, 
magnificent temples . . . private houses 
four and five storeys high,” and the 
tombs “executed with singular skill.” 
Homer, too, mentions its wealth, and 
speaks of its “hundred gates" {Iliad, 
ix. 381). 

When the centre of government was 
moved to the Delta, to Tanis and 
Bubastis, or Sais, the day of Thebes 
began to decline. In b.c. 665 its town 
was razed to the ground, and its temples 
sadly ruined, by the army of Assur- 
bani-pal. After that the place gradu¬ 
ally sank in importance, until now all 
that remains are a few scattered vil¬ 
lages and ruins of some of the most 
wonderful temples in the world. 

Thebes was the great centre of Amen 
worship, and it is to this god that most 
of the temples were dedicated. He was 
worshipped with Mut and Khensu, 

the three gods forming the Theban 


It is possible to drive to Karnak in an 
arabiya, but it is generally visited on 

The whole temple area is now 
enclosed by a restoration of the 
original old walls of the temenos, 
and no donkeys are allowed inside. 

In riding along the embankment 
which leads to the great series of 
temples known by the name of 
Karnak, we are going over very 
nearly the actual old road that led 
from the temple of Luxor to Kar¬ 
nak. It was originally an avenue. 
6500 ft. long, of sphinxes having 
rams’ heads, and a figure of Amen- 
hetep ill between their fore-paws. 
But few traces of this remain. It 
leads to a great 

Pylon of Ptolemy Euergetes i 
(b.c. 247-222).—This was one of the 
chief entrances through the great 
wall that encircled the whole of the 
temple precincts. Traces of this 
wall are found on the north, east, 
and south. On the pylon wall 
Ptolemy is seen, with his queen 
Berenike, offering to his prede¬ 
cessors. Another short avenue of 
sphinxes leads to 

The Temple of Khensu. 

Travellers who can only spare one day 
for Karnak are advised not to linger 

This temple was begun by Ramses 
ill and finished by Ramses IV and 
xii. The pylon is succeeded by a 
court surrounded by a double col¬ 
onnade. Passing through a hypo- 
style hall with eight columns, with 
sculptures showing Ramses xn sac¬ 
rificing to gods, we come to the 
sanctuary. There are several other 
chambers, those farthest north be¬ 
ing the oldest. 

To the west of this temple is a 
small temple of Euergetes n dedi¬ 
cated to Osiris. 

From this temple it is a few 
minutes’ walk to the entrance to the 

Avenue of Sphinxes 

V ,,n sp 


after Lepsius, with additions from 
Mariette and Miss Benson. 

Temple of Khensu ■ 

—T_U|..|.jmiiiimiB^y 1011 

didM™.V 0 >SL,uuk«,S,uf«m, a ,r 

Temple of(551 jEuergetes II. 

Euergetes Il.r 

Scale of Feet 

zoo 300 400 500 

1 st. Pylon 

T f 

Guide to Palestine and Egypt. 
; To face page 222. 

Section 10 



Great Temple of Amen. 

The temple faces the river, and 
was approached from the Nile by 
an avenue of ram-headed sphinxes, 
some of which may still be seen. 
This was the work of Ramses n. 
At a distance of 200 ft. from the 
pylon it ended at a stone quay, 
showing that the river once came 
up here. Inscriptions have recently 
been discovered recording the height 
of the Nile during the 22nd, 25th, 
and 26th dynasties. 

The First Pylon, the north end 
of which is much ruined, is about 
370 ft. broad, its present height 
142^ ft., and it is 50 ft. deep. It 
was built by the Ptolemies, and 
bears no inscriptions. The ascent 
is easy from the N. end, and should 
certainly be made. Travellers are 
advised to study the plan of the 
temple from this point, from which 
much becomes clear that is puzzling 
when one is actually among the 
courts and columns. To this pylon 
succeeds a 

Great Court, the work of Sliis- 
hak. Of its great columns only 
one remains standing. The pillars 
of the colonnade on either side are 
unsculptured, as are the walls, ex¬ 
cept at the S.-E. corner, beyond the 
projecting temple of Ramses hi. 
Here is the so-called Portico of the 
Bubastites , with the names of Shis- 
hak (Shashanq) I, Osorkon I, and 
Takeleth i. Outside the doorway 
and round to the left, on the exterior 
wall, is a list of places in Palestine 
conquered by Shishak (cf. 1 Kings 
xiv. 25, 26; 2 Chron. xii. 2-4 and 
9). We return through this gate¬ 
way, and visit 

The Temple of Ramses III to 

Amen, which breaks through the 
south wall of the great court. This 
is a charming specimen of a small 
complete Egyptian temple. The 
pictures on the pylon show Ramses 
triumphing over his enemies. The 
three chapels of the Hypostyle Hall 
are dedicated to the Theban triad. 

In the north-west corner of the 
great court of Shishak is 

The Temple of Seti II, consist¬ 
ing merely of three chambers differ¬ 
ing in size, dedicated to Amen 
(centre), Mut (left), and Khensu. It 
is built of sandstone of two kinds. 
Behind is a row of ram-headed 

The Second Pylon is the work of 
Ramses i. Much of it has dis¬ 
appeared. A flight of seven steps, 
on either side of which was a 
colossal granite statue of Ramses II, 
led up to the doorway, in which is 
formed a kind of ante-chamber. 
The Ptolemies put up here another 
doorway. Through this doorway 
we come to 

The Great Hypostyle Hall, the 

most magnificent monument of the 
kind in Egypt, if not in the world. 
Its forest of pillars were necessarily 
placed close together, since the roof¬ 
ing was of slabs of stone. The 
effect of the gigantic piers of the 
nave and the 122 columns of the 
aisles is stupendous. 

The actual measurement will give 
some idea of the enormous labour 

of building this hall. 

From E. to W. 

170 ft. 

„ N. to S. 

338 „ 



Height of columns of nave 

80 ft. 

Diameter „ 


Circumference ,, 

33 „ 

Heightof columnsof aisles 

42} „ 

Circumference „ 


The originator of the hall was 
Seti I. He set up 79 columns, 
one is due to Ramses I, and the 
remainder to Ramses ii. The work 
of each is easily distinguished. The 
decorations of Seti are in low relief, 
similar to the Abydos work; those 
of Ramses are in sunk relief. Much 
colouring still remains to add in¬ 
terest to this wonderful place. It 
is perhaps seen to greatest advantage 
in the early morning and late after¬ 
noon, when the shadows are slanting. 
It should also be visited by moon¬ 
light, when the effects are truly 
magnificent. The light entered 
by the clerestory through stone 
gratings, of which only one in¬ 
teresting specimen remains. Walls, 



Section 10 

columns, and architraves are 
covered with inscriptions. The 
finest wall - pictures are on the 
north and north-east walls. Seti 
is seen kneeling under the sacred 
tree while Thoth records his name 
on its leaves. The god Harmakhis 
is seated under a canopy, Seti 
kneeling before him. 

The reliefs on the exterior walls 
may be visited after the further 
parts of the temple have been seen. 

The Third Pylon which forms 
the back wall of the great Hypo- 
style Hall was built by Amen- 
hetep hi. It was the original 
entrance to the temple. It is in 
such a ruinous state that few of its 
inscriptions or pictures are com¬ 
plete. To the left, on the pylon 
face, may be seen a ship. 

The Narrow Court between this 
and the next pylon is a confused 
mass of ruins. Here are two 
obelisks—one fallen—of red granite 
76 ft. in height, which were put up 
by Thothmes I. Ramses n added 
inscriptions to those of Thothmes. 

The Fourth Pylon is likewise in 
a ruined condition. It was the 
work of Thothmes I. Of the colon¬ 
nade beyond it, little remains. But 
here stands the largest obelisk in 
Egypt. It is of red granite, from 
Aswan, and the inscription on its 
base tells us that it was quarried, 
transported, and erected in seven 
months. It was put up by Queen 
Hat-shepsu. The obelisk of St. 
John Lateran in Rome is the only 
one in the world that surpasses it 
in height. The one here is 97£ ft. 

We pass the Fifth Pylon to a 
second colonnade, all the work of 
Thothmes I. Passing through the 
Sixth Pylon, we are in a little court 
before the sanctuary. Here are 
two curious columns, put up by 
Thothmes hi, with conventional 
representations of the papyrus and 
lotus in very high relief. They 
were the emblems respectively of 
Lower and Upper Egypt. 

The Sanctuary was built by 
Philip Arrhideeus on the site of an 

earlier one. It consists of two 
chambers of red granite, difficult of 
access from their ruinous condition. 
The reliefs represent Philip offering 
to Amen. The exterior of the walls 
is also covered with reliefs. On the 
north wall of the ambulatory round 
the sanctuary are inscriptions of 
Thothmes in relating his conquests 
and enumerating his gifts to the 
temple. Though the chambers off 
this corridor have the name of 
Thothmes in everywhere, it is 
probable that they were built by 
Queen Hatshepsu, and usurped by 
her nephew. 

Beyond the sanctuary and its 
chambers we come to an 

Open Court where stood the 
earliest buildings of the temple. 
It was the work of Usertsen i of 
the 12th dynasty. But only a few 
blocks remain and the bases of two 
sixteen-sided columns. 

Crossing the court, at its east end 
is the 

Great Columned Hall of 
Thothmes III. — Only the north 
outside wall remains. The hall is 
architecturally peculiar. A colon¬ 
nade of thirty-two square pillars 
runs round its four sides; then in 
the centre are two rows of ten 
columns supporting the roof. These 
columns do not run in lines east 
and west with the square pillars, 
there being only ten coluinus to 
twelve square piers. The square 
pillars carried a clerestory. The 
capitals of the columns are unique, 
and the departure from the regula¬ 
tion forms cannot be called suc¬ 
cessful. They resemble a bell or 
inverted calyx, the effect of the 
narrow end next the architrave 
being most inartistic. There was 
once a Christian church in this hall, 
traces of which can be seen on 
several of the columns. One column 
has a picture much resembling the 
conventional representations of St. 

From the right (south) end of the 
hall we enter a chamber called the 
Hall of Ancestors , because there 
was found here a relief showing 

Section la 



Thothmes ill offering to fifty-six 
of his predecessors. It was taken 
to Paris. 

Returning to the hall, we pass 
through it to the centre door, which 
leads into the Sanctuary of three 
chambers. Here there are fragments 
of a colossal stone hawk. 

Through a door in the centre 
chamber we reach a hall with eight 
polygonal columns. In another 
chamber near are pictures of Set 
and Horus teaching the youthful 
king to use the bow and spear. 

Returning to the north side of 
the sanctuary, we find a chamber 
with four clustered columns, but 
without a roof. On the low portions 
that remain of the wall are most 
interesting reliefs representing what 
is frequently called 

The Garden of Thothmes III.— 
Here we see representations not 
only of plants and flowers which 
are not to be found in Egypt, but 
animals which are not indigenous 
to the country. These were mostly 
brought from Syria in the 25th year 
of the king’s reign. We thus see 
that Thothmes shared with Hat- 
shepsu a love of natural history (cf. 
Der el-Bahri). 

Alexander the Great is responsible 
for repairs and added sculptures in 
the chambers surrounding the 

The whole of this part of the 
temple was enclosed by a girdle 
wall, of which little now remains, 
built and decorated by Ramses ll. 
He also built a small colonnade at 
its east end. This is also com¬ 
pletely ruined. Some distance 
further east the same king built a 
small temple of no special interest. 
The pylon beyond it, through which 
one entered the brick-wall enclosure 
of the temple precincts, is fine. It 
bears the names of Nektanebus it, 
Ptolemy Philadelphus, and Arsinoe, 
but the sculptures were never 

Other ruins lie to the north-east 
(Ptolemaic) and south-east (19th 
dynasty) of this pylon. 

Having completed the inspection 
of all the ruins lying in a straight 
line from the first pylon, we re¬ 
turn to the 

Exterior Reliefs on the Great 
Hypostyle Hall.—On the South 
Wall at the east end is the illus¬ 
trated Epic of Pentaur, which 
records Ramses n’s great cam¬ 
paign against the Hittites. This 
is also found at Luxor and Abh 
Simbel. On the west face of the 
piece of jutting-out wall is a stele 
with the first extradition treaty on 
record. It is a treaty of peace 
between^ Ramses II and the king of 
the Hittites. 

Farther to the west are the reliefs 
of Shishak already spoken of. 

On the North Wall the sculp¬ 
tures relate to the campaigns of 
Seti I, chiefly in Syria. [These are 
at present partly covered by the 
mounds of earth placed there by 
the Antiquities Department during 
the process of restoration.] We find 
our way to the north-east corner 
and commence from the angle of 
the wall. On the short wall facing 
east we see (top row) Seti’s arrival 
in the Lebanon district. The in¬ 
habitants, with very different faces 
from the Egyptians, cut down trees 
for the king. Below, Seti conquers 
the people (Rutennu) of Southern 
Palestine, driving his two horses, 
whose names are recorded, over 
them. To the left is a hill on 
which is the fortress of Pa-Kanana, 
identified with KhurbetKan’an near 
Hebron. Turning the angle of the 
wall, top line, another fortress is 
taken by Seti, its defenders flying. 
Like the other, it is surrounded by 
water. The picture showing the 
fugitives hiding among the trees is 
curious, and there is a rare example 
of a man portrayed front - face. 
The succeeding scenes represent the 
triumphant progress of Seti, taking 
towns as he goes, and making offer¬ 
ings to the Theban triad. Then we 
see him returning to Egypt. Be¬ 
hind him is the “ Migdol [or tower] 
of Seti,” and in front of him is a 
canal full of crocodiles. This canal, 



Section 10 

the boundary of Egypt, was the 
precursor of the modern Suez Canal. 

Beyond a doorway the scenes are 
very much the same. 

To the North of the Great 
Temple are remains of other 
temples. In the remains of a 
Greek and Roman village are a few 
traces of a 2 6th dynasty Temple. 

Farther north are remains of a 
small but fine Temple of Ptah and 
Hathor, recently cleared out, dating 
from the time of Thothmes hi, in 
which is a very fine statue of the 
goddess Sekhet. 

Beyond the temple enclosure of 
crude bricks is a Temple of Amen- 
hetep hi, dedicated to Mentu , the 
war-god. It is a ruin in which it is 
difficult to trace the original plan. 
The fiue Pylon beyond the temple 
is due to Ptolemy Philadelphus and 

We now return to the great 
temple of Amen, and, passing from 
north to south of the court beyond 
the third pylon, we see that a road 
led from this point through four 
pylons, and an avenue of sphinxes, 

The Temple of Mtit.—The first 
of these pylons was built by 
Thothmes ill, the second com¬ 
menced by Thothmes I, the third 
and fourth by Horemheb. This 
last pylon was a gateway in the 
brick wall that encircled the temple 

The lake seen on the left was the 
sacred lake of the great temple; it is 
lined with masonry. The small build¬ 
ing on the left, between the third and 
fourth pylons, is of the time of Amen- 
hetep n. The low reliefs and the 
colouring are interesting. 

A Ptolemaic gateway leads 
through a girdle wall to the temple 
grounds. Another avenue of 
sphinxes led off from near this 
gateway and joined the long avenue 
to Luxor. 

The temple is completely ruined, 
but many statues of Sekhet remain, 
a few of which are nearly perfect. 

There are about a hundred in all, of 
varying sizes. The lioness-headed 
goddess is akin to Mut of Thebes, 
Pakht (Pasht) of the Speos Arte- 
midos, and Bast of Bubastis. The 
building was begun by Thothmes 
ill and continued by several sub¬ 
sequent Pharaohs, the name of 
Amenhetep in being on most 
of the statues. The temple was 
excavated in 1896, when a statue 
of Sen-mut, the architect of Queen 
Hatshepsu, was found. 

A horseshoe - shaped lake sur¬ 
rounded the south end of the 
temple. To the west of this are 
ruins of a small Temple of Ramses 
in, with scenes showing inci¬ 
dents of the king’s campaign in 

Outside the circling wall, to the 
east, are two chambers built by 
Taharqa and liis successor. The 
well-preserved reliefs are brilliantly 

The Temple of Medamdt. 

Only those spending some weeks 
at Luxor will care to make this 
4 or 5 hrs. excursion. Of the 
once handsome sandstone temple 
little now remains. It dates from 
the 18th dynasty, being founded by 
Amenhetep II, whose name can be 
traced on some of the granite 
blocks. But the portico, five 
columns of which still remain, is 
due to Ptolemy Euergetes II, and 
we see the name of Tiberius on the 


The facade of this temple cannot 
be properly seen, owing to the 
mounds of rubbish. Much of it has 
been cleared out of the temple, but 
unfortunately a mosque occupies 
the ground under which the western 
quarter is buried. Permission to 
remove the mosque has happily 
been granted, and this will be done 
as soon as a suitable site for a new 
one has been acquired in the village. 
We enter, therefore, at the side into 
the great court of the temple, built 

Section 10 



by Amenhetep iii. All the build¬ 
ings to the south of this, and the 
next court to the north, are the 
work of this Pharaoh. The large 
court farther to the north was built 
by Ramses ii. 

The temple was dedicated to the 
Theban triad— Amen, his wife MM, 
and their son Khensu, the moon- 
god, whose figures occur repeatedly 
on the walls. 

Turning to the left, we enter the 
Colonnade built by Amen-hetep, 
but not completed according to the 
original plan. Tdtajwch Amen en¬ 
closed it with a wall decorated with 
reliefs representing the processions 
at the great festival of Amen. The 
name of this Pharaoh was effaced 
by Horemheb, who substituted 
his own cartouches. Seti I, Ram¬ 
ses ii, and Seti II have also left 
their names here. This hall is 
about 170 ft. long; the columns 
with their capitals are nearly 42 ft. 
high. At sunset the lights and 
shadows in this colonnade are very 

Continuing north, we enter the 

Court of Ramses It—This is 
separated from the colonnade by a 
massive wall with only one doorway, 
the work of Amen-hetep. The court 
is not in a straight line with the 
rest of the temple, owing to its 
being obliged to follow the bank of 
the river. The east side has not 
been excavated because of themosque 
spoken of before. Of the double 
row of columns round the court only 
55 out of the 74 are seen. The 
colossi that stand between the col¬ 
umns of the south part of the court 
represent Ramses ii ; those stand¬ 
ing on either side of the doorway 
represent the king again, with his 
wife Nefertabi by his side. They 
are of black granite, and measure 
about 25 ft. in height. The other 
statues are of red granite. 

The small chapel in the N.-W. 
corner of the court consists of three 
chambers dedicated to the three 
gods of the Triad, that to Amen 
being in the centre, the W. one to 
Mfit, and the E. to Khensu. The 

Temple of Luxor. 



Section 10 

clustered pillars of red granite are 

The Sculptures on the walls, 

and the inscriptions, are most in¬ 
teresting. On the interior, are sac¬ 
rificial scenes ; a list of twenty-one 
conquered nations, some of which 
have been identified; an account 
of Ramses’ building at Luxor, with 
a relief (on the S.-W. wall) repre¬ 
senting the front of this great 
temple, the pylon, obelisks, and 
liagstaffs. The account is o£ a kind 
of opening ceremony, in which the 
seventeen sons of Ramses took part. 
On the exterior walls are historical 
scenes and accounts of various wars. 

The Pylon, which must be visited 
from the outside after leaving the 
temple, is still partially buried. 
The pictures on it represent the 
wars with the Kheta, or Hittites. 
On the E. side is seen the battle of 
Kadesh, on the W. side Pharaoh’s 
camp. The inscriptions are the 
famous “ Epic of Pentaur,” of which 
there are other copies. The great 
grooves in the faces of the pylon 
were for fiagstaffs. 

In front of the pylon are two 
colossal seated statues of Ramses n. 
Four other standing figures there 
were, of which only one remains. 
The seated figures are 45 ft. high. 
In front, and a little to the sides of 
these colossi, were two red granite 
obelisks. Only the east one re¬ 
mains, its base buried in rubbish, 
so that its 82 ft. of height cannot 
be fully appreciated. It is covered 
with hieroglyphs recording the 
building by Ramses of the temple. 
The faces are slightly concave. Its 
companion obelisk, now in the Place 
de la Concorde in Paris, is 77 ft.high. 

From the pylon a dromos , or 
avenue of sphinxes, with ranis’ 
heads, led all the way to Karnak. 

From the court we first entered 
we now proceed to the south, and 
view the earlier part of the temple. 
This court, with double rows of 
columns on the E., N., and W., 
with their lotus-bud capitals, meas¬ 
ures 155 ft. by 167 ft. The two 
sphinxes, inscribed with the name of 

Sebekhetep ii (13th dyn.), which 
were on either side of the entrance 
to the hypostyle hall, have been 
removed to the museum. 

Hypostyle Hall with 32 col¬ 
umns. The decorations on the 
outside of the walls are by Ram¬ 
ses in. Interior east wall, Amen- 
hetep before the Theban triad. 
The next chamber had originally 
8 columns, but it was used once as 
a Coptic church, two granite Cor¬ 
inthian columns of which remain. 
The frescoes that once covered the 
hieroglyphs and sculptures are rap¬ 
idly disappearing. The entrance 
into the chambers beyond has been 
blocked up to form a kind of recess. 

On either side of this hall (en¬ 
trance in the hypostyle hall) are 
two small “chapels,” one E. to the 
goddess Mut and the other to 

To reach the chambers behind, 
we leave the hypostyle hall by an 
opening at its S.-E. corner and 
enter again a little farther south 
the Birtli House (PI. B) (compare 
Dendera). The pictures and texts 
here describe the miraculous birth 
of Mut-em-ua’s son, Amenhetep hi, 
the father being the god Amen. 
Similar texts are found at Dir d- 
Bahri, On the west wall we see 
the god Khnem , watched by /sis, 
moulding two infants on the potter’s 
wheel. These are Amenhetep III 
and his Ka, or double. 

Proceeding south through the next 
chamber, we find a way into the 
Sanctuary built by Alexander the 
Great. The inscription says that it 
had “ acacia gates overlaid with 
gold.” The ceiling of this chamber 
is well preserved. Behind the 
sanctuary is a hall with 12 col¬ 
umns, off which are three chambers 
with columns. The reliefs present 
the usual scenes. In the centre 
chamber was the shrine containing 
the image of the god. 

West Bank. 

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Guide to Palestine and Egypt. 
To face page 228, 

Walker & Cockerell »c. 

Section 10 



for lunching at Cook's rest-house at 
Dir el-Bahri also to be obtained at 
the hotel. Charge for use of rest- 
house , P.T. 5. 

The river is crossed to an island, 
on which are found donkeys waiting. 
These should be ordered the night 
before, if it is wished to make an early 
start. Across the sandy island we 
come to another stream, which is 
forded, or crossed in a boat, accord¬ 
ing to the time of year and height 
of the river. 

The Colossi and the Ramesseum 
are seen in the distance. The route 
turns north along an embankment 
by the new canal, and reaches in 
about three-quarters of an hour the 


Built by Seti i in honour of his 
father, Ramses i, it was finished by 
Ramses ii, his son, and rededicated 
to his father, Seti I. Like the work 
of Seti at Abydos, the reliefs here 
are very finely executed. The 
temple, like many others, is in 
reality a cenotaph, a chapel in con¬ 
nection with the tomb, which is in 
a rocky valley inland. Almost no¬ 
thing remains to indicate the two 
courts and pylons that preceded 
the sanctuary. The first part we 
see is the colonnade, of which only 
8 out of the original 10 pillars are 
now standing. 

Over the centre door in the col¬ 
onnade we see Ramses II before 
Amen-Ra,-symbolically represented 
by a hawk, who offers the emblem 
of life to the king. The three 
doors lead into—left, the chapel of 
Ramses I; centre, a hypostyle hall; 
right, a pillared hall of Ramses n. 

The Hypostyle Hall has only six 
lotus-bud columns supporting its 
decorated ceiling. The ceilings of the 
three chambers on the right are in¬ 
teresting. On the wall opposite the 
last column on the left is a relief 
representing the goddess Milt nurs¬ 
ing Seti, and opposite the last 
column on the right is a similar 
scene, with Hatlior of Dendera in¬ 
stead of Mftt. 

Beyond this hall is 

The Sanctuary, with four square 
undecorated columns. The reliefs 
show the great boat of Amen, be¬ 
fore which Seti offers incense. The 
chambers beyond are in a very 
ruinous condition. 

Returning to the hall, we look at 
the east side of the temple, where 
is the Hall of Ramses II. Its ten 
columns have disappeared, and the 
work, all of the time of this king, 
is inferior. 

The Western Hall, entered by 
the third door in the colonnade, 
contains the most interesting sculp¬ 
tures. This part of the temple, 
with its three chambers, was that 
more specially set apart by Seti I to 
his father Ramses I, but it was 
finished by Ramses ii, to whom 
many of the sculptures are due. 
Immediately to the left on entering 
we see the king offering to Amen- 
Ra, Khensu and Ramses his father, 
who has joined the company of the 
gods. In the centre charnher is a 
picture of a statue of Ramses I in 
a shrine, before which Seti officiates. 
On the outside wall of this portion, 
in the colonnade, we may see Queen 
Aahmes Nefertari. 

In the hills behind the temple 
are many tombs. These are the 

Tombs of Dra Abftl-Negga. 
Here are tombs, mostly closed, of 
the 11th, 13th, and 17th dynasties. 
The coffin of Queen Aah-hetep came 
from this cemetery. On her mummy 
was the beautiful jewellery now in 
the Cairo Museum. Of the rock-cut 
tombs in the hill the following 
may be visitedJust beyond the 
village, the Tomb of NS-Amen , 
with good reliefs in plaster showing 
vintage and funeral scenes. From 
this tomb one can enter that of 
Mmt-her-Khepshef ’ who was fan- 
Learer to the king, with fine reliefs. 
These date from the early days of 
the New Empire. The Tomb of 
Rames, an architect, is farther 

We now ride into a gorge in the 
Libyan Hills on our way to the 



Section 10 


The Arabs call these “Bib&n el- 
Molfik,” or “gates of the kings.” 
If we are there before the sun is 
high we may see little flowering 
plants here and there ; but very 
soon the heat reflected from the 
rocks becomes great, and they 
wither up. The bareness of the 
winding, rocky valley makes it a 
weird and desolate place. There 
are plenty of fossils of a large 
bivalve shell lying about, and 
curious dumb - bell - shaped stone 
formations. The valley contracts, 
and then branches into two when 
we reach the tombs, ending at the 
foot of high cliffs. This is the 
Eastern Valley. 

This was the place chosen by the 
kings of the 19th and 20th dynasties 
for their burials. Their mummies were 
hidden in chambers cut far into the 
interior of the hills. But, even so, they 
did not escape the prying adventures 
of thieves and plunderers. There are 
now twenty-five accessible in this 
valley, though the French expedition 
only speaks of eleven, while Strabo 
mentions forty. Many Greek writers 
speak of them as wonderful sights. 

It is impossible to visit all the 
tombs in one day. The most 
important are — No. 17, Seti i; 
No. 14, Se-Ptah; No. 11, Ramses 
in; No. 9, Ramses vi; No. 8, 
Mer-en-Ptah ; No. 6, Ramses ix; 
No. 2, Ramses iv. 

Electric light has been introduced 
into the tombs of Seti I, Ramses I, 
in, IV, and IX, and Amen-hetep ii, 
and visitors are in no case allowed 
to bring in candles or other lights. 
The light is supplied from 9 a.m. 
to 1 p.m. from November 15, during 
the season. 

No. 17. The Tomb of Seti I, 

called Belzoni's Tomb , is to the left, 
in the second little valley. The 
work in relief and colour is very 
fine, surpassing that of all the 
other tombs in the valley. It is by 
Hi, the architect of Abydos. The 
tomb penetrates 330 ft. into the 
rock, and consists of seventeen 
chambers, passages, and staircases. 

no no 
















Seti I. JIgA 

Section 10 



Many of these are covered with 
reliefs and paintings, which have 
not, unfortunately, escaped the 
destroying hand of the Arabs and 
tourists since it was opened eighty 
years ago by Belzoni. These pictures 
represent not, as in the earlier 
tombs, sceues of everyday life, but 
religious scenes and texts from the 
Book of the Dead , many of obscure 
meaning, which the greatest Egypt¬ 
ologists cannot yet interpret. 

Descending a steep flight of steps, 
24 ft., we come to A, a chamber 
18£ ft. x 9 ft., its ceiling decorated 
with vultures. On the walls are 
inscriptions in the most exquisitely 
carved hieroglyphs, consisting of 
part of a work called The Book of 
the Praise of Ra in the Lower 
World. To the left we see Seti 
before Harmakhis ; then the Sun- 
disc with a scarabaaus and the ram¬ 
headed Sun-god. 

Descending a second stairway, 
with 37 and 39 figures—probably 
forms of the sun-god—respectively 
on either side, we come to 

Chamber B, a passage 29 ft. 
long. The scenes represent the 
passage of the Sun in his boat 
through the under - world, i.e. 
during the hours of night. The 
texts are from the same book. 
Demons, in the form of serpents, 
oppose the progress of the boat, 
but Horus, depicted standing on a 
winged snake, protects it. 

Chamber C is 14 ft. x 12 ft. Here 
Seti makes olferings to different 
gods. At 1. Anubis as a jackal. 
2. Seti between Horus and Hathor. 
3 and 4. Similar scenes. The king 
between Isis and her son Horus; 
the king making libations to Hathor, 
and again, the king before Osiris. 
In this chamber was a pit, now 
filled up, which seemed to be the 
end of the tomb; but Belzoni 
discovered that part of the wall 
was merely built and was not rock, 
and he therefore forced his way 

Chamber D.—It is 26 ft. square. 
The reliefs continue the story of 
the gun’s passage through the under¬ 

world. On the pillars Seti is 
represented with the guardians of 
the dead. At 5, on the left wall in 
the bottom row, are seen four men 
of each race known to the ancients. 
There are four Egyptians (red); 
four Asiatics, with yellow skins and 
blue eyes; four negroes (black); 
and four Libyans, with white faces 
ami blue eyes. All are dressed 
differently. The subject of the fine 
relief on the rear wall is Horus 
introducing the king into the 
presence of Osiris and Hathor. 

Chamber E was never finished. 
We see the designs drawn by the 
artist, but never executed by the 

We return to D, and proceed 
down a staircase to 

Chamber F.—Here the direction 
of the excavations alters slightly, 
which seems to be a fault in the 
plan. The reliefs here and in 
Chamber G are scenes and texts 
from the Book of the Opening of 
the Mouthy a ceremony performed 
on the mummy before it was finally 

In Chamber H Seti is represented 
in several scenes before Hathor, 
Horus, Anubis, Isis, Osiris, Nefer- 
Atmu, and Ptah. We next enter 

Chaviber K, a hall with six pillars, 
measuring 27 ft. square, its upper 
end being a vaulted chamber, L, 
30 ft. x 19 ft. Here stood the 
beautiful alabaster sarcophagus of 
Seti i. His mummy had been 
removed, and was found at Der el- 
B&hri, whence it was taken to the 
Cairo Museum. The sarcophagus is 
in the Soane Museum in London. 
The journey of the Sun’s boat is 
continued in the sceues. He is 
represented in one place as a 
Scarabeeus in a boat. Many 
serpents and animals, friendly and 
opposing, are also depicted. At 
the end of the left wall we see 
Anubis performing the ceremony of 
“ opening the mouth.” There are 
astronomical scenes on the ceiling. 
In Side-Chamber 6 is an inscrip¬ 
tion which gives an interesting old 
myth of the rebellion of mankind 



Section 10 

against the Sun-god, and of their 
subsequent punishment. 

Chamber M has scenes containing 
the story of the Sun-boat’s progress 
during the hours of the night. 

Chamber N is filled with rubbish. 
It is uniuscribed. 

No. 14. The Tomb of Se-Ptah, 
excavated for himself and his wife 
Queen Ta-usert, a fact which 
points to his not being of royal 
family, or at least not of direct 
descent, and reigning in the right 
of his wife. In places her name 
is covered with stucco, for the 
tomb was appropriated by Set- 
Nekht of the next dynasty. The 
tomb extends 363 ft. into the rock, 
but it was never finished. It will 
be noticed that though the sculp¬ 
tures are in sunk relief, the name 
of Set-Nekht is only painted on 
where the stucco covers the older 
work. The sarcophagus is in the 
shape of a cartouche. 

No. 11. The Tomb of Ramses III, 
20th dynasty, b.c. 1200, is called 
Bruce’s tomb, after the traveller 
who discovered it; also the 
“ Harpers’ Tomb,” on account of 
the pictures of harpers. Its 
general plan is better, hut the 
artistic execution of the work 
inferior to that of No. 17, the 
latter, perhaps, partly owing to the 
limestone being less hard. Its 
total length is 405 ft. The subject 
of the Reliefs in Chamber A is 
similar to that in Seti’s tomb, i.e. 
the descent into Amenti or the 
under-world. The pictures in the 
side chambers are most interesting. 

Side-Chamber 1.—Reliefs of ships, 
with sails furled and unfurled. 

Side-Chamber 2.—Scenes in a 
kitchen. A tripod over a blazing 
.fire; pounding in a mortar; cook¬ 
ing joints; making pastry; making 

Side-Chamber 3, — Pictures of 
weapons and arms ; those painted 
blue were probably steel. 

Side-Chamber 4.—Nile gods, and 
.gods of fertility. 

Side-Chamber 5 .—Chairs of most 
artistic shapes, handsomely up- 

Section 10 



bolstered. Pretty vases, printed 
stuffs, copper vessels, etc. 

Side-Chamber 6.—Local deities, 
and Nile gods. The birds and 
plants are interesting. 

Side - Chamber 7. — Agricultural 
scenes. Canals, with gods in boats 
sowing and reaping wheat (?). 

Side-Chamber 8.—Boats, serpents, 
and sacred cattle. 

Side-Chamber 9.—Osiris in various 
forms, with different attributes. 

Side-Chamber 10.—-Two harpers 
—the one to the left plays before 
Anhur and Harmakhis ; the one to 
the right, before Shu and Atmu. 
Their song is inscribed on either 
side of the door. 

B.—The line of excavation had 
at this point to move to the right 
to avoid the next tomb. The reliefs 
on the remaining chambers are a 
continuation of those on the walls 
of the first corridor. In the large 
chamber C, with eight, was found 
the red granite sarcophagus now in 
the Louvre, but the lid is at Cam¬ 
bridge, and the mummy at Cairo. 

No. 9. The Tomb of Ramses VI 
is also called “ Memnon’s Tomb,” 
because the other name of Ramses 
was similar to that of Amen- 
hetep hi, whom the Romans called 
Memnon. The tomb is 342 ft. 
long. The plan is good, the pas¬ 
sages being high ' and the slope 
gradual. The reliefs show immense 
attention to detail. We see the 
Sun-god fighting with his nightly 
enemies, and on the ceiling are 
astronomical subjects. 

No. 8. The Tomb of Mer-en- 
Ptah, son of Ramses II. The 
descent is very rapid. Over the 
entrance Isis and Nephthys wor¬ 
ship the Sun-god in his ram-headed 
form, and the scarabceus. To the left 
on entering, the work is good—the 
king before Ra. In the last room, 
in the same line, is the sarcophagus. 
This king is by many supposed to 
be the Pharaoh of the Exodus. 

No. 5. The Tomb of Ramses IX. 
—The inscriptions are much the 
same as those in the other tombs, 
but some of the pictures are 

different. The ceilings have stars 
and astronomical representations. 
In the last chamber was placed 
the sarcophagus. On the wall 
beyond is a picture of the infant 
Horus in a winged globe, which 
may possibly refer to a belief that 
death was but a birth into a new 

No. 2. The Tomb of Ramses IV 

\dosed\ — Like other tombs, this 
one has Greek and Coptic graffiti. 
It is 218 ft. long. In the last 
great chamber is the huge granite 
sarcophagus, measuring 11 ft. 6 in. 
by 7 ft., and 9 ft. high. 

The Tomb of Amenhetep II, 
discovered in 1898, was opened to 
the public in 1901. It has now been 
lighted by electricity. The decor¬ 
ations are different from those in any 
of the other tombs, being in the form 
of papyri, on which is written the 
“ Book of Hours.” The unique in¬ 
terest of the tomb lies in the fact 
that the body of the king is here in 
situ as he was placed on the day of 
his entombment. The lids of the 
fine sarcophagus and the coffin have 
been removed ; and the mummy, 
decorated with the wreaths of 
flowers which have lasted more 
than three thousand years, may be 
looked upon from above. In a 
chamber to the right are the bodies 
of a man, a woman, and a girl, 
dried but not bandaged. They are 
gruesomely naturalistic, with the 
brown skin drawn tight over the 
skulls and, in the case of the 
woman, the hair falling naturally 
from the face. 

The Tomb of Thothmes III, dis¬ 
covered at the same time, will not 
he opened to the public. The 
decorations are similar to those in 
the tomb of Amenhetep II. 

The Tomb of Thothmes IV was 
discovered by M. Maspero in 1903. 
It contained the remains of a chariot 
of wonderful workmanship, very 
beautiful blue fayence pots, and 
other objects in the same material, 
a piece of fine white linen woven 
in colours, with a lotus and papyrus 
pattern, and other valuable articles. 



Section 10 

The Tombs in the Western 
Valley are seldom visited. Tile 
tombs of Amenhetep III, 352 ft. 
long, and the tomb of Al, or 
“Tomb of the Apes,” so called 
from the twelve sacred apes which 
adorn it, are interesting. In 
the latter is a very fine sarco¬ 

From the tombs we can either 
ride back the way we came, or we 
can walk over the hills, the donkeys 
following, until, reaching the top, 
we have a very fine view, and are 
able to see the position on the plain 
of the various temples. The wind¬ 
ings of the Nile through its green 
valley, the palm groves, the little 
villages, make a most charming pic- • 
ture. At one point, looking over 
the precipitous cliffs we can see 
Dgr el-Bahri below. Descending, 
we turn round the spur of the hill 
and come to 


This name, meaning “ Northern Con¬ 
vent,” shows that at one time there 
was a Christian colony here. The ex¬ 
cavations so well carried out here by 
Dr. Naville were done at the expense 
of the Egypt Exploration Fund. The 
temple was built by Queen Hatshepsu 
(Maat-ka-Ra) of the 18th dynasty, but 
her name and image were defaced by 
her kinsman and successor Thothmks 
iii. It was dedicated to Amen, though 
other gods were reverenced, and in 
the time of Khu-en-aten suffered from 
his religious zeal, the references to 
Amen being defaced. Ramses ii con¬ 
tinued the work, and the Ptolemies 
worked here too; but the temple was 
never completed. The architect was 
Sen-mfffc, quite a famous man, who en¬ 
joyed much royal favour. His statue 
is in the Berlin Museum, and another, 
found in the Temple of Mftt on the 
other side of the river, is now at Cairo. 
In plan the temple differs from all 
others in Egypt. It is partly excavated 
in the rock, partly built of beautiful 
white limestone, the dazzling effect of 
which, as seen against the bright yellow 
and brown of the hills, is one of the 
most striking scenes in Egypt. At 
midday it is extremely hot here. 

It is not very easy in a hurried 

visit to understand the Original 
Plan of the Temple, much of the 
fore parts having disappeared. It 
was built on terraces cut out of 
the mountain side, the different 
levels being connected by sloping 
planes up the centre. From the 
plain to the first pylon, only the 
substructure of which remains, was 
a dromos of sphinxes, which was 
1600 ft. long. The obelisks which 
stood at this entrance have likewise 

The Lower Colonnade at the end 
of the Lower Platform is in ruins. 
Its columns were curious, those next 
to the wall being polygonal, the 
others have one large face and seven 
small ones. The reliefs on the wall 
are sadly spoilt, but ships trans¬ 
porting obelisks from the quarries 
at Asw&n can be seen (PI. A). 
The figure of the queen is destroyed. 
Passing through the gateway we 
find ourselves in the Central Court. 
Ascending the inclined plane we 
come to the Upper Colonnade of 
twenty - two square columns on 
either side of the end of the ascent. 
On the right side (N.) of this centre 
court is an unfinished colonnade, 
built against the mountain and 
having four chambers out into the 
rock. On the pillars of the colon¬ 
nade we see the same figures of 
Amen, with either Hat-shepsu or 
her nephew Thothmes III, repeated. 
The scenes on the wall of the north 
colonnade correspond with those in 
the “birth House ” at Luxor. The 
portraits of Queen Aahmes, wife of 
Thothmes I, and mother of Queen 
Hat-shepsu, are most charming. At 
the end of this colonnade a few 
steps lead up to a Hypostyle Hall 
with three rows of four polygonal 
columns. Seated at the back of 
this beautiful white limestone, deli¬ 
cately-coloured hail, the view across 
the Nile is particularly beautiful. 
The deep bine of the sky and the 
bright green of the cultivated land 
are intensified by the white frame 
made to the picture by the lime¬ 
stone pillars. The reliefs here are 
fine, but everywhere the figure of 



the queen is erased. Above the 
recess in the south wall, she stood 
before Osiris, to the left of it she 
stands before Anubis. On the back 
wall she is again seen sacrific¬ 
ing to Amen and to Anubis. The 
chambers off this hall, with well- 
preserved colour, were dedicated to 

Returning to the colonnade, we 
proceed along the 

South colonnade , where are the 
most famous Reliefs of the Ex¬ 
pedition to the Land of Punt. 
Punt was the “Holy Land ” whence 
the Egyptians had a tradition that 
they had originally emigrated. It 
lay apparently on the west coast 
of the Red Sea, now called Somali¬ 
land. The expedition was fitted 
out and despatched with much 
ceremony, the god Amen being con¬ 
sulted about it. The object was 
to bring back gold, silver (called 
“white gold”), ebony, ivory, pan¬ 
ther skins, apes, and other crea¬ 
tures ; but most especially to bring 
some of the precious incense trees. 
The scenes represent the ships start¬ 
ing from the Nile, their arrival at 
Punt, where the people, as we see, 
dwelt in kind of “lake-dwellings” 
(PI. B). The reliefs representing 
the Prince of Punt and his very fat, 
ungainly wife are now at Cairo. 
Then the ships are laden with the 
treasures, and we see the trees most 
carefully carried by being slung 
to poles carried between two men 
(PI. C). On the return there was a 
great reception and presenting of 
the objects to the god (PI. D). 

From the end of this colonnade 
is an entrance into a small 

Temple of Hathor, which was 
also entered from outside the Cen¬ 
tral Court by a flight of stairs. Of 
the two colonnades which preceded 
the rock-cut chambers the second 
only retains interesting reliefs. 
Among them, to the left, on the 
end wall, we see the Sacred Hathor 
cow, with Hat-shepsu underneath, 
her mouth to the udder. In the 
rock-cut chambers the reliefs are 
good, more especially in the inner¬ 


most chamber, where Hat-shepsu is 
again seen, with the Hathor cow 
(Pl. E). 

Returning along the south colon¬ 
nade to the end of the ascending 
plane from the Central Court, we 
continue in the line of its direction 
across a ruined terrace, through a 
granite gateway (PI. F), to 

The Upper Court or platform. 
Turning sharply to the right, we see 
in the north wall an entrance into 
a chamber with three columns. In 
a well-preserved recess opposite the 
entrance we see uninjured repre¬ 
sentations of the queen. The court 
off this chamber is extremely inter¬ 
esting, from the fact that it contains 
the only ancient Egyptian altar that 
has been found. It is very large, 
and lias a few steps leading up to 
the top. It was dedicated to the 
Sun-god Harmakhis. In the north 
wall of this court is a miniature 
rock cut chapel (PI. G) to the 
memory of Thothmes i and his 
mother Sen-senb, father and grand¬ 
mother of the queen. The pointed 
vaulted ceilings have yellow stars 
on a blue ground. On the left wall 
of its recess are uninjured figures 
of the queen and her mother 
Aahmes sacrificing to Amen. Op¬ 
posite are Thothmes i and Sen-senb. 
The colouring here is quite fresh 
and bright, as if just done. 

Returning to the court, we find at 
the opposite (S.) side some ruined 
chambers, and one vaulted chamber , 
with pictures of offerings brought 
by priests to Hatshepsu (PL H). 

The west wall of this upper court 
has several recesses, in which we see 
Hat-shepsu, Thothmes ill, and gods. 

The Sanctuary is very much 
ruined. The work at its entrance is 
Ptolemaic. The third room of the 
Sanctuary was originally excavated 
by Thothmes I, but in Ptolemaic 
times was appropriated by someone 
of the name of Amenhetep. 

In the north-west corner of this 
court is the entrance into a 

Hall of Offerings to Amen, with 
mutilated portraits of the queen. 

Southern • Colo nnade L J «|* KJTemple of Hathor 

Temple of Der el-Bahri. 

flection 10 TOMBS OF SH&KH ABD EL-K&RNA 


To tlie south of the temple, in 
the same semicircle of cliffs, M. 
Naville and Mr. Hall discovered in 
1903 another temple, which is the 
most ancient shrine yet uncovered 
at Thebes. It dates from about 
‘2500 b.c., and is the Funerary 
Temple of Mentuhotep of the 
11th dynasty. It must have existed 
at the time of the building of Queen 
Hatshepsu’s temple, thus explain¬ 
ing why that temple is crowded 
into the northern part of the semi¬ 
circle. It is very evident that the 
queen’s architect was not inspired 
to make a new departure in temple 
architecture, for the older one is on 
the same terrace plan, so that the 
design was merely copied. During 
the season 1903-04 only the north¬ 
eastern corner of the platform was 
uncovered. Several tombs of the 
same period were opened in the 
course of excavations. 

Discovery of Royal Mummies. 

At D£r el-Bahri in 1871 an Arab 
discovered a large tomb full of coffins, 
which he soon found to contain royal 
mummies and many valuable objects. 
He, his two brothers and a son, for 
several years kept the secret of the 
find, and made a small fortune by sell¬ 
ing valuable "anteekas.” But Egypt¬ 
ologists began to Buspect a discovery of 
importance, and M. Maspero went up 
the river to investigate. After many 
difficulties, one of the dealers confessed 
his knowledge of the position of the 
treasure-place, and in 1881 M. Emile 
Brugsch proceeded to the place and 
removed the coffins and mummies to the 
museum then at Bhlak. 

Why the coffins were originally re¬ 
moved from their proper tombs is not 
quite clear. M. Maspero thinks that 
they were taken to this tomb, as a 
hiding-place from thieves and plun¬ 
derers, by a son of Shashanq , circa 
800 b.c. 

Not far south of the temple of 
D6r el-Bahri, and almost straight 
behind the Ramesseum, are the 



They belong to 18th dynasty 
royal functionaries. Unfortunately 

many of them have been made use 
of as dwelling-places by the Arabs, 
which makes it difficult to visit 
them, and also has spoilt some of 
them with smoke. The sculptures 
are not often on the rock itself, as 
that was not suitable ; but the sur¬ 
face was prepared with a kind of 
stucco and then carved. There are 
127 tombs, of which the following 
are the most important:— 

No. 16. Tomb of Hor-em-heb, 

a kind of master of the horse to 
Thothmes ii and four succeeding 
kings. In the outer court the re¬ 
liefs show an entertainment at the 
house of Hor-em-heb, who was also 
a scribe, and possibly tutor to the 
young princess who sits upon his 
knee. In the inner court, fishing 
and fowling scenes, and the funeral 

No. 17. Tomb of Thenuna, a 

fan-bearer to the king, has pictures 
of vases and ornaments. 

No. 110. Tomb of Sen-mflt, the 
architect of the temples of D6r el- 
B&hri and of Mfit on the other 
bank ; and tutor to the princess. 

Nos. 118; 120; 123; 126 — of 
Nekht , numbered also 24. A little 
higher up than the tomb of Nekht 
is that of Menna, unnumbered. It 
is very fine and well preserved. 
Notice on the wall, sharp to the left 
on entering, very naturalistic scenes. 
The drawings of boats are also 
good. 119 ; 48 —of Sen-nefer } over¬ 
seer of the garden of Amen at 
Karnak, is the finest of the group, 
being particularly fresh and bril¬ 
liant in its colouring. It has four 
columns and a beautiful ceiling. 36; 
26 —all have interesting pictures. 
Perhaps the most important, but 
very faded and difficult to see, is 

No. 35. The Tomb of Rekh-ma- 
Ra, a governor of Thebes under 
Amenhetep n. Here we see pro¬ 
cessions of foreigners bringing rich 
tribute of ivory, apes, leopard skins, 
vases, necklaces and ornaments, 
gold rings, ostrich eggs and feathers, 
a giraffe, hounds, horses, a bear, 
and an elephant. Notice the differ- 



Section 10- 

ent types, and clothing. In the 
inner chamber are craftsmen at their 
trades. Brick-making in all its 
stages is seen. There is a garden 
with a lake, on which Rekh-ma-Ra 
is being towed in a boat. 

Lower down on the hillside are 
some of the 

Tombs of El-Assasif. 

That of Nefer-hetep, a priest in 
the time of King Horemheb, is 
beautifully decorated, and has an 
elaborate ceiling, a great procession 
of boats on the wall. In the second 
chamber is an inscription containing 
the “ Song of the Harper,” a kind 
of funeral dirge with most philoso¬ 
phical ideas of death. 

The Tomb of Patu Amen-apt 
is well worth a visit. Being in all 
862 ft. long, it is the largest known 
rock-tomb. It is covered with in¬ 
scriptions and pictures. The 
ground occupied by it is nearly one 
and a quarter acres. One part of 
the way is somewhat dangerous, 
and the whole has a most offensive 
smell from the innumerable bats. 
Many of the sculptures are much 
blackened from the tomb having 
been lived in. The owner was a 
high official during the 26th 

Coming back towards the river, 
we come to (£ hr. from the river 


Built by Ramses II and dedi¬ 
cated to Amen-Ra, it was called in 
later times the Memnonium , and 
the Tomb of Osymandyas. Un¬ 
fortunately it is much ruined ; but 
enough is left to indicate the sym¬ 
metry of its plan. 

The Great Pylon was originally 
220 ft. broad. On part of its much- 
ruined fa 9 ade may be seen sculp¬ 
tures resembling those of Luxor, 
illustrating the Epic of Pentaur on 
the battle of Kadesh. Inside the 
pylon and across the court is a 
fallen granite 

Colossal Statue of Ramses, the 

largest in Egypt. Its weight is 
1000 tons, its height was probably 
about 58 ft. The ear measures 
3J ft., across the face 6j ft., across 
the breast 23J ft., first finger 3 ft., 
diameter of arm 4f ft. That the 
Egyptians were able to transport 
and place such an immense statue 
is wonderful, but that it could have 
been so shattered without the aid 
of explosives seems impossible. 
Yet its destruction is said to be the 
work of Cambyses. 

The court in which this stood is 
completely ruined. Of 

The Second Court more remains. 
Upon the part of the wall, north 
side, still standing is another repre¬ 
sentation of the Battle of Kadesh. 
The round pillars on the east and 
west sides, and the osiride columns 
on the north and south, must have 
given the court a very imposing 
appearance. The latter bear figures 
of Ramses n as Osiris against 
them, but not in the form of 
caryatides. Three flights of steps 
lead up to a terrace which precedes 

Hypostyle Hall. —As at Karnak, 
the pillars of the nave are much 
higher than those at the sides, 
forming originally a clerestory. 
The nave columns are 32£ ft. high, 
and 21£ ft. in circumference. Be¬ 
tween the first two columns on 
either side, were statues of the 
king. Not thirty of the original 
forty-eight columns remain. Turn¬ 
ing to the left as we enter, we see 
on the south wall a very inter¬ 
esting representation of the siege of 
Zapur, or “ Dapul in the land of 
the Amorites,” probably an in¬ 
cident in the great Hittite war. 
The town on a rock is reached by 
scaling-ladders; the use of the 
testudo is also evident. The sons 
of Ramses took part in this action. 

Beyond this great hall are two 

Small Hypostyle Halls.— The 
ceiling of the first has astronomical 
representations; on the walls re¬ 
ligious scenes—"boats of the Theban 
triad, the king seated beneath the 
sacred persea tree, Safek, and 

Section 10 



Thoth. The chambers that o.nce 
stood at the side of these halls are 
in ruins. 

To the north-west of this temple 
are some buildiugs or tunnels of 
brick of the time of Ramses II. 
Mr. Petrie, on a careful inspection 
of the ground north and south of 
the Ramesseum, identified the sites 
of seven or eight temples of the 
18th and 19th dynasties. The 
whole ground, too, is honeycombed 
with tombs, dating as far back as 
the 11th dynasty. It was south of 
the temple that he discovered the 
so-called “Israel stele,” now in the 
museum at Cairo (see p. 62). 

The ride to the river will take us 


These two time-worn figures are 
among the most striking of Egypt’s 
wonders. Seeing them standing 
side by aide in the bright green 
fields, far away from any building, 
it is difficult to picture the great 
temple that once stood behind 
them. They are second in size 
only to the fallen colossus at the 
Ramesseum. Including the pedes¬ 
tals, now covered up to 7 ft. from 
the base, they are 65 ft. high. 
Originally monoliths of a hard grit¬ 
stone, they have been repaired, and 
lost much of their artistic value. 
They represent Amenhetep hi, 
the builder of the temple. The 
south one is the better preserved, hut 
the north one is the more interesting. 
It is the famous Vocal Memnon, 
which was said to emit musical 
sounds at sunrise. It is a well- 
known fact that the action of the 
sun and certain states of the atmo¬ 
sphere can produce sounds from 
particular rocks, and it may have 
been some phenomenon of this kind 
that happened to this stone after it 
was rent by an earthquake, and 
not, as some supposed, a trick of 
the priests. Strabo was incredul¬ 
ous ; but later writers did not 
doubt that the “musical sound” 
actually came from the stone. The 
repairs carried out under Septimius 

Severus effectually stopped the 
sounds, which were never again 

On either side of the king are 
18-ft.-high representations of his 
wife, and mother. The length of 
the leg, from sole of foot to knee, is 
about 20 ft. The foot is 10£ ft. 
long, and the head and neck 
measure 10fe ft. 

On the legs and pedestal are many 
inscriptions in prose and verse, 
left by Roman tourists. The 
earliest is of the time of Nero, 
Only one Egyptian committed the 
vandalism and left a Demotic in¬ 
scription. In Hadrian’s time many 
left records, especially the court- 
poetess Balbilla. On the front of 
the pedestal are six elegiac verses 
by Asklepiodotus. 

The ruins of another statue lie in 
a field near by, but they are nearly 
covered by the cultivated land. It 
is only in recent years that the land 
has been cultivable so far from the 
river; the statues originally stood 
in the desert. 

MEDfNET habO. 

This was the name of a village 
inhabited by Christians, who ap¬ 
propriated a court of the great 
temple for their church, but who 
fled to Esna at the time of the Arab 
invasion, since which time it has 
been deserted. The group of 
temples here is extremely interest¬ 
ing, as it affords a good opportunity 
of comparing 18th and 20th dynasty 
and Ptolemaic work. 

Palace of Ramses III. 

The entrance through the wall is 
between two Porter's Lodges (AA). 
Beyond is a building resembling the 
pictures of Syrian fortresses seen in 
the illustrations to the Epic of 
Pentaur. Originally the building was 
larger, other portions being built 
of brick, but these have long since 
disappeared. On the fa 9 ade are 
reliefs representing Ramses smiting 
his enemies. Below (to the right) 



Section 10 

are the conquered princes of the 
Kheta (Hittites), Shardana (Sar¬ 
dinians), Shakalasha (Sicilians), 
Pulasta (Philistines), etc. The 
eighteen chambers of the building 
seem to have been used as a resi¬ 
dence by the king, who is repre¬ 
sented upon their walls with the 
ladies of the harim. The queen’s 
cartouche is invariably blank. 

Beyond this Palace or Pavilion 
is a large Fore Court, down the 
centre of which a dromos led to 
the pylon of the great temple. 
To the right is the temple of 
Thothmes in. To the left is 

The Temple of Amenardus 

or Ameneritis, wife of Piankhi II 
of the 25th dynasty, and mother- 
in-law of Psamthek I of the 26th 
dynasty. It consists of a fore¬ 
court and sanctuary, with corridor 
round. The reliefs represent Amen¬ 
ardus offering to Amen and other 
gods. Beside the queen’s name we 
see that of her father, the Ethiopian 
King Kashta. 

The temple of Ramses HI. 

The Great Pylon is covered with 
sculptures, the subject of which is 
the Pharaoh triumphing over his 
enemies. On the west side he is 
about to kill two prisoners before 
the god Ptah-Seker, on the east 
side the same scene occurs before 
Amen-Ra. Near the bottom of the 
east face (B) is a picture of Ramses 
under the sacred tree, kneeling 
before Amen. Thoth writes on the 
leaves of the tree the king’s name, 
while Safekh, the goddess of learning 
and history, looks on. This signi¬ 
fies the everlasting duration of the 
king’s name, and endowed the king 
with eternal life. In the lower part 
of the west tower is a tablet or 
stele, on which is recorded a con¬ 
versation between Ramses and the 
god Ptah. Beyond this pylon is 

The First Court, about 115 ft. 
square. On either side is a covered 
way, the roof supported on the east 

by seven osiride columns, on the 
west by eight circular shafts. On 
the inner face of the pylon just 
passed through are continuations of 
the scenes on the outside. Ramses 
fights against the Libyans. The 
Second Pylon at the other eud of 
this court is covered with repre¬ 
sentations and inscriptions relating 
to a campaign against a league of 
Syrian peoples. 

Passing through the second pylon, 
we enter the 

Second Court. —The gateway is of 
red granite, the hieroglyphs cut in 
it measure from 3 to 4 in. deep. 
Colonnades surround the courtj 
that at the upper end being on a 
higher level and forming a terrace. 
The north and south colonnades 
have osiride columns. The terrace, 
with its eight pillars and osiride 
columns, with much colour left on 
them, is a very good specimen of 
Egyptian work. The reliefs on the 
walls of the colonnades are most 
interesting. On the east wall near 
the north end is Ramses carried in 
a litter, preceded by soldiers wearing 
feathers, and priests reciting and 
carrying censers. Farther to the 
right the king sacrifices to Min, or 
Amen-Amsu. Then we see the 
figure of the god borne in a shrine 
by twenty-two priests, and the 
whole procession, of priests, a white 
bull, the king, the queen (above). 
On the west side of the door com¬ 
mences a series of scenes represent¬ 
ing the “Festival of the Staircase,” 
or festival in honour of Khnemu, 
which continues along the west wall. 
It was in this court that the Chris¬ 
tians had their church. 

Ascending to the terrace, we pass 
into the 

Great Hypostyle HaU. —All the 
succeeding chambers were until 
recently buried in the remains of 
a Coptic town. The columns are 
all broken off within 4 or 5 ft. of 
the base. 

The chambers on the west side 
of this hall contained the treasures 
of tribute brought to the king. 
On the walls are depicted the 



Section 10 

various objects stored in the 
several chambers. Some of the 
pictures of gold or gilt vases show 
much tastefulness in design. Some 
of the colouring in the chambers 
beyond the hypostyle hall is still 
very bright. 

The View from the top of the 
pylon is extended, and the stair¬ 
cases are most interesting. 

The Sculptures on the exterior 
walls should be visited. They form 
an illustrated history of some of the 
campaigns of Ramses. The best 
preserved are on the east wall. 
Among the scenes here (near the 
middle of the wall) is a unique 
representation of a naval battle. 
The action was at the mouth of 
the Nile. The enemy’s ships differ 
in build from those of the Egyptians. 
The details should be examined. 
After the battle the severed hands 
of the conquered people are counted. 
Then we see the king returning on 
his way to Egypt, and making offer¬ 
ings to the Theban triad. On the 
projecting wall of the west end of 
the first pylon is a most spirited 
scene of a wild-bull hunt (C). The 
details of marsh and river scenes are 

In order to approach the other 
buildings from the front, we return 
through the courts we have just tra¬ 
versed, and emerging from the gate¬ 
way of Antoninus Pius (D), we find 
ourselves in front of the so-called 

Temple of Thothmes III. 

This 18th dynasty temple lies 
south-east of the great temple. It 
was added to by Ptolemies and 
Roman emperors. Passing through 
to the south, we commence with 
the first court. Here are inscrip¬ 
tions of Antoninus Pius, showing 
that it was his work. Of the colon¬ 
nade on the north side of this court 
only the two columns on either side 
of the door remain. Their capitals 
are of a rich floral design. Passing 
between them we come to a 
Ptolemaic pylon (E), built of stone 
taken from other buildings. We 

can see blocks with reliefs on them, 
put in upside down. Beyond the 
pylon are small remains of a court 
built by Nektanebus (F), which is suc¬ 
ceeded by another pylon, the work 
of Taharqa and Ptolemy Soter n. 
The former is seen on the inner 
wall, grasping a number of captives 
by the hair. The court following 
is quite in ruins. On the right was 
a granite gateway, built by the 
Patu-Am&i-apt of the large tomb 
in the Assastf group (p. 132). 

In front of us we now see the 
little temple begun by Amen- 
hetep i and Thothmes I, com¬ 
pleted under Hatshepsu and 
Thothmes m, but repaired and 
extended during later times. The 
temple consists of a sanctuary sur¬ 
rounded on three sides by a 
colonnade, and on the north by 
three chambers which lead into 
three others. The figures of Hat¬ 
shepsu have in every case been 
obliterated, and those of one of the 
Thothmes introduced. The scenes 
represent the king offering to the 

About 170 ft. north-east is a sub¬ 
terranean passage about 60 ft. long 
aud only 2) ft. in breadth, leading 
to a well of sweet water. 

It is about half-an-hour’s ride 
from Medlnet ilabu to 


Though not to be compared in 
importance with the tombs of the 
kings, these are very interesting. 
Unfortunately they have all suffered 
from the effects of fire. About 
twenty have been discovered in all, 
hut only two or three are visited. 
They are mostly decorated with 
paintings, and have no sculptured 

The Tomb of Thiti consists of an 
ante-chamber, a long passage, and 
a square chamber, with a smaller 
one off each side. The brightness 
of the colour is unequalled in any 
tombs. The goddess who kneels 
on either side of the entrance is 
Maat, the goddess of truth. In the 



passage on the left wall the queen 
stands before Ptah and Harmakhis, 
two of the genii of the dead, and 
Isis; on the right wall she stands 
before Thoth and Nephthys and the 
two other genii of the dead. 

In the little chamber off the left 
side of the square chamber is the 
mummy shaft. In the farther 
chamber is Osiris, with his sisters 
Isis and Nephthys behind him, 
Neith and Selqet in front. In the 
room to the right is Hathor in the 
form of a cow. 

The beautiful little tomb of Amen- 
mena, of the time of Ainenhetep III, 
was cleared in 1903 ; and several 
mummies were found. 

The tomb of Queen Nefertari, 
wife of Ramses n, was discovered 
in 1904 by Signor Schiaparelli. 

Other tombs are those of Bint- 
Anath, favourite daughter of 
Ramses n; Isis, a consort of 
Ramses IV ; Set-Ra, wife of Seti I. 

A ride of about a quarter of an 
hour will take us to 


This is a most perfect little 
temple of the Ptolemaic period. Its 
modern name conies from the early 
Christian inhabitants. Founded by 
Ptolemy Philopator, it was com¬ 
pleted by Euergetes ir. It measures 
only 60 ft. by 33 ft. The principal 
gods reverenced here were Hathor 
and Maat; some of the columns 
having Hathor - headed capitals ; 
but the Theban triad are also re¬ 
presented, while Amen - Ra and 
Osiris receive gifts from Euergetes 
in some of the side-chambers. The 
scenes in the western chamber are 
most unusual as temple decorations. 
Here we see the judgment before 
Osiris, who is seated. This subject 
is frequently seen in the papyri of 
the Book of the. Dead. Before 
Osiris is a lotus, on which stand 
the four genii of the dead, also 
the gods of the cardinal points. 
Then comes the “Devourer of the 
wicked,” a creature partly hippo¬ 

potamus, partly lion, with the head 
of a crocodile, waiting for those 
whose hearts are weighed and found 
wanting. The weighing of the heart 
against the feather, or a little figure 
of Maat, representing truth abso¬ 
lute, comes next. Anubis and Horns 
preside at the balance, and Thoth 
with his reed and palette makes the 
record. The deceased is conducted 
to the scene of judgment by two 
figures of Maat. 

In this valley of Der el-Medina 
there are many tombs. To the 
south-east of this group is another 
large necropolis. 


These date chiefly from the 18th 
dynasty, and they resemble those 
of Shekh Abd el-Kfirna. The chief 
tomb, the only one usually visited, 

The Tomb of Hui, who was 

Governor of Ethiopia under Tut- 
ankh-Amen. Like so many of the 
Theban tombs, it is much injured 
from having been made use of as a 
dwelling, or stable. The paintings 
with which itis covered have suffered 
accordingly. To the left on enter¬ 
ing is seen Hui, the deceased, 
accompanied by relatives. In front 
of him, two Nile boats. Farther 
on, people bringing tribute to the 
Governor of Ethiopia. On the wall 
opposite we see Hui, with hisinsignia 
of dignity, bringing to the kings the 
tribute-bearers. The tribute objects 
are most interesting. Behind Hui 
can be seen a Nubian landscape 
with dom palms, negroes, giraffes, 
and a hut. There is furniture in 
the form of chairs and stools of 
ebony; there are skins, gold-plated 
shields, gold in rings and in dust, 
and red and blue gems in vessels. 
The oxen of the tribute have human 
hands fixed on their horns. The 
pictures of boats are very good. 

To the right on entering the 
tombs we see Hui being cere¬ 
moniously invested as Governor of 
Ethiopia before the king, Opposite, 



Sections 10.11 

Hui bringing the Syrian tribute to 
the king. A brother of Hui brings 
lapis-lazuli (?) on a dish. Others 
bring gold and silver vases, two 
horses, and a lion. 

In another tomb is a representa¬ 
tion of a desert hunt, but it is now, 
unfortunately, much destroyed. 




Esna .138 



Gebel Silsila . . .143 

Kom Ombo . , . .143 

The hills on the west recede from 
the river after passing Luxor, leav¬ 
ing a broad belt of cultivation. At 
eight miles we reach, 

462 miles (from Cairo), Erment 
(R. (east bank) & S. stat.; P. & T. 
off.), the ancient Hermonthis. Un¬ 
fortunately the few remaining blocks 
of a “Birth House” built by Cleo¬ 
patra have been used in the con¬ 
struction of the sugar factory and 
a flight of steps from the bazaar to 
the river bank. The village, with 
its clean bazaar, is pretty. 

A few miles south, on the east 
bank, is 

TM, which probably marks the 
site of Tuphium. The modern 
village partially conceals the 
Ptolemaic temple which stands 
about | hr. ride from the river. 
Traces of 12th dyuasty work have 
also been found, and in the desert 
behind are many tombs dating from 
the 12th and 13th dynasties. 

Passing at a bend Rizkat, the 
Greek Crocodilopolis, the scene is 
picturesque, as the hills approach 
the river again on the west bank 
in two peaks called GebelSn, the 
‘ ‘ Two Mountains. ” One is crowned 
with a shekh’s tomb, from which it 
takes the name of Sh&kh Musa. 
Hieroglyphic inscriptions mention 
the hills as Anti . On the top of 

Shekh Musa are remains of a temple 
founded in the 7th dynasty, and 
there are many rock-tombs in the 
neighbourhood. In those of the 
11th and 12th dynasty were dis¬ 
covered sarcophagi, and in those of 
the Greek period second and third 
century papyri. 

East bank, Maalla, with tombs of 
the New Empire. 

Nearly opposite is 

Matana (R. stat.), with a large 
sugar factory and pumping station. 

490 miles t Esna (P. & T. offices). 
In old Egyptian this place was 
called Seni, and by the Greeks and 
Romans, Latopolis , on account of 
the latns fish, which seems to have 
been the kind of totem of the place. 
There is a road to the Stldan, vid 
the oasis of KCirkur, from Esna. 
The temperature is very even, so 
that native doctors often send their 
patients here. A new barrage, to 
cost £1,000,000, is in course of 

The Temple of Esna, about 
three-quarters of a mile from the 
river, is surrounded and partly 
covered by the houses. The Hy- 
postyle Hall alone has been ex¬ 
cavated. Founded originally by 
Thothmes ill, it was rebuilt by 
Ptolemy Philometor and Roman 
emperors. From the entrance we 
have a good view of the elaborate 
capitals of different designs. The 
hall is 120 ft. x 50 ft., and the 
columns are 37 ft. high and 17f ft. 
in circumference. The roof is 
formed of enormous slabs 22 to 
26 ft. long. On the cornice over 
the entrance is a dedication inscrip¬ 
tion by Tiberius and Vespasian. 
The names of thirteen other 
emperors are found on different 
parts of the walls and columns, 
including those of Hadrian, Marcus 
Aurelius, and Caracalla. 

The god reverenced here was the 
ram-headed Khnem , and associated 
with him is Isis-Neitk. The sub¬ 
jects of the reliefs are similar to 
those found in other temples. The 
ceiling has astronomical representa¬ 

Scale ;1» 1^47,360 
Englisli Miles 



MedUe eL Ghcu'b, 



S tan/brctts GeogTEs ta&Lcmdct 


bbHjoleib 0 



& _ 

JjtradoTi Macmillan & Co.Xtd. 

Section 11 



Some little distance inland in tlie 
desert a subterranean Christian 
church has been discovered, with 
Byzantine paintings. 

Other remains of Christian times 
are two Coptic Ders in the desert 
—that of Manoas wa Shenddt , 
3 miles S. ; and that of Anba 
Mattaos, miles N.-W., on the 
road to the Oasis of Kharga. The 
former is perhaps the oldest con¬ 
vent in Egypt. It has some very 
old frescoes, old inscriptions, aud 
had a library. 

The hills now keep near the river 
on the east. Opposite Esna is 

El-Hella, the ancient Contra- 
Latopolis. Its temple has been 
destroyed. To this place is brought 
the talcose stone (the lapis ollaris 
of the Romans), which the Arabs 
pound up and mix with brick dust 
to make their rough cooking- 
vessels called birdm, this mixture 
being able to stand a high degree of 

Passing at El-KenUn, the site of 
the ancient Cknubis, we see on the 
west bank the ruined 

Pyramid of el-Kftla.—It is now 
only 35 ft. high. Dr. Naville was 
unable to discover its sepulchral 

510 miles , El-Kab, east bank, 
called in the hieroglyphs Nekheb, 
and by the Greeks Eileithyias. The 
tombs here are most interesting, as 
are the remains of the town, and a 
small temple in the desert. The 

Wall which encircled the town 
and formed a fortification is still 
well preserved on the east side. It 
is built of crude bricks of enormous 
size. It is 37 ft. thick, and encloses 
an area measuring 700 yds. square. 
In an enclosure within this area 
were the temples. Among the 
ruins were found the names of 
Usertsen I, Amenhetep i, Thoth- 
raes in, Hatshepsu, Amenhetep 
hi, Seti i, Ramses n, Darius, and 
Nektanebus. Our exhaustive know¬ 
ledge of this site is due to several 
seasons’ work by Professor Sayce 
ftpd Mr. Somers Clarke, 

The Tombs lie in the hill about 
twenty minutes’ walk from the river. 
They date from the 13th dynasty. 
There are thirty-one, but only six 
are usually visited. 

The Tomb of Paheri is dis¬ 
tinguished by its wide opening. 
Paheri was governor of the nome, 
and the office seems to have been 
hereditary in his family, others of 
whom are buried here. He was 
also tutor to a royal prince. Al¬ 
though the drawing of the figures 
is below the Egyptian standard, 
the scenes are very interesting, 
particularly the agricultural ones. 
On the west wall we see the 
ploughing and sowing, then, below, 
the reaping of wheat and dura, and 
in the third row the treading out 
the corn, the winnowing, measuring, 
and storing of the grain. The 
inscriptions give little songs sung 
by the labourers. One has been 
paraphrased thus— 

“ Hie along oxen, 

Tread the corn faster! 

The straw for yourselves, 

The grain for your master.” 

Another reads: “A fine day, one 
is cool; The oxen are drawing, The 
heaven is doing according to our 
hearts ; Let us work for the noble.” 
There are also fishing and fowling 
scenes, and funeral rites. 

On the right (east) wall are 
Paheri and his wife at a banquet, 
with their relatives opposite. 
Women harpists and flute-players 
are seen in the lower row. The 
men and women guests sit 

To the left of this tomb is 

Tlie Tomb of Aahmes, which is 
most important on account of the 
long inscription, from which we 
learn that the owner was a captain 
of the fleet during the war waged 
against the Hyksos by Aahmes /, 
the founder of the 18th dynasty. 
This is a rather obscure part of 
Egyptian history, so that any 
inscriptions that throw light on it 
are valuable. This man also served 
Vipder successive kings. The ijp 



Section 11 

scription is in the main room with 
the vaulted ceiling. Aahmes is 
seen accompanied hy his grandson 
. Paheri (of the tomb just mentioned), 
who, it would seem, was the artist 
of the tomb. The inscription 
commences in front of Aahmes and 
is continued on the entrance wall. 

The Tomb of Kenni is much 
ruined. The pictures resemble 
those in the tomb of Paheri. An 
inscription tells us that Renni 
owned 1500 swine. 

The Tomb of Baba contains a 
reference to a famine which lasted 
many years. It is behind the hill 
with the tomb of Paheri. 

The Tomb of Setau, a priest of 
Nekhebt, is the latest, being of the 
time of Ramses III. 

In the desert below the hill is a 

Small Sandstone Temple dedi¬ 
cated to Thoth, Nekhebt, and 
Horus. It was built by Ramses 
ii, and is connected by forty-one 
steps cut in the rock with a Rook- 
cut Speos in the hill. This was 
constructed by Ptolemy IX, and 
further decorated by Ptolemy x. 
It was dedicated to Nekhebt, the 
goddess of Nekheb, represented 
frequently as a vulture with out¬ 
spread wings. 

Beyond these temples we pass 
many rock-inscriptions, some of 
the 6th dynasty, which mention a 
temple to the goddess Nekhebt as 
standing at the “corner of the 
mountain.” Some distance farther, 
on a low plateau, is 

The Temple of Amenhetep 

III, with good drawing and well- 
preserved colouring. It was dedi¬ 
cated to Nekhebt. The ruined 
vestibule was added in Ptolemaic 
times, the temple consisting 
originally of a single court about 
50 ft. loug. The four polygonal 
columns have Hathor capitals. 
Khu-en-aten, the reforming king, 
caused much defacement of the 
reliefs. The inscriptions and paint¬ 
ings on the exterior walls are of the 
time of Ramses II. There is also 
a hieroglyphic inscription, which 

reads thus: “In the 13th year of 
his majesty, lord of the world, 
Napoleon III.” 

Turning to the left ou entering, 
we see Amen-hetep III sacrificing 
to the sacred boat, and presenting 
incense to Nekhebt; he is embraced 
by Amen. The scenes are repeated 
on the right wall, with Horus in the 
place of Amen. The frieze consists 
of the cartouches of Amenhetep 
alternating with Hathor heads, a 
device which has been copied in 
the Ptolemaic Speos. 

Opposite El Kab are the remains 

Nekhen, near the modern Korn 
el-Ahmar. In Greek times this 
place was called Hierakonpolis. 
The very early remains here date 
back to the 4th dynasty. Beautiful 
alabaster and diorite vases and 
bowls were found in the tombs, one 
bearing the name of Seneferu. One 
alabaster jar, 33 in. high, had the 
name of a king, Besh, on it, hitherto 
unknown. The most wonderful 
find was a magnificent hawk’s head 
in a beautiful red gold, weighing 
80 sovereigns. The eyes were of 
obsidian. It is now at Cairo. Mace- 
heads, flint knives, ivories, figures 
in haematite serpentine and crystal, 
were also found at the same time by 
Mr. Quibell. The tombs in the 
hill behind are chiefly of the 18th 

The god of Nekhen was Horus, 
whose symbol was the sparrow- 

The sandstone region of the Nile 
is now entered. 

522 miles, EdfA (R. (opposite) 
& S. stat. ; P. & T. off. J hr. fr. 
river), famous for its very large and 
perfect Ptolemaic temple. Edffi is 
the hieroglyphic Debu, and Greek 
Apottinopolis Magna. 

The Temple somewhat resembles 
that of Dendera, but its pylons are 
much finer. It was dedicated to 
Horus, with whom are associated 
Hathor and the youthful Horus. 
It was here that Horus was said to 
have overcome Set, who had killed 


First Court ~ 


Temple of Horus, Edfu, 



Section 11 

his father Osiris. The Greeks 
identified Horus with their Apollo, 
whence the name Apollinopolis. 

The outside length of the temple 
is 450 ft., its breadth 120 ft. 

The Pylon is 250 ft. broad and 
115 ft. high. The decorations here 
are in imitation of those at Medinet 
Hfibft, and other temples, the king 
represented being Neos Dionysos. 
In each of the pylon towers a good 
staircase leads up 242 steps, past 
storerooms, to the top, whence there 
is an extended view. 

The First Court, with its 32 
columns, is paved with large stones. 
The capitals of the columns are of 
most elaborate patterns, some of 
them very beautiful. The pictures 
on the columns represent the king 
offering to Horus and other local 
gods. The walls of the colonnade 
are decorated with three rows of 
reliefs. The subjects are repeated 
over and over again. We see the 
Pharaoh, sometimes one Ptolemy, 
sometimes another, before different 
gods. To the right of the entrance 
(PI. B) we see the king wearing 
the crown of Upper Egypt, in front 
of him a priest offers incense, and 
Horus and Thoth pour holy water 
over him. To the left (PI. A) is 
the king again, wearing the crown 
of Lower Egypt, and treated in a 
similar manner. 

TheHypostyle Hall is separated 
from this court by an intereolumnar 
screen. Its 18 columns have 
elaborate floral capitals, but the 
ceiling is so much blackened that 
the astronomical representations 
cannot be seen. The king who 
figures on the walls is Euergetes. 
He is in one scene accompanied by 
his wife Cleopatra ; here we also see 
a long procession of local deities 
presenting offerings to the triad of 
Edfft. The little chamber to the 
west of the entrance (PI. C) was the 
lace where the king was purified 
y holy water before proceeding to 
the sanctuary. The scene is similar 
to that at the entrance of the first 
court. Another little chamber to the 
east (PI. D) was the Library, On its 

walls is a catalogue of the hooks it 
contained, also a picture of Safekht, 
the goddess of writing and litera¬ 
ture. Through the east wall. is a 
doorway into an ambulatory, which 
goes from the N.-E. corner of the 
first court round the entire temple 
to the N.-W. corner of the same 

The Small Hypostyle Hall 
has 12 columns with Hathor-headed 
capitals. From-the N.-E. corner a 
staircase leads up to the roof. 

Passing through two vestibules, 
we reach the Sanctuary (PI. F) where 
is the granite shrine in which was 
kept the symbol of the god. On 
the east side of the second vestibule 
is a pretty miniature temple with 
Nit,, the sky goddess, on the ceiling. 

From the chambers off the first 
vestibule we reach staircases lead¬ 
ing to the roof. The walls are 
decorated in a similar manner to 
those at Dendera. 

On the wall of the ambulatory 
are scenes of a hippopotamus hunt. 

Redestya, a small village, 5 
miles above Edffi, is the starting- 
place for the desert route to 
Berenike on the Red Sea. 

The route passes (about 37 miles) a 
temple of Seti I, dedicated to Amen, 
with good sculptures. Near the Red 
Sea is the Gebel Sebara with its famous 
emerald mines. They were worked in 
ancient times, and a well-known Lon¬ 
don jeweller in 1899 obtained a con¬ 
cession to work them again. 

The strip of cultivated land 
becomes narrower, and the hills 
approach the river. 

At Bfieb are remains of a forti¬ 
fied Arab town (east bank). There 
are ancient quarries here, with the 
name of Thothmes in. The.fortress, 
seen about 4 mile inland, is now 
called El-Kala. 

Silwa (R. stat.); opposite this 
place is a ravine called Shat er- 
Rig&la. where there is, on the left 
not far from the river, a stele show¬ 
ing Mentu-hetep m, Antef v 
and Se,-ankh-ka-Ra, kings of the 
11th dynasty. Farther on in the 
gorge are many rock-inscriptions. 



The name of Hatshepsu and other 
18th dynasty rulers occur. Farther 
north are many other inscrip¬ 
tions, Hieroglyphic, Phoenician, 
Aramaic, and Greek, also some 

The hill before Silwa is called 
Gebel AbH Ghabak. 

547 miles, Hagar Silsila or Gebel 
Silsila. The hills come close to 
the river, which narrows down 
considerably, being at its narrowest 
only 1095 ft. broad. The name 
means “Mountain of the Chain,” 
which comes from an Arab tra¬ 
dition that a king once put a chain 
across the river to stop navigation. 
On either side are quarries in the 
sandstone. These can be seen on 
the east, and on the west many 
rock-cut tombs are also seen over¬ 
hanging the river. 

In ancient Egyptian this place was 
called Khennu. At this place, the site 
of which is probably at El-Hammam, 
on the west bank, kings of the 12th 
dynasty lived; and in the 19th dynasty 
time there was a college. The quarries 
£ive almost as good an idea of the 
immense architectural activity of the 
Egyptians as the remains of the vast 
temples at Thebes and elsewhere. The 
inscriptions show during what period 
the quarries were worked, and by 
whom. One of the time of Ramses 
in speaks of 3000 workmen employed 
under one official. There were prob¬ 
ably convicts among them. 

East Bank. —The quarries here 
were worked principally under the 
New Empire. It is fatiguing and 
somewhat difficult to find the dif¬ 
ferent objects of interest. Near 
the north end is a colossal sphinx 
which was never transported, and 
there are other sphinxes never 
entirely quarried out. Here is 
also a small naos of Amenhetep 
III, which was never finished. A 
quarter of a mile farther south, on 
a higher level, are three rock-cut 
chapels by the same king. One 
entrance to the quarries is by a 
long passage and stairway cut in 
the rock. 

West Bank.— The quarries here 
are not nearly so large, but there 

are some interesting tomb-chambers. 
The northern, most worthy of in¬ 
spection, is a Speos of Horemiheb, 
the last king of the 18th dynasty. 
The reliefs are particularly fine, 
but unfortunately some of the 
chapel is very black with the smoke 
of fires. The name of Horemheb 
is over the centre door. Entering, 
the relief on the south should 
be noticed. A goddess suckles the 
infant king, Amen-Ra and Khnem 
standing on either side of the 
group. Following along the rear 
wall, the scenes represented : Hor¬ 
emheb, seated on a beautifully 
decorated throne, is carried by 12 
soldiers ; he is returning triumphant 
from having defeated tlie Kushitesor 
Ethiopians, many of whom we see 
marching in the procession ; figure 
in high relief of an official of 
Ramses II ; Merenptah offers an 
image of Maat to Amen-Ra and 
Mftt; beyond another figure is a 
tablet of Kha-em-uas commemorat¬ 
ing the 4th jubilee of his father 
Ramses n. Here is the entrance to 
another chamber with decorations 
much damaged. Continuing along 
the rear wall: A man praying; 
above, Ramses offering to gods; 
relief of a high official—notice the 
picture of column beneath ; 
memorial tablet of Ramses n; at 
the end, three men praying. 

Continuing for some little dis¬ 
tance south along the bank, we come 
to other chapels and inscriptions. 
In one are the names of Hatshepsn 
and Thothmes hi. The gods repre¬ 
sented are many, but the chief 
deity of Silsilis was the crocodile¬ 
headed god Sebek of Ombos. 
Particular honour was also paid 
here to the Nile god Hapi. 

The mountains now recede from 
the river, but there is little cultiva¬ 
tion until we reach a broad plain 

564 miles, Kom Ombo (S. stat. 
Railway at Darau to the south). 
The Temple on the high river bank 
has suffered from depredations by 
the Nile. It is Ptolemaic, but is 
on the site of an 18th dynasty 



Section 11 

temple. Its ancient Egyptian Hathor, we enter the ruined court, 
name was Pa-Sehek, because the and see two winged-disks over two 
god Sebek was worshipped here, entrances. The two sets of door- 
Like the temple at Edfd, it has a ways through all the halls lead into 
forecourt and an ambulatory; but two sanctuaries. The view from 
it is peculiar in being double in its the end looking out to the Nile is 
arrangements all through. One- very charming. 

Walker &• Cockerell sc. 

Temple of Kom Ombo. 

half was dedicated to Horns The hills close in on the river 
(Haroeris), representing Light, the again, but are much lower. Many 
other to Sebek, representing Dark- water-wheels (s&kiyas) are seen, 
ness. but the strip of cultivation is 

The temple area is gained by a narrow. The sand assumes a much 
staircase, part of the work of M. more yellow tone, and asweapproach 
de Morgan, who cleared out the the Cataract district the colouring 
temple. Passing a little Temple of of the country seems much more 

Sections 11,12 ASWhV 145 

vivid. Granite begins to appear at 
El-Atara, and great isolated rocks of 
it are seen standing out of the river 
as we approach Aswan. On the 
west is Mount Grenfell, with its 
row of tombs ; straight in front is 
the green island of Elephantine, with 
beautiful palm-groves, and on the 
east bank is Aswan, 590 miles from 


ASWiN and the first 


. 146 

The Granite Qoakries 

PHILA5 .... 

. 147 

The Dam 

. 150 


Hotels.— See “Hotel List.” 

English Church, open during the 

Doctors. —Dr. L. Canney, Dr. 
Edwards. Consulting only, Sir 
Stephen Mackenzie. 

Post and Telegraph Offices on 
the river bank. Daily post to and 
from Cairo. 

Carriages.— Course in the town, 
P.T. 5. Per hour, in town only, 
P.T. 10. 

Boats. — There are always a 
number of small boats with sails 
waiting at the embankment at 
Asw&n to take the traveller across 
the river, among the islands, or to 
the Cataracts. From P.T. 15-25 
for the afternoon. 

Railway. — From Luxor (see 
p. 97). Also railway to Shellal 
(see Phil®). 

Objects of Interest, and Excur¬ 
sions.— Bazaars. Granite Quarries. 
Bisharin Camp and Ptolemaic 
Temple. Elephantine and the 
Nilometer. Tombs at Mt. Gren¬ 
fell. Islands; and Convent of St. 
Simeon. Phil® and the Cataracts. 
The Dam and Reservoir. 


The name Asw&n comes, through 
the Coptic Saan, from the Greek 


Syene and the ancient Egyptian 
Sun. (See Ezek. xxix. 10.) It is 
the frontier town of Egypt, and as 
such was of great importance in 
Roman times. But under the 
Pharaohs it was secondary in im¬ 
portance to the town on Elephan¬ 
tine. In Christian times it was the 
seat of a bishopric, there being 
some convent remains still in its 
neighbourhood. In the 12th cen¬ 
tury it was frequently raided by 
Arab tribes, who plundered it and 
reduced it to ruins. Juvenal the 
Satirist was made prefect of Syene, 
a practical banishment. 

It has now a varied population of 
about 9000, consisting of Egyptians, 
Nubians, Negroes, Bisharin, Copts, 
Turks, and Greeks. Before the 
cutting-off of the Sfidan it was a 
great market and meeting-place of 
the south with Egypt. Now that 
the Khalifa is dead, and the Sftdan 
no longer under his tyranny, the 
trade in ostrich feathers, ivory, 
india-rubber, skins, horns, etc., 
may revive. During the advance 
of British and Egyptian troops into 
the Sffdln it became a great centre 
of activity ; for much war material 
was unloaded here and sent past 
the Cataract to Shellal by the 
military railway. 

The bazaars are interesting. 

There are no remains later than 
those of Roman times. The pictur¬ 
esque ruined quay is Roman 

The river bank has been immensely 
improved within the last few years 
by an embankment. But the in¬ 
crease of the number of annual 
visitors necessitates the erection of 
large hotels, which detract from the 
natural wildness of the scene. The 
broad effects of strong colour iu the 
scenery of this part of the river are 
nowhere surpassed. The black 
rocks, the bright green of the 
islands with their palm-trees, the 
brilliant blue of the sky, and be¬ 
yond the bright yellow of the sand 
at Mt. Grenfell, crowned by its 
ruined white shekh’s tomb, make 
a most beautiful landscape. 



Section 12 

The Granite Quarries, whence 
so many of the Pharaohs took the 
materials for their obelisks, statues, 
and temples, are exceedingly inter¬ 
esting. It is not a long ride from 
the town. The road lies through 
the Arab cemeteries. In one quarry 
is an obelisk which was never quite 
detached from its bed. Wedge 
marks are seen everywhere, show¬ 
ing the method of working the 
granite in Roman times. It is 
thought that a row of holes was 
made along the desired line of 
fracture, that they were filled 
with wooden wedges which were 
saturated with water, and that 
the consequent swelling broke off 
the block. The granite is chiefly 
red, but there are several other 
kinds found in the neighbourhood. 

The valley on to which the quarry 
opens contains most interesting in¬ 
scriptions, dating from the 11th 
dynasty to Roman times. 

The Bisharin Camp. Carriage 
there and back, P.T. 25. This 
tribe of Bedawin might well be Mr. 
Kipling’s “ Fuzzy-wuzzy.” They 
may be seen wandering about 
Asw&n. But a visit to their camp 
is interesting, especially if a little 
bakshish is given to them to dance. 
But they are anything but unso¬ 
phisticated people, having made 
their camp here probably because 
of its being a tourist centre. It is 
about a quarter of an hour’s ride 
from Aswan. On the way back the 

Ptolemaic Temple may be 
visited. Only the facade of its 
exterior is visible; but if the key 
is obtained from its ghafir it may 
be entered. The temple was built 
by Euergetes I, who dedicated it 
to Isis of Syene. It is of no special 

Elephantine and the Nilo- 
meter. A boat should be taken 
and a trip made round the island, 
even if no landing is effected 
(fare, P.T. 5 each person). Its 
name is a Greek translation of 
the old Egyptian name Abu, which 

was written with the elephant as 
the syllabic sign for “Ab.” It is 
inhabited by Nubians, who speak 
Ken'dSf a Nubian dialect. - Of its 
two temples, nothing remains. 
Mounds at the south end mark the 
site of the ancient town, where 
“ anteekas ” are found from time to 
time. Near these mounds are 
rocks inscribed with names of the 
4th, 5th, 6th, 11th, and 13th dyn¬ 

Proceeding round the south end 
of the island, we pass in the other 
channel the “Sirdar’s Island,” with 
a garden. As we round the south 
end of the island the great granite 
rocks, worn black and shiny by the 
action of the water, are well seen, 
with numerous inscriptions. The 
rock is in reality red, the black¬ 
ness being due to a deposit of 
black oxide of manganese. At the 
S.-E. end of the inland is the 
Nilometer. This is a passage and 
staircase leading into the water, on 
the walls of which are marked the 
Nile levels. 

Tombs at Mt. Grenfell. The 

steep hill on the west bank of the 
river takes its name from Lord 
Grenfell, who opened the tombs 
here in 1885-86. Up the steep 
slope is a stairway, almost buried 
in sand, with an inclined plane 
up which the sarcophagi were 
drawn. The boat lands the tra¬ 
veller north of this at a less steep 
place, whence a zig-zag path leads 
up to the tombs. These date from 
the 6th and 12th dynasties, and are 
most interesting, though many are 
much injured. 

No. 26. The Tomb of Sabna, 
of the 6th dynasty. This tomb and 
that of Sabna’s father, Mekhu, which 
adjoins it, were used in Roman times 
as common burial-places. The re¬ 
liefs are difficult to see, and show 
nothing of special interest. The 
form of the columns is called “proto- 
Doric.” The peculiar stone table 
was probably a table of offerings. 

No. 28. The Tomb of Haq-ab, 
who is portrayed on its walls with a 

London :Maomfllaii Se, Co.L. 

Stanfords Goog!Estatf,London 

EJsrviRONS or 


{ , , . O _|_2 

Railways shewn thus ■ 

Section 13 



dark complexion. This is accounted 
for by the fact that, though his 
mother was an Egyptian lady, his 
father was a negro called Penatmai. 
Here we see another instance of the 
greater importance attached to the 
maternal descent, for Haq-ab held 
some high offices. 

No.31. The Tomb of Se-Renput. 
TkisSe-Kenputwasson of Satihetep, 
who lived likewise during the 12th 
dynasty. We enter a passage which 
leads to a hall with six columns, 
then to a corridor, and as we pass 
along we are somewhat startled by 
the figures cut out of the rock in 
niches. They represent Se-Renput 
in the form of the Osirian mummy. 
They are painted. The corridor 
leads to a chamber with four pillars. 
The decorations in the recess are 
most beautiful, done in low relief, 
and coloured. The hieroglyphs are 
done in great detail. To the right 
is Se-Renput’s mother, on the left 
wall is his wife, and on the back 
wall we see himself and his son. 

No. 32, and following, are tombs 
of Aqu, Khunes, etc., some of which 
have been used as dwellings by 
Coptic monks, who have left traces 
of frescoes. Some of the reliefs are 

Farther north we come to 

The Tomb of Hek-Khuf, with 
important historical inscriptions on 
the outside wall of the tomb. 
It belongs to the 6th dynasty, 
for Her-khuf relates how he was 
sent three times to the negro country 
about Korosko, and returned laden 
with treasure for King Mer-en-Ra. 
The sculpture on this wall shows 
Her-khuf leaning on a staff in a 
rather unusual attitude. Another 
inscription tells how he brought a- 
“ Danga dwarf ” to Pepi II. This 
was probably a man of one of the 
dwarf tribes discovered by travellers 
in Central Africa, the name Dongo 
being still extant. 

The Tomb of Pepi Nekht, which 
comes next, has also important in¬ 

No. 36. The Tomb of Se-Renput, 
son of the lady Thena. He was a 

prince serving in the army of Usert- 
sen I (12th dynasty) during the wars 
against the Kushites, i.e. Sudanese. 
On the columns of the court are 
pictures of the deceased, and we see 
a large picture of him again on the 
hack wall (to the left), followed by 
asandal-bearerandtwodogs. Again, 
to the right we see him with three 

There are some interesting but 
much destroyed paintings on the 
walls of the ruined Coptic mon¬ 
astery above. 

OP ST. SIMEON. Sailing among the 
islands is very charming, and an 
afternoon may be spent in doing 
this and in visiting the ruined con¬ 
vent of St. Simeon on the west bank. 
There is a perfect labyrinth of 
chambers, and some interesting 
frescoes adorn a large corridor in 
the first storey. They represent the 
Christ, with Michael the archangel 
and six apostles. Other paintings 
are in the vaulted church aud the 
rock-cut chapel. The ceiliug of the 
latter is most interesting. 


The Train (Fare, P.T. 6, 1st 
class ; P.T. 3, 2nd class) leaves 
Aswan at 8.40 a.m., arriving at 
Shellal at 9.5. The railway goes 
through the desert past the quarries. 

SheUAl is the starting-place of 
the steamers for the Second Cataract 
and Wady Haifa. Boats wait here 
to take people over to Philae. 

The Ride (donkeys there and 
back, P.T. 10, not including bak¬ 
shish ; there only, P.T. 5) to Shellal 
is made through the desert, by the 
route that Strabo took. 

■Hie Drive.—It is now possible 
to drive to Shellfil. The road is 
very heavy, being chiefly through 
sand. The carriage there and back, 
P.T. 97J, •£!• 

The scene from the Nile bank at 



Section 12 

Shellal is a unique and curious one. 
It is still beautiful, but less rugged 
and grand than before the building 
of the dam, and consequent rise of 
the water. Small islands have dis¬ 
appeared, large islands have become 
smaller, villages have been sub¬ 
merged, and the palm groves stand¬ 
ing in the water will gradually 
succumb aud disappear. The large 
island beyond Phil® is Bigeh. It 
has a small Ptolemaic temple of 
Hathor, before a statue of Amen- 
lietep ii. 

The small island to the north of 
Phil®, Konosso, with its many in¬ 
teresting inscriptions, including the 
cartouches of Psammetikhus n, is 
almost submerged. 

Philse. On this small island, 
which measured only about 400 ft. 
by 140 ft., were crowded many in¬ 
teresting monuments. 

In ancient Egyptian it was called 
Paaleky “The Frontier Town.” 

The Arabs calledit Geziret Anas el- 
Wogftd, after a hero of the Thousand 
and One Nights, in a tale of which 
the Egyptian version has part of the 
scene laid here. 

In old Egyptian times Pliilae does 
not seem to have been of much 
account. The oldest buildiug on 
the island dates from Nektanebo 
(b.c. 350). Thechief deity reverenced 
on the island was Isis, but Osiris, 
Nephthys, Hathor, and the Cataract 
goddess Sati also appear on the 

In 1896 much of the debris cover¬ 
ing up the Coptic town was cleared 
away by Captain H. G. Lyons, R.E., 
who surveyed here on behalf of the 
Egyptian Government, and made a 
complete record of all that is on the 
island, in view of the probability of 
the destruction of the monuments 
that will follow the forming of the 
great new lake. 

The temples are visited by boat, 
landing only being effected in the 
great temple of Isis. 

The small isolated temple is 
called “Pharaoh’s Bed,” or the 
Kiosk. It is unfinished, the abaci 

above the capitals of the columns 
never having been carved, as was 
probably intended, with Hathor 
heads. The few reliefs in the in¬ 
terior represent Trajan offering to 
Isis, Osiris, and Horus. 

A little farther west, now almost 
entirely submerged, is a charming 

Temple of Hathor, built by 
Philometer and Euergetes n. The 
sculptures on the walls, showing 
harpers, people playing on the 
flute, and servants with antelopes, 
are very good. The grotesque 
figures on the columns represent 
Bes (see Dendera). 

We now come to the 

Great Temple of Isis. 

It was built by Nektanebo and 
some of the Ptolemies. We enter a 
court in front of the great pylon by 
a gateway bearing the names of 
Philadelphus and Tiberius. From 
this court we see to the left two long 
colonnades. At the south end of 
the east colonnade is a ruined Temple 
of Ar-hems-nefer, an Ethiopian god. 
The beautiful West Colonnade is 
100 yds. long. Its 32 columns are 
16 ft. high, and each capital is of a 
different design. It ends at the 
south in a small Chapel of Nek¬ 
tanebo, the oldest building on the 

Returning, we visit the 

Great Pylon, 150 ft. broad and 
60 ft. high. The decorations are 
similar to those on Theban temples, 
—the Pharaoh who is represented 
triumphing over his enemies being 
Ptolemy Neos Dionysus. The pylon 
should be ascended, the view from 
the top being very fine. 

Passing through the pylon into the 
Fore-court, we see the pylon of the 
temple proper (2nd pylon on plan). 

To the left is a colonnade behind 
which are several chambers. This 
was a small temple dedicated to 
Isis Usret, and corresponding to the 
“Birth houses” m the temples of 
Luxor, Dendera, etc. The eastern 
colonnade has several chambers off 

. Osiris ChambeP' 

». Temple of Aesculapiu 
. Chapel of Mandulis 
. Hadrian’s Gateway 

Walker iSr Cockerell , 



Section 12 

it, from one of which, a staircase 
leads to the roof. 

If we leave this fore-court by a 
passage on the west, and proceed to 
the ruin, we find a Nilometer. 

The Second Pylon is not parallel 
to the first. On the east side of it we 
see the natural granite rock appear¬ 
ing. It is incorporated with the 
building, having a squared face and 
an inscription. On the pylon we 
see the same Ptolemy whose picture 
is on the first pylon. In the top 
right-hand corner of the doorway 
are some early Christian frescoes. 

Passing through an open court, we 
come to a 

Hypostyle Hall, which is the most 
beautiful part of the temple. Much 
of the colour is still left on its 
columns and well-designed capitals. 
The ceiling has astronomical repre¬ 
sentations, and the walls and pillars 
are covered with sculptures. The 
Coptic crosses seen every here and 
there indicate that the hall was 
once used as a Christian church. 

The Sanctuary and the chambers 
surrounding it have nothing of par¬ 
ticular interest to show. In the 
sanctuary is a monolithic granite 
shrine. From one of the small 
chambers to the west a staircase 
ascends to the roof and the 

Osiris Chamber. The scenes 
here relate to the death and resur¬ 
rection of Osiris. They are very 
peculiar and interesting. 

Near the north end of the island 
were remains of a Homan temple 
of Augustus, and a large Town 

Leaving the temples, we take the 
boat about a mile north, to the 
great Asw&n Dam and Reservoir. 
Along the top runs a tram line, 
with trolleys for the use of visitors. 
Fare, P.T. 3 single journey. The 
dam, which is made of granite 
throughout, is 2000 metres long, and 
straight from end to end. Along 
its top there is room to walk on 
either side of the trolley line. Its 
width at top is 7 metres, and at its 
deepest part 25 metres ; the height 

from the deepest part of the founda¬ 
tion to the top is 40 metres. It is 
pierced by 140 lower sluices of 
14 sq. m. area each, and 40 upper 
sluices of 1 sq. m. area each. The 
lining of 30 lower sluices is of cast- 
iron, and the remainder of heavy 
ashlar granite. Their regulation 
is made by steel gates (Stoney’s 

On the west flank of the dam is 
a navigation channel 2000 m. long, 
provided with four looks, each 
70 m. long and 9J m. wide. The 
gates, which are worked hydraulic¬ 
ally by a turbine in the dam, slide 
into recesses in the sides of the lock 
walls. Two gates are 19 m. high, 
one 15 m., one 12, and one 11 m. 
The foundations of the dam are 
everywhere on solid granite, and 
the total weight of the masonry is 
over one million tons. 

The work was carried out under 
Sir William Garstin, from designs 
prepared by Mr.—now Sir William 
—Willcocks, Messrs. John Aird & 
Co. being the contractors, and Sir 
Benjamin Baker the consulting en¬ 
gineer. The following are some of 
the materials used in the work, 
which cost £2,450,000: over 74,000 
tODs of Portland cement; 28,000 
tons of coal; 114 tons of nitro¬ 
glycerine explosives, principally 
gelignite ; 790,000 sextuple deton¬ 
ators ; 97,000 lbs. of blasting- 

powder ; 230,000 coils, or 5,520,000 
lineal ft., of safety fuse ; 200 tons 
of octagon steel for drills and 
chisels ; 1,750,000 of gunny hags. 

The dam is designed to pass the 
whole of the Nile discharge in flood, 
amounting to over 15,000 tons of 
water per second, or 54 million per 
hour, through the sluices, and at 
the same time has a storage 
capacity of 1065 million cubic 
metres when filled to IiL 106 : the 
maximum head in summer may 
be 20 metres. It is filled by the 
partial closure of the gates between 
December and March, when the 
water carries no silt, and when the 
supply of the river is in excess of 
that required for Egypt’s crops. 

Sections 12, Id ASWAN TO WlDY HALFA 151 

This excess is used to fill the reser¬ 
voir. The normal supply of the 
river is passed on through the 
sluices, after the reservoir is full, 
until late in May, when the stored 
water is utilised to supplement the 
supply coming down the river, 
which is insufficient for the summer 
crops of Egypt. The reservoir is 
arranged to be empty and the 
sluices fully open when the river is 
bringing down a supply sufficient 
for all needs, for when the Nile 
rises in July its supply is generally 
far in excess of requirements. 

Landing on the Western bank, a 
short walk takes us to an eminence 
whence the Cataract may be well 

Before the great dam was built, 
the return to Aswan was usually 
made by boat down the cataract, 
a pleasant and somewhat exciting 
excursion. This is now no longer 
possible. Instead, however, of 
riding back through the desert, 
the route by the river should be 
taken, though the donkey boys 
may protest. It is exceedingly 
picturesque, and enables one to 
get some idea of the rapids. The 
largest island passed is Sehel, on 
which are the ruins of a temple 
and many interesting rock in¬ 





Korosko. 152 

Ab& Simbel . . . .152 

For practical information, 
see p. 97. 

With Aswan, Egypt proper is left 
behind, and Nubia is entered. The 
short steamer journey of a week 
there and back is well worth taking. 
Not only does the Temple of AbCt 
Simbel rank almost next to the 

Pyramids in interest, but the coun¬ 
try and scenery are quite different, 
and the sand of even a richer yellow 
than that at Asw&n. There is, 
however, less animal life. 

There is now practically no culti¬ 
vated land until Kalabsha is reached, 
it, and the villages upon it, having 
vbeen covered by the waters of the 
great lake formed by the dam ; the 
greater part of the inhabitants have 
also disappeared, the water now 
reaching to the hills on either 
bank. The lake extends as far as 
Korosko, but fortunately does not 
affect any of the temples, which 
stand beyond the margin of its 

Leaving Shell&l, there is a fine 
view, looking back, of Philse and 
the other islands. At first the 
scenery is wild, the river running 
between granite cliffs. 

10£ miles (west bank), Dabdd, 
with remains of a temple founded 
by an Ethiopian king, Az-kher- 
Amen, a contemporary of Ptolemy 
IV. Beyond this the tops of the 
palm groves are still seen ; but the 
water is gradually killing the trees, 
and they will soon disappear. In 
the distance is the picturesque 
Ptolemaic temple of, 

15 miles (west bank), Kartassl, on 
a hill. It is very small, not more 
than 30 ft. square. Passing sand¬ 
stone quarries and a few ruins at 
Taifa, we reach, beyond a rocky 

14 miles (west bank), Kalabsha, 
the largest temple in Nubia, built 
in the reign of Augustus, and once 
used as a Christian church. Much 
of the colouring is still bright, but 
the decorations were never com¬ 
pleted. About 20 minutes distant 
northwards is a small temple called 
Bet el-Wail, of a much better 
period, having been built in the 
time of Ramses II. It is cut in the 
rock, and has sculptured reliefs 
showing the victories of Rainses 
over the Ethiopians. Notice on the 
left wall a giraffe, an ostrich, and 
other animals. 

Beyond Kaffibsha there is scarcely 



Section 13 

any vegetation, and the bed of the 
river is so rocky as almost to form 
rapids until the valley widens out 

13 miles (west bank), Dendflr. 
This point is just within the tropics, 
and the constellation of the Southern 
Cross may be seen. The temple at 
Dendur is Roman. 

9 miles (west bank), Gsrf Hus6n, 
with a rook-cut temple of Ramses II. 
Nearly opposite is the ruined medi¬ 
aeval town of Sabagftra. Passing 
ruins of the 18th dynasty, 

10 miles (west bank), Dakka is 
reached. The Ptolemaic temple is 
built on the site of temples of the 
12th and 18th dynasties. Part of 
the temple was once used by Chris¬ 
tians. On the east bank are re¬ 
mains of a large fortress. 

31 miles, Korti. 

23| miles (west bank), Wady es- 
Sebda, or “Valley of Lions,” with 
a temple of Ramses II. On the 
walls of the area is a list of his 
children, amounting to 178. The 
river now turns to the west, 
reaching at, 

12% miles (east bank), Korosko, 
chief town of the district, from 
which starts the desert road to Abd 
Hamed and the Upper Nile. The 
river now takes a north-westerly 
course to, , , . , 

71 mVes (west bank), Amada, 
with a small temple dating back 
to Usert-sen in, but rebuilt by 
Thothmes III. 

31 miles (east bank), Dirr. The 
small rock-temple was built by 
Ramses II. After passing Kasr 
Ibrlm, with some interesting rock- 
tombs, and Toshki, where the Der¬ 
vishes were defeated in 1889, 

47 miles (west bank), Abfl Simbel 
comes in sight. The temples, both 
works of Ramses n, are cut in the 
precipitous cliff overhanging the 
river. The Great Temple consists 
of a large hall with eight columns, 
a smaller hall, and twelve other 
chambers, all cut out of the solid 
rock. On either side of the en¬ 
trance are two seated figures of 
Ramses II, 65 ft. high. The smaller 

figures on either side of the en¬ 
trance are Nefert-ari, his wife; the 
others being his mother, son, and 
daughters. It is 180 ft. from the 
entrance to the back of the furthest 
chamber. The reliefs on the walls 
are not only beautifully executed 
and vividly coloured, but are of 
great historical value. 

The Temple of Hathor has six 
colossal statues on its fa?ade, each 
33 ft. high; four of Ramses, and 
two of his wife. It has a hall with 
eight Hathor-headed pillars, and 
other chambers. The view from 

the top of the cliff above the statues 
is very fine. 

Opposite AM Simbel, a little 
further south, is a small rock-cut 
temple, and still further south on 
thewest bank atFaras are Egyptian, 
Roman, and Saracenic remains. 
The ruined town opposite Faras is 
Coptic. Before reaching, 

802 miles from Cairo and 40 miles 
from Abfl Simbel, Wady Haifa 
(east bank) itself, the steamer ends 
its voyage at Ankish, the military 
station. Here in old times were 
the “Lines”; but since the recoil- 

Section 13 



quest of the Sfid&n and the removal 
of the frontier farther south, only 
a few Egyptian troops are now 
stationed here. 

Hotel. —See “ Hotel List.” 

Doctors. —A doctor (Copt) at 
Tewfikieh. A Syrian doctor at the 

Boats and a steam launch can be 
hired at the hotel. 

There is nothing of interest in 
Wady Haifa itself, but the cataract, 
which is some miles south, should 
certainly be visited. 


The journey is made part of 
the way by boat, and the latter 
part on donkeys or camels. The 
boat lands the traveller on the 
west hank just under the remains 

of an interesting Temple of 
Thothmes III. Some of the 
colouring here is still very bright 
and charming, but the pictures 
are much mutilated. 

From this point it is a ride of 
some distance to the Rock of 
Abuslr, whence there is a very fine 
view of the cataract and surround¬ 
ing country. The rock is covered 
with names of travellers and tourists. 
From the top one sees the bed of 
the river, which occupies a wide 
area at this point, with innumerable 
channels of water finding their way 
among the shiny black rocks. The 
scenery is quite different from that 
at the first cataract, being perhaps 
wilder and more desolate, although 
the rocks are not so imposing in 
height and contour, being of sand¬ 
stone, while those at Aswan are of 





Description op the SOdan.155 

Passport Regulations.156 

14. WIdy Halfa to Dongola.157 

15. WAdy Halka to Khartum— 






16. The White Nile to Gondokoro— 


Kodok (Fashoda).161 

Bahr el-Ghazal.161 

The Sudd.162 


17. The Blue Nile to Fazoghli— 


Wad Medani.164 



Shooting expeditions.165 


18. Gondokoro to Mombasa.165 




For Map, seep. 6. 

Description of the SM4,n. 


or more correctly the Anglo- 

the country. The fact that in 1903 
a thousand new sakiyas (water¬ 
wheels) were erected is a proof of 
growing prosperity. 

The Sftd&n is divided into eleven 

or more correcwy me Augjiu- .luc ouuou 10 — 

Egyptian SMan, is entered when Mudiriyas or provinces. The pro- 

Alf.. TTn v»a a of flip VIMPPS arfi TC Vl AT t. ft Til. D0U£10l&. 

the steamer passes Faras at the 
22nd parallel, north of W&dy 
Haifa. As its real name indicates, 
it is not merely a province or de¬ 
pendency of Egypt proper, but a 
separate state administered by an 

vinces are Khartum, Dongola, 
Berber, Gezira, KassaJa, Sennar, 
Kordofan, Suakin, Upper Nile, 
Haifa, and Bahr el-Ghazal. The 
mvdirs, or governors of provinces, 
who are all Englishmen, have under 

separate state aamimsiereu. au ivuut«cttuuuB*»uiuv U ,M-.- 

Anglo-Egyptian Government, the them a certain number of mamurs 
British and Egyptian flags flying over the subdivisions or mamuriyas. 
together over all Government build- The mamurs are either Egyptians 
ings. At the time of Egypt’s insol- or natives. # . 

vency she was obliged, for economic Trade is slowly reviving, as conn- 
reasons, to abandon the SMan, and dence is established and the tribes 
it was left to the tyrannous sway realise that the Dervish power is at 
of the fanatic Mahdi and his sue- an end; and when the Suakm-Ber- 
cessor the Khalifa. But in 1898 an her railway is completed, and thus 
army of allied British and Egyptian a quicker and cheaper trade route 
troops routed the Dervish army and than that supplied by the N ile is 
marched into Khartum (see p. 15), effected, an immense stride will be 
peace being rapidly established. It made in the commercial develop- 
is a country rich in many senses, raent of the SMan. The most 
Its mineral and other wealth have serious problem standing m the 
yet to be exploited, and concessions way of its advancement is the want 
have been granted to several differ- of population. It has been esti- 
ent companies—all British—for this mated that during the years of the 
purpose. One “development”com- Mahdi s rule the population has de- 
pany has steamers on the Bine creased by 75 per cent, being now, 
and White Niles. The Government roughly speaking, about 1,»70,5UU. 
is earnest in giving all reasonable The chief products are gum, ivory, 
assistance, and is doing everything india-rubber, ebony, and gram, 
in its power to assist the decimated But m the future cotton will be 
population to resettle and cultivate more important financially than 




any of these. There are large 
tracts of rich alluvial land which, 
given systematic irrigation and a 
supply of labour, would become 
great cotton-producing countries. 
It will be some little time, however, 
before the labour question finds a 
satisfactory solution, the few natives 
not being industrious, and demand¬ 
ing a high wage. The water ques¬ 
tion is already being taken in hand. 

Every effort is being made to im¬ 
prove the means of transport. The 
obstructions to river traffic south of 
Khartum formed by the sudd are 
being removed, and trials are being 
made with motor cars and waggons 
on the caravan roads, which are 
being improved. 

Game is plentiful, and is attract¬ 
ing an increasing number of sports¬ 
men. Elephant, hippopotamus, and 
rhinoceros ; lion, leopard, and chee¬ 
tah ; wolf, hysena, and lynx ; giraffe ; 
buffalo, hartebeest, reedbuck, water- 
buck, kudu, and many antelope ; 
zebra and wild ass, are all found, 
besides chimpanzees, baboons, and 
other monkeys ; ostriches, pelicans, 
secretary birds, and many other 
birds. But mosquitoes abound, and 
the serut stinging-fly is common in 
certain parts. An “A” game 
licence, costing £25, allows its 
holder to “hunt the ordinary and 
some of the larger and rarer kinds 
of game,” as given in certain official 

Temperature (Fahr.) at Khartum. 






. 69 




Max. . 

. 84 




Min. . 

. 57 




[Extract from the London Gazette 
of Tuesday , October 27, 1903.] 

Passports in the Sftd&n. 

Foreign Office, 

October 23, 1903. 

His Majesty’s Secretary of State 
for Foreign Affairs has received 
from His Majesty’s Representative 
at Cairo a Despatch, transmitting a 

copy of the following Regulations 
with respect to the formalities to 
be observed by persons travelling 
in the Sfidan :— 

“Passports and Reporting 

(Europeans and Foreigners). 

“These regulations cancel all 
those previously issued on this 
subject, i.e., notices published in 
Sfidfin Gazette No. 19, dated 19th 
January, 1901, No. 27, dated 1st 
September, 1901, and No. 35 dated 
1st May, 1902 

“(1) It is hereby notified that in 
future passports will be required 
from Europeans and Foreigners de¬ 
siring to enter the Sfidan, 

“ Applications for passports must 
be made in person to the Sfidan 
Agent, War Office, Cairo; to the 
Mudir, Wadi Haifa; or to the 
Mudir, Suakin. 

“ The applicant must state the ob¬ 
ject for which he desires to enter the 
country, and produce satisfactory 
testimonials or recommendations 
from Consuls or from personsof estab¬ 
lished standing or authority either 
in Egypt or the Sfidan. Passports 
must be produced whenever required 
by Sudan Government Officials. 

“(2) Europeans and Foreigners 
proceeding south of Khartfim or 
into Kordofan must obtain special 
passes from the office of the Civil 
Secretary, Khartoum, through the 
official from whom they obtained 
their passport. 

“ (3) A11 Europeans and Foreigners 
travelling in the Sfidan are required 
to report their arrival personally or 
in writing to the Mudir at the Head¬ 
quarters of the Province, stating 
their address, occupation, and prob¬ 
able length of stay. Through tra¬ 
vellers to Khartoum need only re¬ 
gister in that town, either at the 
Mudiriya or at the Hotel. 

“(4) Passports are not required 
by officials of the Sfidan, Egyptian, 
or Uganda Governments, or by per¬ 
sons who enter the Sudan under 
arrangements made by any recog¬ 
nized Tourist Agency.” 

Sections 14, 15 WADY HALF A TO KHARTUM 




Rail to Abu Hamed, whence a 
new branch line goes to Kerma. 
Government steamer, Kerma to New 
Dongola, 31 miles. Train from Wady 
Haifa to Abu Hamed, see below. 
Leave Abu Hamed 3.15 p.m. 

Sun. and Thurs. 

Arrive Kerma 4.45 a.m. Mon. and Fri. 
Leave „ 11.30 a.m. Sat. and Wed. 

Arrive Abu Hamed 12.35 a.m. 

Sun. and Thurs. 

There are several interesting 
remains of the ancient Ethiopian 
temples and tombs on this route; 
also temples of Thothmes ill, 
Amenhetep ir, and Amenhetep hi ; 
besides traces of early Christian oc¬ 

Kerma is at the third cataract. 
The remains of a city, and burying- 
ground near, are of interest. 

Merowe is the capital of the 
mudiria. Since the end of the 
campaign, the people have begun 
to increase and prosper. They are 
clean and well dressed, and build 
better houses. Dongola produces 
dates and cereals, but her merchants 
are wanting in enterprise. 

Old Dongola is 75 miles farther 



575 miles. 

Train de Luxe twice a week by 
the Sddan Government Railway. 

The through connection with the 
Brindisi mail from England leaves 
Cairo on Wednesday 8 p.m., and 
Wady Haifa on Saturdays. 

£Q, 18s. 6d. ; first class, ordinary 
single, £5, 18s. Food, P.T. 75 per 

The line to Khartfim North, is 
well laid, and the journey would 
be comfortable but for the inevitable 
dust, though everything possible is 
done to keep it out of the carriages. 
The line strikes out straight across 
the level Nubian desert, in a south¬ 
easterly direction, for Abu Hamed, 
leaving the Nile, which passes two 
more cataracts and forms an im¬ 
mense bend before arriving at that 
place. The mirage may often be 
seen between the railway and the 
hills in the east. 

230 miles. Abu Hamed. Junction 
with the line from Kerma or 
Kareima Here is a row of well- 
ordered bath-houses for ladies and 
gentlemen, and the halt of 50 
minutes allows the passengers time 
for a bath before breakfast. 

The line again approaches the 
Nile, and there are palm groves and 
strips of brilliant green cultivation. 
After some miles in the desert the 
line rejoins the river at 

343 miles, Abadia, just above 
the 5th cataract. 

361 miles, Berber, a rapidly im¬ 
proving place with an increasing 
population. Owing to judicious re¬ 
mitting of taxes, and loans of 
animals from the Government, 
the people are becoming more 

385 miles, Atbara. Junction 
with the Nile-Red-Sea Railway 
from Port Sfidan. When first pro¬ 
jected this line was called the 
Berber-Suakin railway ; but a more 
suitable place for a harbour being 
found a little further south on 
the Red Sea coast, Suakin was 
abandoned and the terminus of the 

Wady Haifa d. 3 p.m. Sat. and Wed. 
Abu Hamed a. 1.35 a.m. Sun. „ Thurs. 



i.oua.ui. ,, 

a. 3 a.m. „ 
d. 9 a.m. „ 
a. 5.30p.m. „ 

An ordinary express in the same time 
leaves W&dy Haifa on Monday. 

300 lbs. of baggage allowed free. 
Fares. — Return, sleeping - car, 

railway made at Shekh Bargfit, re¬ 
named Port Sfidan (see p. 168). 

The sleeping-car service will be 
as follows:— 

Atbara d. 9.15 a.m. Sun.|and Thurs. 
Port Sftdan a . 7 a.m. Mon. and Fri. 
Port SOdan d. 3.30 p.m. Sat.: 7.30 a.m. 

Atbara a. 7.20 a.m, Sun.; 5.45 a.m. 



Section 15 

The importance of this railway 
in the development of the Sftdan 
can hardly be over-rated. Exports, 
which hitherto had to make the 
long, slow, and expensive journey 
down the Nile, can now be delivered 
at a seaport in a^very much shorter 
time. It will also lessen the price 
of coal in Khartum, an important 
factor in the navigation beyond 
that place. The river Atbara is 
the last tributary the Nile receives 
before it reaches the Mediterranean. 
It contributes to the Nile water the 
red mud which is of such great 
agricultural value. A long iron 
bridge carries the railway over the 
bed, which from about April to June 
is reduced to a series of pools and 
stretches of deep water. A con¬ 
siderable tract of country at the 
mouth of the Atbara has been pur¬ 
chased by an American, who has a 
staff of Englishmen and Americans 
there carrying out extensive experi¬ 
ments in cotton growing. 

Before reaching (471 miles) 
Shendi the ruins of Meroe are seen 
not far from the line. The pyramids, 
dating from about 1000 to 24 b.c., 
are narrower in design than those in 
the north, and many have chapels 
with decorated pylons attached to 
one face. They can only be visited 
if the traveller takes a camping 
equipment. At Shendi a certain 
amount of cotton, iron, and leather 
manufacturing is done. There is 
a Government experimental farm, 
where trials of different kinds of 
cotton at different seasons are being 
made, in order to ascertain the 
best mode of cultivating it in the 

524 miles, Gebel Gerri. Here the 
scenery is in contrast to the yellow 
desert. The line passes through a 

Steamers (see Section 16). — 
Stern-wheeler from Khartum North, 
P.T. 5, in 10 minutes; to Omdur- 
man, P.T. 10. 

Railway. — Train de Luxe from 
Khartum North, at 10.15 p.m. on 
Wednesdays and Saturdays, arriv¬ 
ing Abu Hamed at 2.10 p.m. on 
Thursdays and Sundays, and WMy 
Haifa 12.40 a. m. the following days, 
in connection with Government 
steamer to Aswan. 

Post and Telegraph Offices on 
River Esplanade, west of the 
Sirdariya. The Cairo-Khartum ser¬ 
vice takes four days either way. 
Leaves Khartum Friday and Mon¬ 
day mornings. Leaves Cairo for 
Khartum Wednesday and Saturday 

Weekly Mails to Roseires on the 
Blue Nile (13 days); to El Obeid 
(8 days); to Berber and Suakin 
(8 days); Berber and Kassala (8 

Monthly Mails to Bahrel-Gebel 
(13 days); Bahr el-Ghazal (10 days). 

Telegraph office in the Palace. 
Communication with Cairo, Suakin, 
Fashoda, Gallabat, and Bahr el- 
Ghazal. There is through tele¬ 
graphic communication between 
Cairo and Adis Abeba in Abyssinia, 
vid Erythrea and the Sfidau. 

Tariff: as in India, there are 
three forms of messages, urgznt y 
ordinary , and deferred. The first 
take precedence of all messages, 
the second come next in order, and 
d»ferred are not delivered until 48 
hours after being handed in. 

Between Sftd&n and Egypt— 

For every 2 words. 
Urgent . P.T. 2£ . min. P.T. 10 
Ordinary . „ 1 . „ „ 4 

Deferred „ 2 

rocky defile among volcanic hills, 
while the Nile breaks through the 
6th cataract. 

575 miles, Khartum North, on 
the Blue Nile opposite Khartum. 


In the Sfid&n— 

Urgent . „ 4 

Ordinary . „ . 

Deferred . „ if . 


Banks. —Auglo-Egyptian, Bank 
of Egypt. 

Church. —The foundation stone 

Hotels.—See “ Hotel List.” of the English church was laid by 







[I I,' 

I | British 
| { * B.rracl. 

I I 1 

r J 



^ LlJ.^DOL. 

! H ^rro a\ j 

Section 15 



the Princess Henry ot Battenberg 
in February 1904. At present the 
military chaplain holds services in 
the ballroom of the Palace on Sun¬ 
days ; early, morning, and evening 
services. There are Greek, Coptic, 
anil Roman Catholic churches. 

Doctors of the British battalion, 
and Egyptian Army medical ser¬ 

Tourist Agents. —Messrs. Thos. 
Cook & Son. 

Shops.—As yet not much can be 
obtained but ordinary provisions, 
in shops mostly kept by Greeks. 

Local Information can all be 
found in the SM&n Gazette. 
“Notes for Travellers and Sports¬ 
men in the Sfidan,” Sdd&n Al¬ 
manac, “Notes on Sfidan Outfit,’’ 
can be obtained from the Intelli¬ 
gence offices in Cairo and Khartum. 

Khartfim is situated at the junc¬ 
tion of the Bakrel Abidd, or White 
Nile, with the Bahr el Azrek, or 
Blue Nile. The land between these 
two rivers is called the Gezira, or 
island. The people of Khartfim, 
as of Omdurman, are a mixture from 
many tribes. Besides Egyptians, 
Greeks, and Syrians, there are Nu¬ 
bians, Congolese, warlike Baggara 
and peaceful Jaaliu, Dinkas, Shil- 
luks, and Arabs of various tribes. 
Their ways are better observed at 
Omdurman. The preponderance of 
women is no doubt due to the late 
campaign, the husbands having been 
killed or having deserted them. 

Leaving Khartfim North, the 
steamer crosses the Blue Nile. 
Almost directly opposite is the 
Gordon College. After passing the 
magazines and Public Works depart¬ 
ment the beautiful white Palace of 
the Governor-General—Sir Reginald 
Wingate—is seen. Next to it is 
the red-brick Government building 
called the Sirdaria, with parade- 
ground in front; and at the end of 
the town, opposite the island of 
Tuti, is the hotel, beyond which are 
the fine public gardens. The front 
of both Palace and Sirdariya look 
south on to Khedive Avenue. 

All the Government offices have 

been removed to Khartfim from 
Omdurman, and the town is rapidly 
increasing in size. It is laid out in 
squares, intersected by wide streets, 
those parallel with the river being 
named River Esplanade, Khedive 
Avenue, and Sirdar Avenue. • In the 
centre is Abbas Square, with a large 
new mosque. In the Public Garden 
behind the Palace is a fine statue 
of General Gordon. The buildings 
are now being chiefiy constructed of 
stone with occasional courses of 
brick. Government allots portions 
of land to those desiring to build, on 
condition that within a stated time 
a building of a particular kind shall 
be put there. If the condition is 
not fulfilled, land and whatever is 
on it goes back to Government. 
These buildings are of three classes. 
Those nearest the river are the 
principal houses and offices. Houses 
of two storeys of a smaller class 
may he built between Khedive and 
Sirdar Avenues, and south of the 
latter will be all the native houses. 
At present the town is only in the 
making, and the double rows of 
lebbekh trees are still very young. 
Even now, by reason of its gardens, 
it forms a beautiful oasis in the 
midst of desert land. As yet the 
roads are hardly tit for wheeled 
traffic, and everyone goes about on 
donkeys the animals being ex¬ 
cellent. It is advisable, however, 
for ladies to bring side-saddles with 

The Sfidan Club, at the corner of 
River Esplanade and Mohammed 
Ali Street, is housed in a fine build¬ 
ing, where all the English papers 
and latest telegrams may be seen. 
It has a beautiful garden, and 

The Palace, which the Governor- 
General kindly opens to tourists on 
Mondays and Fridays, has six acres 
of most beautiful garden. It stands 
on the site of Gordon’s palace, on the 
steps of which he was brutally done 
to death. The garden was made by 
him, and fortunately the Dervishes 
did not burn the trees when they 
sacked the house. The present 


THE sOdAn 

Sections 15,16 

building is picturesque, with its 
arcaded verandahs and staircase up 
to the first-floor loggia. The guns 
at the entrance were used during 
the siege. Among the trophies in 
the Palace are the Mahdi’s pulpit, 
and the arms of the Mahdi, the 
Khalifa, and his emirs. 

The Gordon Memorial College 
is at the east end of the town. 
It was built with subscriptions 
solicited by Lord Kitchener from 
the British people. The fine build¬ 
ing, which was completed in 1902, 
can of course at present only be 
used for the pupils of the primary 
school, seeing there is no demand 
as yet for higher instruction. An 
economic museum is to be formed, 
with a view to assisting in the 
commercial development of the 
country; and an analytical and 
bacteriological laboratory, with all 
the necessary apparatus, has been 
presented to the college by Mr. 
H. S. Wellcome. An archaeological 
collection has also been commenced. 
The military branch was opened to 
students in October 1904. Another 
important adjunct of the college is 
the very complete instructional 
workshops, generously fitted up by 
Sir William Mather. Their import¬ 
ance for technical education can 
hardly be over-estimated. 

It is interesting to know that 
in the higher-primary school at 
Omdurman 181 out of 215 boys pay 
fees. 90 per cent, of the boys are 
genuine Sudanese. 


By steam launch and donkeys , 
twice a week, from the hotel. Fare, 
about P.T. 50. 

Passing Tuti island, with the 
conical straw houses of natives, 
and the Has Khartum, we come to 
the junction of this branch of the 
river with the White Nile. Omdur¬ 
man is on the left. Landing, and 
mounting the donkeys which are 
waiting, we proceed to visit the 
Mahdi’s tomb, in the middle of the 

town. The buildings are mostly 
mere mud huts, but here and there 
are houses built of sun-dried bricks. 
The Khalifa’s house is near the 
Mahdi’s tomb. In its enclosure is 
the tomb of Hubert Howard, son 
of the Earl of Carlisle, who was 
killed at the capture of Omdur¬ 
man while acting as a war corre¬ 

The Market Place and bazaars 
are extremely picturesque, especially 
the fruit bazaar. The streets are 
very narrow, but one can take a 
donkey down them. The variety 
of tribes represented here is more 
noticeable than at Khartum. The 
market - place was the scene of 
numerous executions under the 
Khalifa, and near it was a pit into 
which the dismembered bodies were 
thrown. Along the river bank may 
be seen quantities of gum being 
sorted out into various qualities by 

Father Ohrwalder, who has re¬ 
turned to take up his good work 
again, has a school of four hundred 

Inland from Omdurman is the 

Seven miles north, at Kerreri, is 
the real site of the great battle, 
reached on camel or donkey back. 
A marble obelisk marks the spot 
where the 21st Lancers made their 
famous charge. 



(a) There is a Sfidan Government 
steamer to Gondokoro, in Uganda, 
1131 miles from Khartfim, which 
makes two tourist trips in the 
season, leaving Khartfim on Janu¬ 
ary 15 and February 15,1905. The 
whole journey, there and back, 
occupies about 28 days. Fares, 
including food, £E65. European 
servants, £E41. Native servants, 
£E7, without food. The steamers 
carry a dragoman. On other 
steamers travellers provide their 
own food. 


"T”"”™"” - ””a"" StcmJur-&s Ge ocfl A'stai i ZondoTV 

Lond on;Jftacmill m & Go-Ltd. ^ 

Section 16 



(6) The S&dan Development and 
Exploration Co. run a weekly 
steamer from Khartum to Goz Abu 
Guma, leaving on Tuesdays at 
9 a.m. and returning on Sundays. 
Fare, including everything but 
drinks, £25 and upwards. 

Except for sportsmen orspecialists, 
the greater part of the journey has 
no particular interest. The water 
channel varies from 700 yards to three 
miles in width, the shores being so 
shelving and swampy that approach 
is frequently impossible. The 
country is sometimes sandy and 
barren, with a mere strip of cultiva¬ 
tion along the banks; sometimes 
thickly wooded ; again covered with 
almost impenetrable thorn ; or, as at 
Lakadowiya, richly cultivated with 
a variety of crops. The river passes 
between Kordofan and Sennar. 
The absence of palm trees is notice¬ 
able. At Ed Duem a caravan route 
(about 7 days) starts for El Obeid, 
the chief town of Kordofan. It is 
intended to connect El Obeid with 
the river by rail, and so enable the 
Kordofan gum to find a market. 
The natives readily accept empty 
bottles in exchange for eggs and 
fowls, etc. 

Fachi Shoya is the starting-point 
for South Kordofan, and from Goz 
abu Guma there is a route and tele¬ 
graph to Sennar. The railway it is 
proposed to take up the middle of 
Gezira, i.e, the country between the 
White and Blue Niles, will turn 
east and come out on the Nile at 
this place, where the river will be 
bridged, with the view of eventually 
running the line on to El Obeid (see 
ante), and so immensely facilitate 
the governing of the province of 
Kordofan, at the same time provid¬ 
ing an outlet for its produce. This 
district is the most picturesque part 
of the river. 

The sudd vegetation first makes 
its appearance here (see p. 7). 
Farther south this, growth forms a 
serious obstruction in the river, 
blocking up the channels and pre¬ 
venting free navigation. It consists 
of decayed vegetable matter and 

earth, compressed to a consistency 
somewhat resembling peat, and 
covered with vegetation. The blocks 
are sometimes over a mile long and 
from 15 to 20 ft. thick, and the 
current passes underneath. 

At Abu Zeid, 189 miles from 
Khartfira, the country of the Shilluks, 
a fine negroid race, is entered (left 
bank), and the first papyrus is seen. 
The country of the Dinkas is on 
the right bank. Insect life is pro¬ 
lific, the Strut fly being particularly 

Near Gebel6n (250 miles) lion, 
buffalo, and antelope are found. 

469 miles from Khartum is 
Kodok (the old Shilluk name) or 
Fashoda, the late French post. 
There is a modernised old Egyp¬ 
tian fort on a small peninsula in a 
dreary swamp. No hills or trees are 
visible. It is an unhealthy place, 
swarming with rats and mosquitoes. 

At about 500 miles from Khartfim 
palms appear again, and in another 
80 miles the river Sobat enters the 
Nile. There is a garrison post here, 
and a very successful branch of the 
American Mission. This river comes 
from the Abyssinian hills, through 
an alluvial plain of grass - land, 
swamps, and forest, very sparsely 
populated. A good system of 
drainage might make it a fertile and 
productive country. It is just be¬ 
yond the mouth of the Sobat that 
the proposed new channel from Bor 
would join the White Nile (see 
p. 28). 

After this the country is a flat, 
grassy, treeless plain, with wide 
swamps by the river, and only ant¬ 
hills to break the straight line of 
the horizon. Where the trees appear 
again, traces of elephant and hippo¬ 
potamus are found. 

At 560 miles from Khartum the 
Bahr ez Zeraf enters the Nile, and 
in another 50 miles the steamer 
reaches Lake No. West and south 
of this point hippopotami are very 
abundant. They are most de¬ 
structive to banks and crops, and 
dangerous to small boats. 

The river here divides into two 



Sections 16,17 

channels—one, called the Bahr el 
Ghazal, taking a due westerly course, 
and the other, called the Bahr el 
Gebel, going south. The latter is the 
true Nile. The former receives the 
Bahr el Arab, which drains Darfur. 
It was in the Bahr el Ghazal district 
that the celebrated Zubeir Pasha 
carried on his slave-trading business, 
which Gessi and Lupton later tried 
to suppress. In almost every part of 
the Southern Sudan slave-raiding is 
still continued, and forms one of the 
gravest difficulties in the way of the 
new Government and the peaceful 
settlement of the land. Every effort 
is being made to suppress the evil. 

The Bahr el Gebel, of clear brown 
water, is only about 80 yards wide 
at its mouth. The greater part of 
the channel has been made navigable 
. by the cutting of the sudd, one 
block of which was seven miles 
long. But “Block 15,” south of 
Hellet en Nuer, still remains, in 
spite of repeated efforts to’ remove 
it, and for 32 miles navigation is 
impossible. Steamers, therefore, 
have to And their way through a 
maze of narrow channels and 
shallow lakes to the west. The 
whole district for many miles has 
been described as hopelessly mono¬ 
tonous. The river has no banks; 
all that is to be seen is one vast 
stretch of swamp, and the same 
vegetation extending as far as the 
eye can reach. An occasional 
stunted acacia is a welcome relief 
in the landscape. The papyrus 
grows luxuriantly, reaching at 
times a height of 16 ft.; and um sdf 
and tiger grass grow thickly every¬ 
where. Monotony has a charm of 
its own ; but unfortunately, even if 
the traveller wished, it is not wise 
to linger in this region, which is 
exceedingly malarial, and abounds 
in mosquitoes. The water teems 
with fish, but other animal life is 
almost unrepresented. 

Ghaba Shambi, 883 miles, is im¬ 
portant as the Nile post of the Bahr 
el-Ghazal province. But it is a 
dreary place, more than a mile 
from the river on the Shambi 

Lake, consistihg only of a few huts 
and offices. 

The once thickly populated 
country of Bahr el-Ghazal, on the 
left bank, was practically deserted, 
owing to perpetual raiding; but with 
the establishment of Government 
posts, the natives are returning. 
Certain tribes in the south-west 
district are still cannibals. The 
forests contain india-rubber trees. 

Bor, 1011 miles, is a collection of 
Dinka villages, well kept, neat, and 
clean. The people, who possess 
large herds of cattle, seem con¬ 
tented, and are not shy. It is pro¬ 
posed to take off from this point on 
the river a new channel directly to 
the north, rejoining the river near 
the Sobat mouth (see p. 28). 

Gondokoro, on the right bank, is 
opposite Lado, which is in the terri¬ 
tory leased to the Belgians. It is 
the most northern of the posts of 
the Nile provinces of the Uganda 
Protectorate, Mongalla, within a few 
miles of it, being the most southern 
station of the Sfidan Government. 

All the old buildings at Gondokoro 
are destroyed, and little remains of 
the large fort. Since 1901 the 
station has been much improved. 
The jungle has been cleared, good 
roads made, huts erected for the 
men south of the old “lines,” and 
proper houses for the officers. The 
country opposite is well garrisoned 
by the Belgians, especially at Kiro, 
where they are also building good 

Lake Albert Nyanza, out of which 
the Nile flows, is 250 miles farther 



Trip by sailing boat .—This can 
be arranged through Charles Horn- 
stein or other tourist agents in 
Cairo. It affords a perhaps unique 
opportunity for a traveller easily 
in touch with civilisation to hear 
the roar of lions,—to shoot one if 
he is a sportsman,—and to observe 
a great variety of wild animal life, 

Section 17 



from the elephant to the monkey. 
The telegraph follows the river. 
The scenery and country are alto¬ 
gether more interesting up this river 
than on the White Nile, but early 
in December its waters become 
too low for steamer traffic. While 
navigable there is a fortnightly 
steamer to Roseires, 426 miles. 

The nature of the voyage by 
sailing boat is similar to that on a 
dahabiya in Egypt. Sailing on a 
north wind is good ; and when 
there is none, the current, though 
strong, is not strong enough to 
prevent the sailors towing against 
it. During the winter season there 
are sandbanks, and sometimes the 
channel is difficult to find. Should 
the boat run on to one of these, the 
sailors will jump into the water to 
help to get her off. The down¬ 
stream journey is accomplished by 
rowing. The fact that Arabic is 
universally spoken is a great help 
to the traveller, and considerably 
simplifies the undertaking. The 
two disadvantages to be set against 
the pleasure of such a trip are the 
insects—making it almost impos¬ 
sible to use artificial light—and the 
possibilities of malaria. The latter 
may be guarded against with quin¬ 
ine, and especially by great care 
not to get a chill when over-heated. 

The Blue Nile presents the great¬ 
est contrast to the Nile in Egypt, 
or the White Nile. It takes its 
name from the beautiful blue trans¬ 
parency of its waters (except during 
flood), through which one can see 
the bed of the stream when many 
feet deep. It has an average width 
of about 800 yds. Instead of flats 
of mud or marsh on either side, 
there are well-defined banks, almost 
amounting to cliffs in places, and 
these are covered with vegetation in 
great variety. 

Here again is reached the regions 
of rains. From about the middle 
of June until the middle of Septem¬ 
ber is the rainy season ; and the 
flood, which begins about the middle 
of May, begins to subside when the 
rains stop. But showers may occur 

in other months. The average 
width of the river is 550yds., its great¬ 
est width being less than 800 yds. 

It has been lately proved that it 
is the flood-water from the Blue 
Nile and the Atbara that brings 
down all the fertilising matter to 
Egypt; that to this the White 
Nile contributes little, if any. 

Leaving Khartftm, the country is 
at first rather uninteresting. At 
18 miles Soba is reached. Here 
there are remains of Christian 
buildings, which afford interest to 
the archaeologist. Soba was the 
capital of the ancient kingdom of 
Alwah. Crocodiles are seen very 
soon after leaving Khartum, but on 
the approach of the boat they will 
slip off their sandbanks into the 
water and disappear. Bathing 
should not be indulged in without 
a cautious examination of the spot 
selected. The land is cultivated, 
the chief crop bein gdkurra ; but on 
the east bank are long stretches of 
low, thorn jungle. This is almost 
impenetrable, except where hippo¬ 
potami and other animals have 
made paths down to their drinking 
places on the river. 

At Maghad, 57 § miles, th etukls, 
or beehive-shaped straw huts, first 
appear. Shortly afterwards an old 
Dervish depot and powder factory 
is passed. The first considerable 
village is Kamlin, 75£ miles. A 
road to Kassala starts from here. 
Like all African villages, it is sur¬ 
rounded by a zariba —a belt more 
or less impenetrable, according to 
the state of the country—of thorn. 
This is the head of a mamuria. 
The villagers, who are chiefly 
Danagla, are fairly well - to - do 
carrying on a trade in dhurra be¬ 
tween the south and Khartfim. 
The country between the Blue and 
White Niles is called Gezira. It is 
exceedingly fertile, and when the 
new irrigation schemes are carried 
out, it is expected to produce 
immense quantities of grain. There 
is no difficulty in getting fresh 
vegetables, limes, and melons 
throughout most of the voyage. 



Section 17 

Rufa’a, 117 miles, is the next 
large village, and here we find 
another tribe—the Slmkriya Arabs. 
Great quantities of birds may be 
seen at certain seasons—pelican, 
storks, cranes, kudu, geese, and 
duck. Monkeys, both yellow and 
grey, abound, and at places baboons 
may be found. 

Abu Haraz, 141| miles, is the 
.starting-place of a caravan route to 
Gedaref (142 miles). Here also the 
river receives its tributary the 
Rah ad, which rises in the Abyssinian 
Mountains. The banks of both 
rivers are covered with dense jungle. 

Wad Medani, 147£ miles, is the 
most flourishing town on the Blue 
Nile. The efforts of the Mudir, 
Colonel Gorringe Bey, have trans¬ 
formed a large village into an 
important - looking town. There 
are some good buildings among the 
tukls, and trees have been planted 
along boulevards. The population 
of over 15,000 has a prosperous 
appearance. There is a store — 
Angelo Capato—• where European 
stores can be obtained, soda-water 
factory, and a Greek baker. The 
Greeks are always the pioneers of 
commercial enterprise. There is a 
mosque with a high tower. 

At 186 miles, after passing few 
inconsiderable villages, the mouth 
of the tributary Dinder—about 53 
hours by steamer from Khartum. 
The traveller may now begin to 
look for hippopotamus. 

Sennar, 241 miles. All that 
remains of a once large and im¬ 
portant village are deserted ruins 
and a mosque with high minaret, 
where is a Greek shop in the bazaar, 
There some kinds of provisions can 
be obtained. There is a route 
across to Kawa, and a telegraph 
line to Goz Abu Guma on the 
White Nile. 

The province of Sennar lias great 
possibilities before it as a grain- 
producing country. There is also 
good grazing, and a hardy breed of 
horses, which might easily be im¬ 
proved. Ebony exists in great 

The dhurra grows 6 and 8 ft. 
high in places. The great kalfa 
grass grows to 8 and 10 ft., and 
even springs up in open spaces in 
the forest. The natives burn away 
this grass in the end of the year, 
and after this the shooting season 
commences. There are hippopo¬ 
tami and crocodiles in plenty, the 
natives apparently not being afraid 
of the latter. Beyond Sennar are 
lion and leopard and many kinds 
of antelope. There are cobras and 
pythons, baboons and monkeys, 
and a great variety of birds. There 
are also giraffe, but it is almost 
impossible to come within sight of 
them. The most formidable mon¬ 
key is the dog-faced ape. He has a 
long shaggy coat of red-brown hair, 
most formidable teeth, and is very 
strong and agile. 

Beyond this point there are 
dangerous rapids in the river during 
low Nile. Passing Senga, a large 
boat-building station, another suc¬ 
cession of rapids has to be passed 
near Kharab Dini, 311^ miles. 
After which, sailing is good to 

Karkoj, 324 miles and 110 hrs. 
by steamer from Khartum. The 
village straggles along for a mile or 
so on high ground. Its inhabitants 
are of various tribes, and seem poor 
and unhealthy, suffering much from 
malaria, anaemia, and dropsy. Kar¬ 
koj used to be a trading centre, but 
its old importance has gone. The 
climate here is not suitable for 
camels or horses, owing to the 
prevalence of the poisonous sertU 


The scenery continues in the same 
variety: cultivated patches, jungle, 
forest of acacia, mimosa, tamarisk, 
belts of Mm palm (no date palms), 
tracts of high grass, with occasional 
groups of tulcls, now chiefly in¬ 
habited by an unattractive negro 
race called Hammeg. Gameabounds, 
and the sportsman may here secure 
reedbuck and roan antelope. 

Roseires, 426 miles, is the limit 
of navigation for steamers or boats. 
Even before reaching this point the 
river is full of obstruction, render- 



ing progress slow and difficult. 
There are no features of special 
interest in the village or neighbour¬ 
hood. It is proposed to create a 
reservoir here to store flood-water, 
to be sent down in December, 
January, and February, in order 
to secure a winter crop off certain 
lands to the north. 

Above the cataract, which is 6 
miles long, the river again becomes 
navigable. Fifty-seven miles further 
south is Fazoghli, whence there is 
a road to Abyssinia, large amounts 
of coffee from that country passing 
through. There are small traces 
of gold in the neighbourhood. The 
chief trade product is tobacco. 

Shooting Expeditions can be 

arranged with little difficulty by 
Charles Homstein or other tourist 
agents. Three trips are here sug¬ 
gested :— 

Trip I. — From Khartum, by 
steamer or sailing boat, up the 
White Nile toed-Duem (by steamer 
24 hrs.). Start from there on 
camels with camp for El-Obeid (10 
to 12 days), and thence south to 
Dar Nuba (4 to 6 days). . 

Trip II. — From Khartftm, by 
steamer or sailing boat, up the 
White Nile to Taufikiah. Thence 
camp towards the Nuer country of 
the Sobat River, which is full of 
big game. 

Trip III.—From Khartum, by 
sailing boat, up the Blue Nile to 
Sennar. Thence camp vid Senga as 
far as the Abyssinian frontier. 

Approximate charges for accom¬ 
plishing any of these trips in a 
most comfortable way would be:— 

From £10 to £13 per day for 2 people. 

„ £12 to £15 „ 3 „ 

„ £14 to £18 ,, 4 ,, 

For each additional person another 
£1 per day. This is from Khartflm. 

The agent will probably make an 
additional charge for five days 
previous to the start, to allow him 
to bring full equipment and ser¬ 
vants from Cairo. 

For two men accustomed to such 

travel, and able to do without 
luxuries, expenses might come to 
a little more than half the above 
estimates, say £150 a month. 



For the enterprising traveller or 
sportsman who has come as far as 
Gondokoro and does not wish to 
return to Egypt by the same route, 
it is possible to get a complete con¬ 
nection through to Mombasa vid 
the Albert and Victoria Nyanzas and 
the new Uganda railway. Thence 
proceeding to Suez by steamer. 
The Director of Public Works, 
Uganda Protectorate, has published 
a little book describiug the route 
from Entebbe to Gondokoro, and 
giving all the necessary information 
as to the journey. The traveller 
should also have the Blue Book, 
Egypt , No. 2, 1904, containing Sir 
W. Garstin’s report on the Upper 
Nile basin. 

The journey divides itself into 
five sections—two camping, two by 
water, and one by rail. For the 
camping, porters will be required. 
These can be procured by communi¬ 
cating with agents in Entebbe. 

We recommend travellers who 
wish to do the Nile-Uganda trip in 
the quickest time to do it the 
reverse way to that described in 
these pages, as connections are 
more easily made up at Entebbe 
than at Gondolforo. He can reckon 
that the 457 miles from Entebbe to 
Gondokoro can be covered in 37 
days by marching an average of 10J 
miles, or 84 hours per day. This 
allows 17 days from Victoria 
Nyanza (Entebbe) to Albert Nyanza 
(Butiaba); 9 days by boat from 
Butiaba to Nimule; and 10 days’ 
marching from Nimule to Gondo¬ 
koro. The journey from Entebbe 
to Butiaba may be made by rick¬ 
shaw. A lady can be carried in a 
hammock both on this section of 
the route and from Nimule to 



Section 18 

Agents for porters, etc., at 
Entebbe. —Messrs. Alidina Yisram; 
Souza, jun., k Bias; A. de 
Figueiredo. These all have large 
shops and stores at Entebbe. 

Messrs. Campbell k Co. are also 
commission agents, and undertake 
the equipment of caravans. 

First Stage. — Gondokoro to 
Nimule, 112 miles. — The Nile 
above Gondokoro passes over several 
cataracts, making navigation im¬ 
possible. Therefore this stage is 
done by marching. The shortest 
and easiest route does not continue 
by the river at first, but keeps to 
the east across the plateau of opeu 
forest, containing some fine trees. 
In the distance is the Belinian 
Mountain, forming a striking land¬ 
mark. The first rapids are those at 
Bedden. The scenery by the river 
route becomes much more interest¬ 
ing and picturesque, the swamps 
being varied by occasional hills and 
rising ground, while the'bed is 
rocky and clearly defined. Several 
tributaries come in on the east. 
TheGougi Rapids,with well-wooded 
islands, are very fine. The natives 
here are of the Bari tribe. There 
are frequent signs of elephant. 

At about 70 miles (by river) from 
Gondokoro the route rejoins the 
river. The scenery becomes gradu¬ 
ally finer, exhibiting some of the 
finest in all Africa. The eastern 
tributaries join the main stream in 
rocky ravines, though in the dry 
season their water m reduced to a 
few reedy pools. This country was 
the scene of some of Emin Pasha’s 
severe fighting, and every now and 
again traces of his occupation are 
found. The country on the west 
belongs to the Belgian enclave. 

At 100 miles , in most beauti¬ 
ful scenery, the Asua, the Nile’s 
most important tributary, joins the 
river. When in flood it cuts off 
communication between Gondokoro 
and Nimuli. But a ferry-boat, to 
work upon a wire hawser, is under 
construction at the junction. The 
hills in the west are the Kuku 

Mountains. They are rugged and 
precipitous. About 10 miles farther 
south are the formidable Fola 
Rapids. The scene is very wonder¬ 
ful. Nearly the whole volume of 
water passes through a gorge only 
52 ft. wide like a “gigantic mill- 
race or water-slide, 325 ft. in length. 
The water tears through this chan¬ 
nel in a glassy-green sheet with an 
incredible velocity.” The scenery 
is magnificent. 

Nimule, 112 miles (east bank), 
after a sharp bend of the river to 
the south-east, just above the com¬ 
mencement of the rapids. This is the 
headquarters of the Nile Province, 
and the residence of an Assistant 
Commissioner and the Commandant 
of the military force stationed on 
the Nile. The country is fiat, high, 
stony, and bare. 

Second Stage .— Nimule to Buti- 
aba.— From Nimule a Steel sailing 
boat runs irregularly to Butiaba on 
the Albert Nyanza. It soon passes 
Dufile, the Belgian station on the 
west bank, consisting of a collection 
of thatched houses in a fortified 
enclosure. The water begins to be 
dirty and full of green algae. The 
scenery varies, being sometimes 
very beautiful. 

At 148 miles the river enters a 
lagoon, which continues for 50 
miles, sometimes reaching a width 
of nearly 4 miles. It is “full of 
large reedy islands, and much 
papyrus and ambatch.” 

Wadelai, 206 miles , is situated 
in park-like country, with grassy 
glades and open forest. The view 
from the station on the hill, 275 ft. 
above the river, is very fine. Here 
live an English collector, a European 
medical officer, and a garrison of 
police, this being the headquarters 
of a district. This is the narrowest 
part in this reach of the river. 

Two miles further south Lake 
Rubi is entered. Its water is grey 
and clear; but on leaving it, after 
a few miles the green algae again 
appear. A striking feature in the 
scenery is the redness of the cliffs 

Section 18 



and soil, which makes a vivid con¬ 
trast with the green of the vegeta¬ 

As the river nears the lake the 
swamps become wider, and there is 
no distinct junction. 

Albert Nyanza. —The lake is so 
liable to sudden squalls, that though 
not very wide it is rarely a boat 
will venture to cross it. The boat 
keeps fairly near the eastern shore, 
passing the mouth of the Victoria 
Nile. The shore is bordered by a 
thick belt of reeds and am batch, 
and the view to the east is some¬ 
what desolate. But magnificent 
effects are seen across the lake 
when the sun sets behind the 
rugged mountain ranges in the 
west. Proceeding south the high 
land approaches the lake, and 
streams empty themselves into its 
waters from deep ravines. Crescent¬ 
shaped spits of land project into 
the water, formed by deposit from 
these streams. In the shelter of 
one of these is the pier at 

Butiaba— This is now the start¬ 
ing-place for the Victoria Nyanza. 
Formerly it was at Kibero, about 
13 miles south. The village and 
salt works of Kibero are situated 
in a large bay. Near it are hot 
sulphur springs. The forests here, 
which are tropical in the luxuriance 
of their vegetation, are the home of 
innumerable elephants. 

Third Stage .— Butiaba to En¬ 
tebbe, 198 miles .—There is now a 
cart road from Butiaba to Entebbe. 
Ali Dena Vishram will send vehicles 
from Kampala if requested. 

The chief characteristic of the 
Uganda country is its sharp un¬ 
dulations. It is a perpetual “suc¬ 
cession of hills and hollows, which 
may be compared to a gigantic 
switchback. In each hollow is a 
swamp, varying in width from a 
few hundred metres to three or four 
kilometres. These swamps are filled 
by a dense growth of papyrus 
and ambatch, among which purple- 
coloured climbers twine. The 
water surface is generally hidden 

by a mass of lovely blue water 
lilies. The hills, which are low and 
rounded, are covered with bush, 
and on the slopes bananas are culti¬ 
vated. On the line of the track 
the swamps are crossed by means 
of cleverly constructed cause¬ 
ways.” 1 The beautiful scarlet¬ 
flowering tree which is common 
in the forest is the Erythrina 

The road from Kampala to En¬ 
tebbe, about 20 miles, is good, 
straight, and broad, passing through 
one of the most fertile and prosper¬ 
ous districts in the Protectorate. 
Kampala is the residence of the 
King of Uganda, and here also are 
headquarters of the Church of 
England and Roman Catholic mis¬ 

Entebbe, or Port Alice, on the 
Victoria Nyanza. Hotel, where 
Cook’s coupons are taken. The 
station is some distance above the 
lake on a peninsula, affording some 
of the finest views in the world. 
The blue waters of the lake, studded 
with islands, are seen through a 
forest of foliage. The densely 
wooded hills show a great variety 
of colouring from the different trees 
and their flowers. The lake is 
3726 ft. above sea-level. The 
station itself is picturesque and 
attractive with its well-kept avenues, 
and houses standing in their own 
compounds as in an Indian station. 
The shops and trading stores are 
chiefly kept by Parsis and Indians. 
There are two new hospitals, one 
specially built for treatment of the 
“sleeping sickness.” 

The Residency and house of the 
Commandant are situated upon the 
high land overlooking the lake, 
each in extensive grounds and 
commanding lovely views. There 
is a church, and on a tongue of 
land south of Entebbe a French 
mission station. 

The Botanical Gardens to the 
north-east cover 200 acres of re¬ 
claimed forest land. Mr. Mahon, 
the Director, has made a most 
1 Blue Book, Egypt, No. 2,1904. 



Section 18 

beautiful garden, with a representa¬ 
tive collection of trees, shrubs, and 
plants. Tropical fruits, such as 
the pine-apple and mango, grow 
equally well with English vegetables 
and roses. The Congo coffee-tree, 
a large and fine variety, grows well. 

Fourth Stage .— Entebbe to Poet 
Florence oe Kisomu. — Two 
steamers, the Winifred and Sybil, 
of 600 tons each, ply on the lake, 
and by one of these the traveller 
may proceed to Port Florence. 
Through fare Entebbe to Mombasa, 
£9, 15s. 8d. The voyage from En¬ 
tebbe; among innumerable islands, 
across the lake to Kavirondo Bay, 
with its narrow entrance, is most 
charming, the scenery being very 
fine. The distance is between 150 
and 200 miles direct. The area of the 
lake nearly equals that of Scotland. 
Its water is clear and very fresh. 
The entrance to Kavirondo Gulf, 
about 3 miles wide, is about 44 
miles from Kisumu. Its water is 
muddy. Port Florence, with the 
station and offices of the railway 
staff, and Kisumu, with the head¬ 
quarters of the district civil officials, 
are situated respectively on the 
south and north sides of a small bay 
at the end of the gulf. The scenery 
is beautiful. On the end of the 
jetty is a harbour light, visible for 
5 miles, showing a white beam of 
light along the fair way, and red 
over all foul ground. The natives, 
the Kavirondo, are entirely un¬ 
clothed, wearing only a few strings 
of beads. They may be easily 
observed in the market at Kisumu. 
There is a Dak bungalow at Port 
Florence for travellers. The cur¬ 
rency is in rupees. 

Fifth Stage.— Port Florence to 
Mombasa.— By Uganda railway. 

Fare, 1st class, £7, 10s. 7d. The 
railway company have come to an 
arrangement with Messrs. Thos. 
Cook & Son by which that firm 
is now able to issue circular and 
tourist tickets for the railway and 

The distance from Port Florence 
to Mombasa is 580 miles. There 
are 43 stations, and at five of 
these there are Dak bungalows, 
where first and second class accom¬ 
modation is provided free for one 
night, and at the rate of 1 rupee 
(Is. 4d.) for each succeeding day. 
Refreshments can also be had at a 
fired price. The traveller, as he 
would in India, provides his own 
bedding and service. The five 
stations are Port Florence, Mu- 
horoni (25 miles), Nakuru (140 
miles), Makindu (375 miles), and 
Yoi (480 miles). 

Between Muhoroni and Nakuru 
the line follows a very tortuous 
route as it ascends to the Mau 
summit, 8321 ft. There is only 
one small tunnel. The Masai 
country through which the line 
passes proved difficult to survey. 
There are waterless tracts, and 
tracts covered with a formidable 
thorn bnsh, open country, and 
hilly country. For 250 miles from 
the ocean coast the tsetse fly makes 
transport by animals impossible, 
bullocks, camels, and donkeys suc¬ 
cumbing to the pest. The tribes 
are not always friendly. 

The descent to the coast and 
Mombasa is very steep. 

Mombasa. — Hotel : Grand Hotel, 

Steamers — British, India. Direct 
monthly service to London. Fare, 
£45, 10s., calling at Port SQdfin. 

Austrian Lloyd to Suez, £25,15s. 

Deutsche Ost. - Afrika to Suez 


Classical Writers. 

Herodotus, Bk. ii. 

Strabo, Bk. xvii. 

Diodorus, Bk. i. 

Plutarch, De Iside et Osiride. 

Cory, J. P., Ancient Fragments: Manetho, Ptolemy, Eratosthenes, 
Eusebius, Syncellus, and Chaemeron. 


Mariette, Outlines of Egyptian History, translated by M. Brodrick. 

Maspero, The Dawn of Civilisation, 1 large vol. (S.P.C.K.), 25s.; 
Les Premieres Mttees des Peuples, 1 large vol,, Les Empires, 
1 large vol. (Hachette et Cie), 25s. each. 

Newberry, P., and Garstang, J., Short History of Ancient Egypt 
(Constable), 3s. 6d. 

Petrie, W. M. F., History of Egypt from the Earliest Times to the 
18 th Dynasty, 2 small vols. (Methuen), 6s. 

Amherst of Hackney, Lady, A Sketch of Egyptian History, 
illustrated (Methuen), 10s, 6d. 

Sayce, Prof. A. H., The Egypt of the Hebrews and Herodotus. 

Mahaffy, J. P,, The Empire of the Ptolemies (same series as Petrie). 

Milne, J. G., Egypt under Roman Rule (same series as Petrie). 

Budge, E. A. W., History of Egypt, in 5 vols. 

Butler, A. J., Arab Conquest. 

Wingate, Sir F. R., Mahdiism and the Egyptian Si(ddn. 

Civilisation (Ancient Egypt). 

Ermau, A., Life in Ancient Egypt, 1 large vol. (Macmillan), 21s. 

Wilkinson, Sir Gardner, The Manners and Customs of the 
Ancient Egyptians, abridged edition, in 2 post 8vo vols. 
(Murray), 12s. 

Renouf, P. lePage, Lectures on the Origin and Growth of Religion 
(Hibbert Lectures, 1880). 

Budge, E. A. W., The Mummy. 

Wiedemann, A., Religion of the Ancient Egyptians (Grevel), 
12s. 6d. 

Petrie, W. M. F., Egyptian Tales, 2 vols. (Methuen), 6s. 


Erman, A., Egyptian Grammar, 1 small vol (Williams & Nor- 
gate), 18s. 

Budge, E. A. W., First Steps in Egyptian. 



Archaeology and Art. 

Brodrick, M., and A. Anderson Morton, Dictionary of Egyptian 
Archaeology (a popular handbook), 3s. 6d. (Methuen). 
Maspero, Egyptian Archaeology , post 8vo (Grevel), 7®. 6d. 

Perrot and Chipiez, History of Art in Ancient Egypt , 2 vols. 
(Chapman & Hall), 30s. 

Edwards, A. B., Pharaohs, Fellahs, and Explorers (Osgood, 
M'llvaine, & Co.), 15s. 

Mariette, Monuments of Upper Egypt , 6s. 

Petrie, W. M. F., Ten Years' Digging in Egypt. 

Butler, A. F., Ancient Coptic Churches of Egypt. 

Poole, S. Lane, Saracenic Art (Murray), 3s. 6d. 

Modern Egypt. 

Peel, The Hon. Sydney, The Binding of the Nile and the New 
Soudan (Ed. Arnold). 

Poole, S. Lane, Social Life in Egypt , 21s. Cairo (Dent), 4s. 
Milner, Viscount, England in Egypt (Arnold), 7s. 6d. 

Ward, John, Pyramids and Progress (illustrated) (Murray). 

Kelly, Talbot, Egypt; Painted and Described by {A. k C. Black), 

Travels and Fiction. 

Johnson, Sir Harry, The Nile Quest (Lawrence & Bullen). 
Kinglake, Eothen. 

Edwards, A. B., A Thousand Miles up the Nile. 

Page May, W., Helwdn, and the Egyptian Desert (G. Allen). 
Gordon, Lady Duff, Last Letters from Egypt , 9s. 

Ebers, G., Egyptian Princess; Uarda, Tauchnitz Edition. 
Kingsley, C., Hypatia. 

Moore, T., Alciphron. 


Volle,rs, K., The Modern Egyptian Dialect of Arabic, translated 
by F. C. Burkitt(Camb. Univ. Press), 10s. 6d. 

Thimm, C. A., Egyptian Self-Taught (Marlborough & Co.), 2s. 
Plunkett, Major G. T., Vocabulary, English - Arabic (Awad 
Hannah, Cairo), 2s. 6d. 

Willmore, J. S., Modern Arabic. 


Aahmes, Queen, 128. 

„ Tomb of, 139. 

,, Nefcrt-Ari, 123. 
Abadia, 157. 

Abbasiya, 74. 

Abnub, 104. 

Abshawi, 92. 

Abfl el-Akhdar, 43. 

„ Girga, 100. 

Hamed, 152, 157. 

,, Haraz, 163. 

,, Kirkas, 100. 

,, Roash, 78. 

Pyramids of, 81. 

,, Simbel, 152. 

Hock Temple of, 

„ Tig(Abutis), 105. 

,, Zeid, 161. 

Abukir, 37. 

Lake of, 38. 

Abusir, Pyramids of, 90. 

Rock of, 153. 

Abutis {Abu Tig), 105. 
Abfixa, 92. 

Abydos, 107. 

Tablet of, 109. 

Temple of Ramses n,110. 
„ Seti, 107. 
Adjmi, 37. 

Afa, Tomb of, 105. 

Alinas el-Medwia, 99. 

Ahti, Temples of, 113. 

Ai, Rock Chapel of, 107. 

,, Tomb of, 103. 

,, „ (Tomb of the 

Apes), 128. 

Ain MOsa {IVell of Moses), 

Ak6ris, 100. 

Albert Nyanza Lake, 162, 


Abukir, 37. 

,, run, ou 

Alexander's Tomb, 32. 
Arsenal, 85. 

Bazaars, 33. 

Bourse Kh6divial, 33. 


Ciesareum, The, 32. 
Canopus, Baths of, 37. 
Catacombs, The, 34, 37. 
Cleopatra, Baths of, 87. 
Custom House, 31. 
Distribution des Eaux, 


Gabari, 35. 

Gymnasium, The, 32. 
Harbour, The, 31, 36. 
Heptastadium, 32. 
Library, The, 32. 
MahmQdiya Canal, 34. 

“ Mahroussa,” Khe¬ 
dive’s Yacht, 36. 
Marabout Fort, 31. 
Mareotis Lake ( Mar . 

yHt), 37-38. 

Mex, 37. 

Mohammed Ali, Statue 
of, 33. 

Montaza, 37. 

Museums of Ptolemy i, 

New, 85. 

Nebi Daniel, 32. 
Nikopolis, 36. 

Paneum, 32. 

Pharos, Isle of, 31, 32. 

Lighthouse, 35, 

Pompey’s Pillar, 33, 34. 
Quays, 31. 

Railway Stations, 80. 
Ramleh, 36. 

Ras-et-Tin Fort, 31. 

,, Palace, 85. 
Roman Tombs, 85. 
Rosetta Gate, 37. 

Salt Works, 37. 

San Stefano, 37. 
Serapeuin, The, 32. 

Sidi Gaber, 36. 

Theatre, Abbas Hilmy, 

Victoria College, 33. 
Yacht Club, Khedivial, 


Amdda, 152. 


Ambigol, 157. 

Amen, 116, 117, 142. 
Amenardus (Anieneritis), 
Temple of, 134. 
Amen-hetep ii, Tomb of, 


,, i ii, Temple of, 

121, 140. 
„ ,, Tomb of, 


Anieni, Tomb of, 102. 
Amenmena, Tomb of, 137. 
American MissionSchools, 
46, 104, 161. 

Am Fushi, 35. 

Amsu {Min), Temple of, 

Anba Bisboi {Dtr el- 
Ahmar), 106. 

Anba Mattaos, 189. 
Anhur-mes, Tomb of, 107. 
Ankish, 152. 

Antinoe, 102. 

Antceopolis {KaH el-Kelu), 

Aphroditopolis, Ruins of, 

Apis, Tombs of, 87. 
Apollinopolis Magna, 
(Edfu), 140. 

Arabat el-Madffma, 107. 
Archeology and Art, 22- 

Ar-hems-nefer, Temple of, 

Arsinoe(Oocod#opoK$) ,92. 
el-Assasif, Tombs of, 132. 
Asua R., 166. 

AswAn, 145. 

Bisharin Camp, 146. 
Cataract, The, 151-153. 
Dam, The Great, 150. 
Elephantine, 146. 
Granite Quarries, 146. 
Grenfell, Mt., 145, 146. 
Nilometer, 146. 
Ptolemaic Temple, 146. 
Asytit, 104, 105. 

Dam, New Great, 104. 
Rock-Tombs at, 105. 



el-Atara, 145. 

Atbara, 158. 

Abet, Tomb of, 98. 

Atfih, 34. 

Atrib (Athribis), 39. 
Az-kher-Amen, Temple of, 

Baba,’Tomb of, 140. 
Bagftra, 110. 

Bahr el- Abiad ( White Nile), 
159, 160. 

„ „ Arab, 161. 

,, „ Azrek ( Blue Nile), 
159, 162. 

„ „Gebel, 161,162. 

„ „ Ghazal, 161, 162. 

„ Yusuf, 91. 

,, ez-Zeraf, 161. 

Bahriya Oasjs, 93. 

Bal5h Lakes, 41. 

BaMna, 107. 

Balias, 113 
Baqt, Tomb of, 102. 

Bard is, 107. 

Barrage, 76. 

BarCid, 113. 

Bast of Bubastis, 120. 
Bedden Rapids, 165. 
Bedrashen, 85, 98. 

Behbit elHagar(/seum),39. 
Behnesa ( Oxyrrhinkhos ), 
100 . 

Beliniau ML, 165. 
Belzoni’s Tomb, 124-125. 
Benha, 39, 44. 

Beni-Adi, 93. 

„ -Hasan,Tombs at,101. 
„ -Suef, 99. 

Berber, 157. 

Berenike, 111. 
el-Bersheh, 103. 

Bes, 113. 

Bet el-Wali Temple, 151. 
Biahmu, 92. 

Bib4n el-Molfik (Gates of 
the Kings), 124. 

Bibba, 99. 

Bibliography, 169. 

Bigeh Island, 148. 
Bint-Anath, Tomb of, 137. 
Birket el-Hagg, 75. 

„ „ -Kuriln, 92. 

Birth houses, 113, 122, 

Bisharin, 146. 

Bitter Lakes, 42. 

Bor, 161, 162. 

Bubastis ( Pibeseth), 43. 

„ Bast of, 120. 
Bueb, 142. 

BOlak, 131. 

Bflsh, 99. 

Butiaba, 166. 

„ Route from Ni- 
muli, 166. 

Cairo (Masr el-Kdhira), 

Abbasiya, 74. 

Abdin Square, 51. 

AbCi Sirga, 72. 
el-Adra, 72. 

Aquarium, 74. 
Aqueduct, Head of Old, 

Bab. See Gates. 
Babylon. Roman fort¬ 
ress, 72. 


Helvvan, 75. 

New Royal, 75. 
Bazaars, 50-51. 

Birket el-Hagg, To. 
British Residency, 98. 
Cab tariff, 45. 

Campbell’s Tomb, 85. 
Cemeteries, 56. 

,, Christian, 71. 
Citadel, The, 51. 
Climate, 5. 

Coptic Churches and 
Convents, 66, 72, 73, 

Dervishes, Howling, 71. 
Esbekiya Square, 49. 
Ezbel ez-Zeitnn, 74. 
Forests, The Petrified, 

Fostat, 48. 


Bab el-Azab, 52. 

„ ,, FtitOh (Gate 

of Con¬ 
quests), 49, 

,, ,, Hasanlya, 74. 

„ en-Nasr (Gate of 
Victory), 49, 56. 

„ ez-Zuwela (el- 
Mutawelli), 49, 

Gebel el-Ahmar, 77. 
Gezira BOlak, 49. 

Gizeh Museum ( Egyp¬ 
tian ), 57. 

„ Pyramids, 79. 
Gohargiya, The, 51. 
Heliopolis, 74. 

Obelisk of, 75. 

Helwin, Baths of, 75. 
Ibr&hhn Pasha Monu¬ 
ment, 49. 

International Tribunal, 

Ismailiya Quarter, 49. 

,, en-Nil Bridge, 50, 

Kedisa Berbarra, 73. 
Kh51ifs, Tombs of the, 


Library, Khedivial, 09, 
Maiulftks, Tombs of 
the, 53. 

Manakliiliya Street, 51. 
Masr el-Atika (Old 
Cairo), 72. 

Matariya, 74. 

Midan el - Khaznedar, 

el-Azliar, 54. 
Ak-Sunkur (Ibrdhim 
Agha), 55. 

Amru, 72. 
edh-Dhahir, 74. 
el-Burdeni, 55. 

„ Ghftri, 54. 

„ Hakim, 55. 

,, Hasanen, 54. 
Ibrahim Agha (Ak- 
Sunkur), 55. 

Kait Bey, 71. 

Kasr el-Eini, 71. 
Mohammed Ali, 53. 

„ en-Nasir, 55. 
el-Muayy&d, 54. 

SOltan Barkuk, 55. 

„ Hasan, 51. 

,, Kalafin, 52. 

Till tin, 53. 

Muayy&d, Tomb of, 54. 
Muristan of Kalafin, 55. 

Arab, 67. 

Egyptian, formerly 
Gizeh, 67. 

Muski, The, 49. 

Nile Datn or Barrage, 

Nilometer, 71. 
Numbers, Tomb of, 85. 
Ostrich Farm, 74. 

Gizeh, 79. 

Ismail, 49. 

Khedivial, 51, 73, 74. 
KhObbi, 74. 
Mohammed Ali, 53. 
P15ce Atabet el-Hadra, 


„ RumGla, 52. 
Population, 48. 

Post Office, 44, 45. 
Pyramids, Gizeh, 79. 
Quarries of Masara and 
Tfira, 75. 

Roda Island, 71. 

Rue Neuve, 51. 

Sharia el - Khordagiya, 

„ Kasr en-Nil, 50. 

„ Mohammed Ali, 

,, Suleiman Pasha, 




Shubra, 73. 

Sirkett el-Hagg, 75. 
Sphinx, 79, 84. 

Street cries, 49. 

el-Ashraf Bursbey,70. 
Burckhardt (Sfiekh 
Ibrdhim), 56. 
Campbell's, 85. 

Im4in esh-Sbafih, 53. 
Kait Bey, 70. 

Kalafln, 55. 

Khalifs, 70. 

Mamlfiks, 53. 
Mohammed Ali, 52. 
Muayyftd, 54. 
Numbers, 85. 
es-Sitt Khawknd, 70. 
Snkkftra, 85. 

Sftltan BarkCik, 70. 
Virgin’s Tree, 74. 

Walls of, 49. 

Well of Joseph, 53. 

„ ,, Moses, 77. 
Wonder-Working Tree 
of St. Mandfira, 71. 
Zoological Gardens, 74. 
Canopus, Baths of, 37. 
Cats, Cemetery of mum¬ 
mified, 101. 

First, 147, 151. 

Second, 153. 

Third, 157. 

Dendera, 113. 

Khoz&m, 114. 

Minia, 100. 

Roman and Early Chris¬ 
tian, 106. 

Sharona, 100. 
Champollion, 102 . 

Chnubis, Site of, 139. 
Cleopatra, Baths of, 37. 
Climate, 5. 

Clysma, 42. 

Colossi, The, 133. 

Contra - Latopolis (el- 
Hello), 139. 

Coptic Churches and Con¬ 
vents, 66, 72, 73, 99, 100, 
Coptic Inscriptions, 101. 
Crocodilopolis * (Arsinoe), 

,, (Rezkat), 138. 
Dabdd, 151. 

DahshClr, Pyramids of, 

Dakhla Oasis of, 94. 
Dakka, 152. 

Damanhftr, 38. 

Damietta, 38. 

Darau, 143. 

Dendera, 111. 

Dendftr, 152. 

Der el-Abiad (White Mon¬ 
astery), 106. 

„ el-AdraorBahara,100. 
,, ,,-Ahmar (Red Monas¬ 
tery), 106. 

♦, ,,-Bahri, 101,114,128. 
„ „ „ Reliefs of the 

to the Land 
of Punt, 

,, ,, „ Royal Mum¬ 

mies at,131. 
,, „ „ Temple of, 

By ad, 99. 

„ Mari GTrgis, 107. 

„ el-Medina, 137. 

„ Moes, 103. 

., er-Rifa, 105. 

Dima, Ruins of, 92. 

Dinder R., 164. 

Dirr, 152. 

Dishna, 110. 

Dog Mummies, 100. 

D6m Palm, The, 110. 
Dongola, Old, 157. 

Dra Abft’l Negga, Tombs 
of, 123. 
ed-Duem, 161. 

Duftle, 166. 

Ed-Denfik, 114. 

Ed-Duem, 161. 

Edfft, 140. 

Temple of Horus, 140. 
Etteithyias(EZ-A<x&), 139. 
Ekhmlm, 106. 

El-Edwa, 91. 

Elephantine Island, 145, 

Emerald Mines, 111, 142. 
Entebbe (Port Alice), 167. 
Route from Butiaba, 

“ Epic of Pentaur,” 122. 
Erment (Hermonthis), 138. 
Esna (Seni Latopolis), 138. 
Subterranean Christian 
Church, 139. 

Temple of, 138. 

„ „ Amen - hetep 

in, 140. 
Tombs at, 139. 

Fachi Shoya, 161. 

Farafra, Oasis of, 93. 

Faras, 152. 

Farshftt, 110. 

Fashoda, 161. 

Fad, 106-110. 

Fauna, 26. 

Faydm, The, 91. 

Fazoghli, 165. 

el-Ferddn, 41. 

Ferkeh, 157. 

Feshn, 99. 

Flora, 26. 

Fola Rapids, 166. 

Fost&t, 48. 

el-Gabana, Tomb-mosque 
at, 39. 

Gab&ri, 35. 

Gebel, Abft Feda, 104. 

,, „ Ghabah, 143. 

,, el-Ahmar, 77. 

„ Genetfa, 42. 

„ Gerri, 158. 

,, Maryam, 42. 

„ Sebara, 111, 142. 

„ ShekhEtnbdrak,99. 
„ ,, Heridi, 106. 

„ Silsila, 143. 

,, el-T^rif, 110. 

,, et-Ter, 100. 

„ „ Tftkh, 107. 

Gebelen, 138,161. 

Gedaref, 164. 

Geography, 6. 

Geology, 8. 

Gerf Hnsen, 152. 

Gezira (Cairo), 49. 

,, (between Blue and 
J17 iite Nile), 163. 
Ghaba Shambi, 162. 

Girga, 107. 
el-Gisr, 41. 

Gizeh, 98. 

„ Pyramids, 79. 
Gondokoro, 160, 162. 
Gordon College, 160. 

Gougi Rapids, 165. 

Goz abu Guma, 161, 164. 
Grenfell, Mt., 145, 146. 

„ Tombs at, 146. 
Gurob, 92. 

Hagar Silsila, 143. 

Haggi Kandil, 103. 
Hain&m&t, Valley of, 111. 
el-Hammam, 143. 
el-Hamra, 104. 

Hap-zefa, Tomb of, 105. 
Haq-ab, Tomb of, 146. 
Hath or— 

Temple of, at Abd-Sim- 
bel, 152. 

„ on Bigeh Is¬ 
land, 148. 

,, at Dendera, 

111 . 

,, at D^r el- 
B5hri, 129. 

„ at Karnak, 

120 . 

„ at Kom 

,, at Phil®, 



Hat Nub, Alabaster Quar¬ 
ries at, 103. 

Hawaiwish, 106. 
Hawamdiya, 98. 

Hawara, 92. 
el-Hebi, 99. 

Heliopolis, 74. 
el-Hella, 139. 

Hellet en-Nuer, 162. 

Hel wan, Baths of (Helouan 
les Bains), 75. 
Heracleopolis, Site of, 

Her-Khuf, Tomb of, 147. 
Hermon this (Kment), 138. 
Herneka, Tomb of, 85. 
Hesopis, 106. 

Hibis, Ruins of, 93. 
Hierakonpolis (Nekhen), 

Hieroglyphs, 25. 

History, 9-16. 
Hor-em-Heb, Tomb of, 
131, 143. 

Horus, Temple, 140. 

Hotel List, xiii. 

HCi (Diospolis Parra), 

110 . 

Hui, Tomb of, 137. 

Huia, Tomb of, 103. 
Hypsele (Shndb), 105. 

Ibrahiraiya Canal, 104. 
Inhabitants, 16-18. 
Inundation, 8. 

Irrigation, 26, 99. 


Temple of, at Deiulera, 

„ „ „ Philse, 


Tomb of (wife of Ram¬ 
ses iv), 137 
Ismailiya, 41-43. 

Isment, 99. 

Jarabub, 94. 

Jebel Muta, 94. 

el-Kab, 139. 

Kaben, Tomb of, 90. 

Kafr el-Ayy&t, 98. 

„ ed-Dawar, 38. 

„ ez-Zayyat, 38. 
el-Kala, 114, 142. 
Kal&bsha, 151. 

„ Temple, 151. 
Kalyftb, 39. 

Kamlin, 163. 

Kampala, 165, 1G7. 
Kamula, 114. 
el-Kantara, 41. 

Karkoj, 164. 


Pylons of, 116, 117, 118, 
120 . 



Amen, 117. 
Amen-hetep hi, 120. 
Hathor, 120. 

Kheti8u, 116. 

Kurna, 123. 

Luxor, 120. • 

Medamot, 120. 

Mfit, 120. 

Ptah, 120. 

Rainses ill, 117, 120. 
Seti ii, 117. 

Tombs of the Kings, 

„ „ Dra Abft'l - 

Negga, 123. 
Kartassi, Temple, 151. 
Kasr Dakhl, 94. 

,, Farafra, 93. 

„ Ibrim, 152. 

„ es-Sayyad, 110. 

KaO el-Kebir (Antceopo- 
lis ), 106. 

Kavirondo Bay, 167. 
Kawa, 164. 
el-Kenan, 139. 

Keneh, 110. 

Kerma, 157. 

Kerreri, 160. 

Khafra, 84. 

„ -ankh, Tomb of, 

Khalifs, 13. 

Tombs of, 70. 

Kharab Dini, 164. 
El-Kliarga, 94. 

Kharga, Oasis of, 93. 
Khartfun, 158. 

Gordon Memorial Col¬ 
lege, 160. 

Mail Service to, and 
Fares, 157. 

Nile at, 159. 

Palace, Governor-Gen¬ 
eral's, 159. 

Situation of, 159. 

Sftdan Club, 159. 
Khartum, North, 158. 
Kheminis ( Panopolis), Site 
of, 106. 

Kheimti, 143. 
Khenoboskion, Site of, 
110 . 

Kheti, Tomb of, 101. 

„ I, „ „ 105. 

„ Ii, „ „ 105. 

Khnem-hetep, Tombs of, 
102 . 

Khozam, 114. 
Khu-en-Aten, Tomb of, 

Klmfu, Pyramid of, 85. 
Khurbet Kan’an (Pa- 
Kandna), 119. 

Khut Aten, 104. 

Kibero, 166. 

Kings, Tombs of, 124. 
Kiro, 162. 

Kisuinu (Port Florence) 

Route from Entebbe, 

Kodok (Fashoda), 161. 
Koft, 111, 113. 

Kolosana, 100. 

Kom el-Ahmar, 100. 

„ Ombo, Temple of, 

Konosso Island, 148. 
Koptos (Koft), ill. 

Koran, Illuminated copies 
of, 69. 

Kordofan, 161. 

Korosko, 152. 

Korti, 152. 

Kosser (Kusayyar), 111, 

Kubba, Palace of, 74. 
Kufic, 25. 

Kuku Mts., 166. 
el-Kbla, 139. 

Kfirkhr, Oasis of, 138. 

Temple of, 123. 

Tombs of, 131. 

Khrnet Murr&i, Tombs of, 

KOs, 114. 

el-Kusfir. See Luxor. 
Kynopolis, Site of, 100. 

Labyrinth, Site of, 92. 
Lado, 162. 
el-Lahfm, 92. 

Language, 25. 

Latopolis (Esna), 138. 
Lepidoton, Site of, 107. 
Luxor, 114. 

Colossi, The, 133. 
Ramesseum, The, 132. 

Her el-Bahri, 114,128. 

„ ,, -Medina, 137. 
Karnak, 116. 

KCirna, 123. 

Luxor, 120. 

Medamot, 120. 

Mfit, 120. 



Dra Abft’l-Negga, 123. 
el-KCirna, 131. 

KCirnet Murr&i, 137. 
of the Kings, 124. 

,, „ Queens, 136. 
Shekh, 131. 

Lykopolis (<4syftt), 104- 

Maabda, 104. 

Maalla, 138. 


Maghad, 163. 

Maghagha, 99-100. 
Mahtnudiya Canal, 34. 
Mahsama, 63. 

Makindu, 168. 

Maku, Tomb of, -103. 
Malatiya, 99. 

Mamlftks, 13. 

Tombs of, 53. 

Manoas wa Shenftdi, 139. 
MansOra, 39. 

Maragha, 106. 

Mareotis Lake (Marydt), 

Masara, Quarries of, 98. 
Masr el - Kahira. See 

Mastaba of Ptah-shepses, 

Mastabat-el-Farftn, 87. 
Matana, 138. 

Matariya, 74. 

Matmar, 105. 

Medaindfc, Temple of, 120. 
Medina, 91. 

Medlnet H&bd, 133. 
MedCim, Pyramid of, 91, 

Mehallet Rail, 39. 

Mekhvi, Tomb of, 146. 
Mell&wi, 103. 

Memnon, The Vocal, 133. 
Memnonium of Ramses n, 

„ of Seti I, 107. 
Memphis ( Mitrahlna ), 85. 
Mena, Dyke of, 98. 

,, Tomb of, 114. 
Menshiya, 107. 
Ment-her-Khepshef, Tomb 
of, 123, 

Mentuhotep, Temple of 

Menzala, Lake, 39, 41, 43. 
Meorwe, 157. 

Mera, Tomb of, 89. 
Mer-en-Ptah, Tomb of, 

Meroe, Ruins of, 158. 
Meskekh, 107. 

Mex, 37. 

Minia, 100. 

Mitrahina (Memphis), 85. 
Moeris, Lake, 92. 
Mokattam Hills, 32. 
Mombasa, 168. 

From Gondokoro, 165- 

Money, 3. 

Monfalftt, 104. 

Mongalla, 162. 

Montaza, 37. 

Moses, Wells of (Ain 
Musa), 77. 

Muhoroni, 168. 

Mut, 94. 

Mut, Temple of, 120. 
Muthis, Site of, 105. 

Nagh Ham Mi, 110. 
Nakuru, 168. 

Naukratis, 38. 

Neb-Amen, Tomb of, 123. 
Nefer-Hetep, Tomb of, 

,, Maat, Tomb of, 98. 

,, Sekkeru, Tomb of, 

101 . 

Nefert, Tomb of, 98, 
Nefertari, Tomb of, 137. 
Nek&da, 114. 

Nekhebt, Temple to, 

Nekhen, Ruins of, 140. 
Neklit-ankh, Tomb of, 
100 . 

Nektanebus, Chapel of, 

Nikopolis (Alexandria), 

Nile, The. 

Barrage, The, 76. 

Blue Nile, The (Bahr el- 
Azrel), 162. 

Dam at Aswan, 150. 
Dam at Asyftt, 104. 

„ Zifta, 39. 
Description of, 6-8. 
Gezira, The, 159, 163. 
Hapi, God of the Nile, 

Inundation of, 8. 
Irrigation, Methods of, 
26-28, 99. 

Islands, The, 147. 
Journey by Dahabiya, 


„ ,, Steamer,96- 


„ ,, Train, 97. 

Nilometers, 71, 146, 


Sudd, The, 7, 156, 161, 

Tributaries, 7, 158, 161, 

White Nile, 160. 

Nimuli, 166. 

Route from Gondokoro 
to, 165. 

No, Lake, 161. 

Nubia, 151. 

Numbers, Tomb of, S5. 
Nut, Sky Goddess, 142. 

Oases, 9, 93. 

Bahriya (or Little), 93. 
Farafra, 93. 

KftrkOr, 188. 

Siwa, 94. 

Wah el * Dakhla (or 
the Inner Oasis), 94. 


Wab el - Kharga (or 
Great), 93. 
el-Obeid, 161. 

Ombos of Dendera, Site 
of 114. 

Omaurman, 160. 

Khalifa’s House, 160. 
Mahdi's Tomb, 160. 
Market Place, 160. 

Osiris of An, Temple to, 

Osy mandyas, Tomb of (The 
Ramesseum), 132. 

Outfit, 5. 

Oxyrrhinkhus, Site of, 

100 . 

Paalek ( Philce ), 148. 
Pacbomius, Convent of 
(St. Pack&m), 110. 

Paheri, Tomb of, 139. 

Pa • Kan&na (Khurbet 
Kan’an), 119. 

Pa-Nehesi, Tomb of, 104. 
Panopolis (Khemmis), 106. 
Pa-Sebek, 144. 

Pasht (Bast), Temple to, 

101 . 

Passports, 3; regulations 
in Siidan, 156. 

Patu Amen-apt, Tomb of, 

Pelusium, Site of, 41. 

Pepi Neklit, Tomb of, 

Pentu, Tomb of, 104. 
Petrified Forests, The, 

Pharaoh’s Bed, 148. 
Pharos, Island of, 31, 32. 
Philae, 148. 

Chapel of Nektanebo, 

Nilometer, 150. 
Pharaoh’s Bed, 148. 
Temple of Ar - hems* 
nefer, 148. 

„ „ Hathor, 148. 

„ „ Isis, 148. 

Pibeseth (Tel Basta), 43. 
Pithbm (Tel el-Maslchuta), 

Port Alice (Entebbe), 167, 

,, Florence, 167. 

„ Said, 39, 40. 

Postal arrangements, 4. 
Ptah, Temple of, 85, 86. 

„ -shepses, Mastaba of, 

„ -hetep, Tomb of, 

Ptolemais, Site of, 107. 
Punt, Reliefs of the Ex¬ 
pedition to the Land of, 




Abu Ro&sh, 81. 

Abusir, 90. 

Account of, 78. 
Amen-em-hat m, 92. 
Biahmu, 92. 

Dahshur, 90. 

Gizeh, 79. 

Great, 79. 

Hawara, 92, 

Khufu, 85. 
el-Khla, 139. 
el-Lahdu, 91. 

Lisht, 98. 

Medum, 91, 98. 

Meroe, 158. 

Pepi, 91. 

Second, 82. 

Saneferu, 98. 

Step, 86. 

Teta, 87. 

Third, 83. 

Unas, 86. 

Userfc-sen ic, 92. 

Qina ( Keneh ), 110. 

Queens, Tombs of the, 

Raliad R., 164. 

Ra-hetep, Tomb of, 98. 
Railways and Steamers, 4. 
In the SM3.ii, 157, 160- 

„ Uganda, 165-168. 
Ra-meri, Tomb of, 103. 
Ra-mes, Tomb of, 103, 

Ramesseum, The, 132. 

Colossal Statue 
("destroyed by 
Cambyses), 132. 
,, u,Colossal Statue, 

85, 86. 

Temples of, 41, 
99, 110, 152. 

„ in, Palace of, 133. 
Temple, 117, 

Tomb, 126. 

„ iv, Tomb, 127. 

,, vi, Tomb, 127. 

,, ix, Tomb, 127. 

Ras Khartum, 160. 
Rashida, 94. 

Rayiana, 105. 

Redesiya, 142. 
Rekh-ma-Ra, Tomb of, 

Religion, 18-22. 

Renni, Tomb of, 140. 
RhakOtis, Site of, 31. 
Rikka, 98. 

Rizkat (Crocodilopolis), 

Rod el-Farag, 76. 

Rdda, 102. 

Roseires, 162, 164. 
Rosetta, 37. 

Routes to, 1; best season 
for visiting, 2; sug¬ 
gested trips and ap¬ 
proximate cost, 2, 3. 
Rubi, Lake, 166. 

Rufa’a, 163. 

Sabagdra, 152. 

Sabna, Tomb of, 146. 

Sahil, 106. 

Saint Simeon, Convent of, 

Sa'is (Sd el-Hagar ), 38. 

Apis Mausoleum, 87. 
Mariette’s House, 87. 
Mastaba of Ptah-shep- 
ses, 9>>. 

Memphis ( Mitrahina ), 


Necropolis, 86. 


Abusir, 90. 

Dahshtir, 90. 

Pepi i, 91. 

,, II, 91. 

Step, 86. 

Unas, 86. 

Statues of Rainses n, 

86 . 

Temple of Ptah, 86. 
Tomb of Kaben, 90. 

„ „ Mera, 89J 
„ ,, Ptah - hetep, 

„ „ Thi, 88. 

Sakiya, 99. 

Samallftt, 100. 

San Stefano, 37. 

Sarras, 157. 

Sehel, Island of, 151, 
Sekhet, Temple of, 107. 
Senga, 164. 

Sen-Mdt, Tomb of, 131. 
Seni ( Esna ), 138. 

Sennar, 164. 

Sen-nefer, Tomb of, 131. 
Senussi, 94. 

Se-Ptah, Tomb of, 126. 
Serapeum, The— 
Alexandria, 32. 

Sakkara, 87. 

Serapeum, near Ismailiya, 

Se-Ren put, Tomb of, 

Serut fly, The, 161. 

Set, Temple to, 114. 
Set-Ra, Tomb of, 137.' 
Setau, Tomb of, 140. 

Seti i, Temple of, 107. 
Tomb of, 124. 

Shad Of, 99. 

Shaldf, 42. 

Shambi Lake, 162. 
Sharona, 100. 

Shat er-Rigala, 142. 
Shdkh, Tombs of, 131. 

„ BargOt 157. 

„ Fadl, 100. 

,, Gaber, 106. 

,, Ibrahim, 56. 

„ Musa, 138. 

„ Said, 103. 

Shell&l, 147, 151. 

Shendi, 158. 

Shenhdr, 114. 

Shodb, 105. 

Silsila, 143. 

Silwa (Shat er - Rigdlci), 

Sirdar’s Island, 146. 

Siwa, Oasis of, 94. 

Smint, 94. 

Sneferu, 140. 

Soba, 163. 

Sobat, near Khartdm, 

Sobat R., 161. 

Speos Artemidos (Stabl 
Antar), 101. 

„ of IIor-em-Neb, 143. 
„ „ Nekhebt, 140. 

Sphinx, The, 84. 

Temple of, 84. 
at Hagar Silsila, 143. 
Stahl Antar, Tomb of, 

Suakin, 157. 

SOdan, The, 155 ; Passport 
regulations, 156; Sport 
in, 156, 161, 164, 165; 
Trade, 155-156. 

Sudd, The, 7, 156,. 161, 

Suez, 42. 

Quays and Harbour, 40, 

Wells of Moses (Ain 
Milsa), 42. 

Suez Canal, 40-41. 

Sugar Industry, 98, 99, 
110 . 

Sfthag, 106. 

Surariya, 100. 

Syene ( Asio&n ), 145 

Tabenna, Isle of (Taben- 
nesi), 110 . 

Tafa, 151. 

Tahpanhes, 41. 

Tahta, 106. 

Tanta, 38. 

Taramsa, 110. 

Taufikiah, 165. 

Ta-usert, Tomb of, 126. 
Tef-ab, Tomb of, 105. 
Tehna, 100. 



Tel el-Amarna, Tombs of Thebes— 

18th dynasty, Tombs of the Kings, 
103. 124. 

„ ,, Bar&d, 38. „ el-Kftma, 131. 

,, Basta (Bubastia), 43. „ „ Khfiruet Mur- 

,, el-Defenna, 41. r&i, 137. 

,, ,, Kebir, 43. ,, „ the Queens, 

,, ,, Maakhfita (Pithom), 136. 

41. „ „ Shekh, 131. 

Tennis, Island of, 43. Thenuna, Tomb of, 131. 
Tentyris, 113. Thi, Tomb of, 88. 

„ Temple of (Ten- This (Thinis), Site of, 107. 
tyra), 111. Thiti, Tomb of, 136. 
Thebes, 233. Thoth, Temple of, 140. 

Colossi, The, 133. Thothmes hi— 

Der el - Bahri, Temple Garden of, 119. 

of, 114, 128. Temple of, 92, 136, 153. 
„ „ Medina,Temple Tomb of, 127. 

of, 137. iv, Tomb of, 127. 

Kamak Temples, 117. Timsah, Lake, 41. 

Khrna, Temple of, 123. Tomia, 91. 

Luxor, Temple of, 120. Toshki, 152. 

Medamot, Temple of, Ttd (Tuphiwn), 138. 

126. TOra, Quarries of, 9S. 

Ramesseum, The, 182. TusOm, 42. 

Tombs of el - Assasif, Tuti, Island, 160. 

132. mu, Tomb of, 103 

Uganda, Description of 
Country, 167. 
,, Railway, 168; 
Dak Bunga¬ 
lows on, 168. 
Umm Beda, 94. 

Victoria Nyanza, Lake 

Virgin’s Tree, 74. 

Vocal Memnon, The 

Voi, 168. 

Wadelai, 166. 

Wad Medani, 164. 

Wady Haifa, 152. 

,, es-9ebda, 152. 

„ Timul&t, 43. 

Wasta, 98. 

Yachting Notes, x. 

Zagazig, 43. 

Zawayda, 114. 

Zawiyet el-Metin, 100. 
Zifta, 39, 


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